Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN), Orlando Florida | November 3-6, 2002

55 entries found for : sfn2002

Immunotoxic lesions of ascending catechoalminergic afferents abolish the CRH gene transcriptional response to 2-deoxyglucose in the rat paraventricular nucleus

Watts AG, Sanchez-Watts G, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2002) Immunotoxic lesions of ascending catechoalminergic afferents abolish the CRH gene transcriptional response to 2-deoxyglucose in the rat paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 865.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: CRH neurons in the medial parvicellular (mp) part of the paraventricular nucleus (PVH) are critical for the neural control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. One of their most prominent afferents sets derives from hindbrain catecholaminergic neurons that are thought to help mediate viscerosensory influences on the PVHmp. Despite the prominence of this input, its precise role in controlling CRH neuronal function remains controversial. Here we report the effect on basal and stimulated CRH gene expression of an immunotoxin that selectively destroys catecholaminergic neurons. Rats were injected in the PVH with either a saporin-anti-dopamine B-hydroxylase (DBH) conjugate (DSAP), which leads to total loss of DBH immunoreactivity in the PVH, or saporin alone (SAP), which does not. Three weeks later, animals were injected either with 250mg/kg of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) or vehicle. Thirty mins later they were anesthetized and perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde. Fifteen um frozen sections were cut through the hypothalamus and hybridized for CRH mRNA, CRH hnRNA, or c-fos mRNA. DSAP treatment had no effect on CRH mRNA levels in the PVH of vehicle- or 2DG-injected animals, but abolished the CRH hnRNA and c-fos mRNA responses to 2DG. We have reported elsewhere that DSAP lesions selectively abolish the corticosterone response to 2DG, but not to swim stress, or circadian corticosterone release. We now show that catecholaminergic afferents are required for 2DG-induced CRH gene expression, but not for basal expression.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Immunotoxic lesion of catecholamine afferents to paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) impairs the corticosterone response to glucoprivation but not the basal secretory rhythm or response to swim stress

Ritter S, Dinh TT, Pedrow C, Roellich K (2002) Immunotoxic lesion of catecholamine afferents to paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) impairs the corticosterone response to glucoprivation but not the basal secretory rhythm or response to swim stress. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 865.4. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Catecholamine afferents from the hindbrain densely innervate the medial parvicellular part of the PVH, which contains CRH neurons critical for control of corticosterone (CORT) secretion. However, the precise role of these afferents in control of CORT secretion is unclear. Here the immunotoxin, saporin conjugated to anti-dopamine B-hydroxylase(DSAP), which selectively lesions norepinephrine and epinephrine neurons, or unconjugated saporin (SAP) control solution, was microinjected into the PVH. After extensive habituation to testing conditions, DSAP and SAP rats were injected with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, 250mg/kg) or vehicle or subjected to a 5-min forced swim. Blood was sampled remotely between 0 and 240 min for radioimmunoassay of CORT. In a third test, blood was sampled every 4 hr for 24 hr to assess the basal secretory rhythm of CORT. Subsequently, loss of dopamine B-hydroxylase containing terminals without destruction of CRH neurons in the PVH of DSAP rats was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In DSAP rats, the CORT response to 2DG was reduced dramatically to 29% of the response in SAP controls. In contrast, DSAP and SAP rats did not differ in their basal secretory rhythm or their CORT response to swim stress, indicating for the first time a stimulus-specific role of catecholamine afferents in control of CORT secretion. This finding is complemented by other work in which we (with A.G. Watts and G. Sanchez-Watts) show that these catecholamine afferents are required for 2DG-induced CRH gene expression, but not basal expression.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactive (NK1R-ir) neurons control caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM) gabaergic depressor neurons

Wang H, Guyenet PG (2002) Neurokinin-1 receptor immunoreactive (NK1R-ir) neurons control caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM) gabaergic depressor neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 862.4. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Depressor responses to injection of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) into the caudal VLM are attenuated after selective unilateral lesion of the NK1R-ir cells of the VLM with a saporin-NK1R agonist conjugate (SSP-SAP)(Wang et al., J. Neurosci 2002). Here we tested whether SSP-SAP treatment destroys caudal VLM depressor GABAergic neurons thereby causing loss of DLH-induced sympathoinhibition. Two weeks after unilateral lesion of VLM NK1R-ir cells (97% reduction without loss of catecholaminergic neurons), DLH (5-10 nl, 10mM) was injected into multiple regions of the caudal and rostral VLM on both sides of the brain. The decrease in BP and sympathetic tone (SND) caused by DLH injections into caudal VLM were blunted on the lesioned side vs the intact side (p<.05, N = 7). The rise in BP and SND caused by DLH injection into rostral VLM were normal on both sides. To determine if the GABAergic barosensitive cells of the caudal VLM express NK1R, conscious rats were infused with L-phenylephrine (PE) (7μg/min, for 25 min) or saline. PE infusion raised BP by 25% and decreased HR 27% (mean; N= 4). Saline infusion produced no effect. Fos-ir neurons were mapped throughout the VLM. The caudal VLM of PE-treated rats contained many more Fos-ir cells than that of the saline controls (128.7 ± 4.2 vs. 18.7 ± 1.6, N= 4). Caudal VLM Fos-ir neurons were not NK1R-ir in either group of rats. In conclusion, the baroreceptor-activated GABAergic neurons of the caudal VLM are not NK1R-ir. The data suggests that NK1R-ir cells might provide an excitatory drive to the caudal VLM barosensitive neurons (HL 28785 to PGG).

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

Effect of selective cholinergic lesioning of basal forebrain with 192 IgG-saporin on neurotransmitter concentrations in hippocampus of rat

Nagle RA, Liberatore MA, Zombon NJ, Pokala VN, Li PK, Pokala VN, Johnson DA (2002) Effect of selective cholinergic lesioning of basal forebrain with 192 IgG-saporin on neurotransmitter concentrations in hippocampus of rat. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 880.6. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: In vivo microdialysis techniques were used to examine the effects of lesioning of cholinergic neurons of the medial septum using the selective cholinergic neurotoxin 192-IgG-Saporin (SAP), on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate and GABA in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. High and low (1.0 and 0.22 μg) doses of SAP were used for infusion into the basal forebrain. SAP treated rats showed a significant dose dependent decrease of 74% and 59% in ACh for the high and low doses respectively, compared to controls. Glutamate decreased 50% in animals treated with 0.22 μg SAP. The data suggest that lesioning of basal forebrain neurons with SAP results in changes in neurotransmitter concentrations in the hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Subtypes of substance P receptor immunoreactive interneurons in the basolateral amygdala

Mania I, Levita L, Rainnie DG (2002) Subtypes of substance P receptor immunoreactive interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 637.8. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Neurotoxic lesions of substance P receptor immunoreactive (SPR-IR) interneurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) using SP-saporin reduce anxiety related behavior. These lesions might provide a way to study how specific interneuron populations regulate neuronal activity in the BLA. In the hippocampus, SP-saporin lesions result in an ablation of PV-, CCK-, and SOM-IR interneurons, while sparing CB-IR interneurons. However, limited information is available about the type of neurons affected by this lesion in the BLA. In this study SPR-IR interneurons were characterized immunocytochemically using dual-labeling immunofluorescence. SPR-IR interneurons were examined for their colocalization with calcium-binding proteins and NPY in the rat BLA. The majority of SPR-IR (74%) neurons had a small round or multipolar somata that emanated 3-4 thin aspiny dendrites consistent with them being local interneurones. Interestingly, none of the SPR-IR cells colocalized PV, and they represent only 3–6 % of the CB expressing interneuron population. However, those SPR-IR neurons that do colocalize CB represent 25-45% of the total SPR-IR population. In contrast, 94% of the NPY-IR neurons colocalized with SPR-IR. However, only 51% of SPR-IR cells also co-express NPY-IR. These data suggest that SPR-IR cells represent a heterogeneous population comprising of roughly equal proportions of CB and NPY neurons. Moreover, in the rat BLA SPR-IR cells form a distinct and dissociable group from the PV-IR interneuron population, which should remain intact after SP-saporin lesions.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

Role of hindbrain catecholaminergic afferents to the medial hypothalamus in the regulation of penile reflexes in the rat

Fraley GS (2002) Role of hindbrain catecholaminergic afferents to the medial hypothalamus in the regulation of penile reflexes in the rat. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 681.4. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The use of ex copula erections, or reflexive erections, has been used for decades in the study of the central pathways and neuroendocrinology of penile erections. However, the exact neuroendocrine pathways involved in developing penile erections are not known. This study utilized molecular neurosurgical techniques combined with behavioral, histological, and molecular analyses to determine a central link between metabolic state and penis erectile function. Utilizing saporin-conugate immunolesion techniques (DSAP), hindbrain catecholaminergic afferents to the hypothalamus that are reported to be glucoresponsive were eliminated. DSAP-lesioned rats had a significantly attenuated glucoprivic feeding response and significantly attenuated penile reflexes compared to controls. Analysis of Nissl-stained spinal cord sections demonstrated a significant reduction in the size of sexually dimorphic motoneurons. Furthermore, qualitative analysis of calcitonin gene-related immunoreactivity (CGRPir) in alternate spinal sections revealed a decrease in CGRPir in sexually dimorphic motor pools. Analysis of hypothalamic mRNA levels showed a significant increase in both oxytocin and neuropeptide Y mRNA, but not b-actin mRNA. No significant differences were seen, however, in the weight of the perineal muscles, seminal vessicles, or in plasma testosterone levels. These data indicate a novel hindbrain-hypothalamic-spinal cord pathway by which potential glucoresponsive neurons effect the ability to achieve penile erection based upon availability of metabolic fuel.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

192 IgG-saporin-induced cortical, cholinergic deafferentation in rats produces a dissociation in the function of prelimbic/infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex in an attentional set-shifting task

McGaughy JA, Rubin S, Stollstorff M, Baxter MG, Eichenbaum HB (2002) 192 IgG-saporin-induced cortical, cholinergic deafferentation in rats produces a dissociation in the function of prelimbic/infralimbic and orbitofrontal cortex in an attentional set-shifting task. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 674.4. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Converging data support the hypothesis that cholinergic afferents to the cortex mediate attentional processes. Rats with selective cholinergic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis produced by 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) show deficits in attentional performance. These deficits are highly correlated with diminished cholinergic efflux in the infralimbic/prelimbic (IL/PL) cortex during attentional testing. Excitotoxic lesions of the IL/PL in rats trained in an attentional set-shifting task did not impair the initial discimination, a novel discrimination with the previously relevant dimension (intradimensional shift; IDS) or reversal learning, but did impair the ability to shift attention to the previously irrelevant stimulus dimension (extradimensional shifting; EDS). It is not known from the previous study whether the loss of cortical, cholinergic afferents alone would be sufficient to produce the EDS deficit. Consequently, infusions of SAP(0.01 μg/μl; 0.25 μl) were made into either the IL/PL or the orbitofrontal (OF) cortex. Rats were then trained in the same attentional set-shifting task. Subjects had to discriminate between stimuli based on one of two perceptual dimensions, odor or digging media with both dimensions present on all trials. Preliminary analyses show that neither OF nor IL/PL lesions impair the initial discrimination or the IDS. However, IL/PL lesions impair the EDS whereas OF lesions impair reversal learning. These data support dissociable roles of cholinergic afferents to OF and IL/PL in attentional set-shifting.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Effects of septohippocampal cholinergic deafferentation on attention and learning

Sarter MF, Draut A, Herzog CD, Bruno JP (2002) Effects of septohippocampal cholinergic deafferentation on attention and learning. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 674.8. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: In contrast to the extensively studied attentional functions mediated via basal forebrain corticopetal cholinergic projections, the role of septohippocampal cholinergic projections in attention and memory have remained poorly understood. For example, selective lesions of this system have limited, if any, effects on spatial memory performance. The present experiment initially tested the effects of intraseptal injections of the cholinergic neurotoxin 192-IgG saporin (SAP) on the performance of rats in an operant procedure designed to assess sustained attention. Despite almost complete hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation, the lesioned animals' attentional performance remained identical to that of controls. Task parameter manipulations designed to further increase the demands on attentional processing also failed to reveal an effect of the lesions. However, lesioned animals were superior in acquiring a version of this task in which the propositional rules of the task were reversed. Lesioned rats achieved >65% hits after 14 training sessions, while intact rats did not reach this level of performance after 50 sessions of training. As the acquisition of the reversal of such extensively practiced response rules suffers from interference from the rather automatic processing of the original rules, loss of hippocampal cholinergic inputs may have reduced the interference that resulted from the processing of the original rules. Thus, hippocampal cholinergic inputs are speculated to modulate, but not to be necessary for, the recall of propositional rules. Collectively, the available data completely dissociate the functions of septo-hippocampal and corticopetal cholinergic projections.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

ß1 adrenergic antagonist effect on brain muscarinic cholinergic receptors

Harrell LE, Parsons DS, Conger K, Kolasa K (2002) ß1 adrenergic antagonist effect on brain muscarinic cholinergic receptors. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 685.13. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic system and sympathetic ingrowth appear to be pathologic changes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). An imbalance between these systems may mediate cognitive deficit in AD. To model this situation, 192-IgG-Saporin, a specific cholinergic immunotoxin, was infused intraventricularly to induce cholinergic denervation and sympathetic ingrowth into cortex and hippocampus. After 8 weeks of intraperitoneal injection of Metoprolol, β1 antagonist, at 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, the Kd and Bmax of dorsal hippocampus (DH), anterior (AC) and entorhinal (EC) cortex was determined via [3H]-QNB, muscarinic antagonist, binding. Low dose Metoprolol increased Kd in the sympathetic ingrowth, cholinergic denervation, ganglionectomized groups compared to control and vehicle groups (p<.05). Affinity of AC=DH but was > than EC (p<.02). Bmax was greater in AC than DH (p<.05) > than EC (p<.02). Controls and ganglionectomized had > Bmax in AC and EC (p<.03). EC had > Bmax in control and ganglionectomized animals (p<.04). High dose Metoprolol induced a greater affinity in DH>AC>EC (p<.05). No effect was found on Bmax.The results of our study suggest that a β1 antagonist, which is used clinically, can alter the number and affinity of cholinergic receptors, which in turn could potentially alter the AD patients' response to cholinergic therapy.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Estrogen-induced disinhibition of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells depends on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

Rudick CN, Gibbs RB, Woolley CS (2002) Estrogen-induced disinhibition of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells depends on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 740.6. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Estrogen (E) increases dendritic spine and synapse density on hippocampal pyramidal cells, both in vivo and in vitro. In both cases, the increase in spine/synapse density is preceded by transient disinhibition. Based on in vitro studies, this transient disinhibition is likely to be involved in the mechanism of the subsequent increase in spine density. In adult female rats, where E increases spine/synapse density on CA1 pyramidal cells, it is unknown whether E acts within the hippocampus itself and/or through hippocampal afferents to regulate synaptic changes. Considerable evidence suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system could be involved in mediating E’s effects in the hippocampus. Therefore, we tested the ability of E to disinhibit CA1 pyramidal cells in adult female rats in which BF cholinergic neurons were eliminated by infusion of 192IgG-saporin toxin (SAP) into the medial septum. Two weeks after SAP or SHAM lesion, rats were ovariectomized and treated with E or oil (O) 3 days later. Synaptically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal cells were evaluated 24h after E or O, the timepoint at which disinhibition occurs. As previously shown, E decreased eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency at 24h. Additionally, E-induced disinhibition was significantly reduced in SAP lesioned rats, but it was not completely blocked. These data demonstrate that the BF cholinergic system is involved in E-induced disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells, but that other cells may also be involved.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Neonatal dopamine lesions: Cognitive impairment or hyper-sensitivity to stress

Sherren N, Pappas BA (2002) Neonatal dopamine lesions: Cognitive impairment or hyper-sensitivity to stress. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 782.19. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Neonatal rat pups given a selective cholinergic immunotoxin exhibit large reductions in cortical (30-70%) and hippocampal (75%) choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity which persist into adulthood. However these rats do not show spatial learning deficits in the Morris water maze despite the sensitivity of this task to muscarinic receptor blockade and hippocampal damage. We hypothesized that while the developing brain may be able to compensate for early loss of ACh transmission, it may also become more vulnerable to additional disruptions in other systems. We combined postnatal day 7 i.c.v. administration of 192 IgG-saporin with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion either or both ACh and DA terminals respectively. 6-OHDA treatment produced a 90% loss in striatal and a 75% loss in frontocortical DA levels. No differences in exploratory behaviour were found between ACh, DA and ACh/DA lesioned rats. However upon placement in the Morris water maze, DA depleted rats displayed behaviour suggestive of panic and were unable to search for the hidden platform effectively. In order to determine whether the DA depletion was producing a spatial learning deficit or an exaggerated reaction to a stressor (the hidden platform task), a separate cohort of lesioned rats was tested in the cued platform version of the maze. Just prior to testing, the rats received 4 days of shaping in order to gradually habituate them to the pool and teach them the task. Platform location improved in half of the DA and ACh/DA rats, but never approached control or ACh only levels. Thus rats with neonatal DA lesions may be particularly sensitive to stressful tasks. This sensitivity may be partly dependent on lesion extent.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Multiple lines of evidence for the existence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons

Fox K, Wolff I, Curtis A, Pernar L, Van Bockstaele EJ, Valentino RJ (2002) Multiple lines of evidence for the existence of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 637.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Several physiological and anatomical findings suggest that CRF acts as a neuromodulator of LC neuronal activity. However, in situ hybridization studies have failed to demonstrate the existence of CRF receptor mRNA in LC neurons, arguing against a direct effect on these neurons. Here, a combination of techniques was used to test the hypothesis that LC neurons express CRF receptors. Primers for CRF-R1 and beta-actin were generated and micropunches of the LC were subjected to RT-PCR analysis. Bands at the predicted size for each PCR product were detected in samples obtained from the LC. The presence of CRF-receptor immunolabeling in LC tissue was also examined in Western blots. This revealed a band at 52 kD, consistent with the molecular weight reported in brain and the band was absent in membranes incubated with a combination of the CRF receptor antisera and the blocking peptide. In dual labeling immunohistochemical studies, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunolabeled LC neurons exhibited CRF-receptor immunolabeling and this was absent in sections that were incubated in antisera that was preabsorbed with the blocking peptide. Ultrastructural analysis also revealed co-localization of CRF-receptor immunolabeling and TH in LC dendrites. Finally, intra-LC injection of a CRF-saporin conjugate (40-60 ng in 30 nl), but not unconjugated saporin, resulted in a time dependent neuronal damage that was selective to LC neurons. The present findings provide convergent evidence for the existence of CRF receptors in LC neurons.

Related Products: CRF-SAP (Cat. #IT-13)

Cerebral abeta deposition induced by cortical cholinergic deafferentation is reduced by cholinergic therapy

Beach TG, Potter PE, Sue LI, Fisher A, Scott S, Layne KJ, Newell AJ, Roher AE, Walker DG (2002) Cerebral abeta deposition induced by cortical cholinergic deafferentation is reduced by cholinergic therapy. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 722.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: We have previously shown that cortical cholinergic deafferentation in rabbits results in cerebral Abeta deposition (Neurosci Lett 283:9-12, 2000). We have also shown that cholinergic therapy with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and muscarinic agonists reduces Abeta concentrations in the CSF and cortex of normal rabbits (Neurosci Lett 310:21-24, 2001; Brain Res 905:220-223, 2001). Here we show that the histologic deposition and biochemical elevations of Abeta induced by cholinergic immunotoxin are reduced by systemic therapy with AF267B, an M1-selective muscarinic agonist, and physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Rabbits received i.c.v. injections of an immunotoxin composed of the p75 NTR-directed monoclonal antibody ME20.4 conjugated to saporin, a ribosomal toxin. One group of animals received s.c. AF267B (2 mg/kg/day) while another group received s.c. physostigmine (3 mg/kg/day). Control groups received either i.c.v. immunotoxin or sham lesion (i.c.v. saline) and no treatment. Four weeks after surgery, imunohistochemical staining for Abeta showed frequent positive blood vessels and perivascular diffuse plaques in the control group which received immunotoxin injection and no treatment. This was significantly reduced in animals which received either AF267B or physostigmine. Cerebrospinal fluid Abeta concentrations were also reduced significantly by both drug treatments. These results are directly relevant to humans since cortical cholinergic deafferentation is part of normal human aging.

Related Products: ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15)

The efficacy of intraparenchymal anti-p75 immunotoxin on medial septal cholinergic neurons in mice

Schaevitz LR, Baxter MG, Stearns NA, Huang YY, Lappi DA, Berger-Sweeney J (2002) The efficacy of intraparenchymal anti-p75 immunotoxin on medial septal cholinergic neurons in mice. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 778.11. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: We have shown previously that anti-murine-p75-SAP (saporin conjugated to a rat monoclonal antibody against the mouse p75 nerve growth factor receptor) selectively destroys basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in vivo after intracerebroventricular injections (J. Neurosci. 21:8164-73). Cholinergic neuronal loss was more extensive in the medial septum (MS) than the nucleus basalis magnocellularis; it is unclear whether this distinction is due to toxin diffusion from the ventricles or differential sensitivity of the neuronal populations. Intraparenchymal (IPC) injections to specific targets can help resolve the issue. Here, we examine the efficacy of anti-murine-p75-SAP IPC injections on cholinergic neurons. Saline or different doses of toxin (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.9, 4.7, and 9.4 microg/microL) were injected into the MS of adult male C57BL/6J mice. Ten days post lesion, brain sections were stained for choline acetyltransferase and p75 (cholinergic markers) to determine toxin efficacy, and calbindin and parvalbumin (non-cholinergic markers) to determine toxin specificity. Toxin doses below 1.0 microg/microL had no effect on cholinergic or non-cholinergic neurons, while doses above 4.7 microg/microL resulted in the complete destruction of both cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons. More thorough testing of doses between 1 and 4 microg/microL will be required to determine the optimal toxin dose for IPC injections.

Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

Hypocretin2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP) lesions of the lateral hypothalamus does not affect the entrained or free-running rhythm of core body temperature.

Gerashchenko D, Blanco-Centurion C, Shiromani PJ (2002) Hypocretin2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP) lesions of the lateral hypothalamus does not affect the entrained or free-running rhythm of core body temperature. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 776.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Hypocretin (HCRT)neurons are present only in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) from where they project heavily to major arousal centers. HCRT neurons are lost in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, an illness characterized by an increased tendency to fall asleep during the normal active period. As such, it is hypothesized that HCRT neurons are responsible for “waking-up” the brain. To test this hypothesis we monitored the rhythm of core body temperature during entrained & free-run conditions after lesions of the HCRT neurons. 23 male Long-Evans rats implanted with sleep recording electrodes and a temperature transmitter were given one of two concentrations (90 ng/0.5 ìl vs 490 ng/0.5 ìl) of the neurotoxin hypocretin2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP) or unconjugated saporin to the LH. Control rats received saline (n=5). After surgery, sleep and temperature were continuously recorded for 21d in entrained conditions followed by 21d in continuous darkness. Both concentrations of the HCRT2-SAP lesioned HCRT neurons (88% vs 91% HCRT loss). However, HCRT lesions did not disrupt the entrained rhythm of core temperature by either advancing or delaying the phase position of the temperature rhythm. In the saline rats, the free-run period of temperature rhythm (tau) was 24.16 (±0.07) and this was not significantly different in the HCRT2-SAP or SAP rats. These results indicate that in the absence of HCRT, the animal wakes up at the correct time of day but then is not able to stay awake.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

Simultaneous neurotoxic lesions of noradrenergic LC, histaminergic TMN and cholinergic BF neurons do not elicit hypersomnia whereas lesions of the hypocretin-containing LH neurons do.

Blanco-Centurion CA, Gerashchenko D, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Shiromani PJ (2002) Simultaneous neurotoxic lesions of noradrenergic LC, histaminergic TMN and cholinergic BF neurons do not elicit hypersomnia whereas lesions of the hypocretin-containing LH neurons do. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 577.16. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Wakefulness is believed to be due to activation of neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) and the basal forebrain (BF). These neurons receive a heavy projection from hypocretin (HCRT) neurons. It has been proposed that the HCRT neurons maintain wakefulness via their innervation of these three groups of neurons. Here we test this hypothesis by lesioning the LC, TMN and the BF. Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with sleep recording electrodes were given microinjections of the following saporin neurotoxins to lesion specific neurons: α-DBH-saporin (vol=0.4 μL; 1 μg/μL, LC lesion) , HCRT2-saporin (vol=0.4 μL; 0.20 μg/μL, TMN lesion) and 192IgG-saporin (vol=0.5 μL; 0.4 μg/μL, BF lesion). Six rats given saline injections served as controls. Immediately after surgery sleep recordings were made continuously for three weeks. In rats that had double lesions (n=7)(combinations of LC, TMN or BF) sleep was not increased. In two rats the LC, TMN and BF were destroyed (>95%) but there was no hypersomnia either. However, one rat that had a triple lesion and also had 30% loss of HCRT neurons showed significant and persistent hypersomnia. Previously, lesion of a single wake-active neuronal population has not been found to increase sleep. We have now found that double or triple lesions also do not produce hypersomnia. Only when the HCRT neurons are lesioned, sleep is affected. This suggests that HCRT neurons play a primary role in waking and the LC, TMN or BF neurons do not mediate this function.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

In vivo strategies for stem cells regulation in the adult brain: A chance for cholinergic neurons

Fernandez M, Giuliani A, Giardino L, Calza L (2002) In vivo strategies for stem cells regulation in the adult brain: A chance for cholinergic neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 483.14. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Degenerative diseases represent a severe problem in view of very limited repair capability of nervous system. In order to use stem cells in the adult CNS for repair purpose, we are exploring the possibility to influence, in vivo, proliferation, migration and phenotype lineage of stem cells in adult brain using a growth factor, hormone and cytokine cocktail. In this study we used substances appropriate for in vitro cholinergic differentiation in animals lesioned with icv administration of the cholinergic neurons immunotoxin 195IgG-saporine (3microg/4,5microl). Four months after lesion, no ChAT-positive neurons were found in the basal forebrain, acetylcolinesterase-reactive fibres and ChAT activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus dramatically decrease, and animals are severely impaired in water maze learning task. An Alzet osmotic Minipump for chronic release (over 14 days) of the mitogen EGF (360ng/days) was then implanted and connected to a icv catheter. This treatment increases proliferation rate in SVZ in lesioned and unlesioned animals as indicated by the widespread distribution of BrDU-positive nuclei in the forebrain. Rats were then treated with retinoic acid (2.25 mg/day, orally). This treatment reduces Ki67 protein in the SVZ in lesioned rats, and this could indicate a progression toward differentiation. TrkA-positive innervation also increase in the basal forebrain of EGF+retinoic acid treated rats and ChAT activity is lightly, but significantly raises by combined EGF + retinoid acid treatment in the hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Developmental regulation of GABA Receptor subunits requires subplate neurons.

Kanold PO, Shatz CJ (2002) Developmental regulation of GABA Receptor subunits requires subplate neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 530.11. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Subplate neurons (SP) are required for formation and patterning of thalamocortical connections. In visual cortex, SP ablation before the onset of the critical period, but when LGN axons are already in layer 4, prevents segregation into ocular dominance columns (ODCs) and emergence of functional orientation columns. Recent studies have linked ODC plasticity with maturation of inhibitory circuitry, which requires the appropriate expression and developmental regulation of GABA receptor subunits. We therefore wondered if SP ablation alters GABA-R subunit expression. Focal injections of kainic acid or immunotoxin were made into cat SP between P7-P10, just prior to the onset of ODC formation. 3 weeks later, in situ hybridization revealed that expression of several subunits of the GABA-A receptor was reduced in the ablated region, especially in layer 4. Other genes involved in synaptic function such as Homer and mGluR subunits also decreased in expression. These changes in gene expression suggest that the efficacy of inhibition in layer 4 is reduced. A reduction in postsynaptic GABA receptors is consistent with previously observed increases in BDNF and GAD expression after SP ablation. These observations imply that SP neurons are essential for the maturation of cortical inhibition, which in turn may be needed for the formation of ODCs and for the functional maturation of thalamocortical connections.

Related Products: ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15)

Reduction of microglia cell populations before induction of excitotoxicity reduces neurodegeneration.

Sheehan JJ, Tsirka SE (2002) Reduction of microglia cell populations before induction of excitotoxicity reduces neurodegeneration. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 606.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Excitotoxicity is thought to be a component of many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and stroke. In excitotoxicity, as well as other injury models, microglia have been found to have both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative roles. To lend further insight into this controversy we utilized an immunotoxin selective for monocyte derived cell populations including microglia. The immunotoxin will selectively kill microglia and is not toxic to neurons or other glia populations in culture. In addition, infusion of the immunotoxin into the hippocampus of C57/Bl mice results in a selective reduction in endogenous microglial cell populations in this region. Furthermore, this reduction occurs without any perturbation of other cell types or the extracellular matrix. If depletion of microglia in this manner precedes excitotoxic injury, then hippocampal neurodegeneration is significantly reduced. These results agree with other work in our lab, which suggests that microglial cells exhibit neurotoxic properties in excitotoxicity.

Related Products: Mac-1-SAP mouse/human (Cat. #IT-06)

Androgen manipulation protects remaining motoneurons from dendritic atrophy after induced motoneuron death.

Fargo KN, Sengelaub DR (2002) Androgen manipulation protects remaining motoneurons from dendritic atrophy after induced motoneuron death. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 466.13. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Androgen treatment facilitates axon regrowth after axotomy of facial and sciatic motoneurons, and reverses castration-induced dendritic atrophy in motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in rats. We assessed whether a similar therapeutic effect of androgen would be seen in dendrites following partial depletion of SNB motoneurons. We injected the toxin saporin, conjugated to choleratoxin (β-saporin), unilaterally into the SNB target muscles, bulbocavernosus (BC) and levator ani (LA), of two groups of adult male rats. One group had been castrated six weeks earlier to induce dendritic atrophy, and received testosterone-filled Silastic capsules coincident with β-saporin injection (SAP+T). The other group had no castration or androgen treatment (SAP-only). Four weeks after β-saporin injection, we injected choleratoxin conjugated HRP into the contralateral (non-saporin injected) BC muscle to label SNB motoneurons. A group of untreated normal males was also included. Cell counts were performed, and dendrites of HRP-labeled SNB motoneurons were reconstructed in three dimensions. β-saporin killed ~65% of motoneurons in the SNB ipsilateral to the saporin-injected muscles; contralateral SNB motoneuron numbers were not affected. SNB dendritic arbors on the non-saporin injected side were ~60% shorter in SAP-only animals compared to those of untreated males; in contrast, dendritic arbors in SAP+T animals were unaffected. These results indicate that a) motoneuron death causes dendritic atrophy in remaining SNB motoneurons, and that b) previous castration and concurrent testosterone replacement protects against this atrophy.

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

The dyssynaptic pathway from the caudal ventrolateral medulla to the spinal cord is relevant for pain modulation

Tavares I, Cobos AR, Almeida A, Lima D (2002) The dyssynaptic pathway from the caudal ventrolateral medulla to the spinal cord is relevant for pain modulation. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 351.21. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM) exerts α2-adrenoreceptor mediated inhibition of pain transmission at the spinal cord. Anatomical studies described a dysynaptic pathway, connecting the VLM with the spinal cord through the A5 noradrenergic cell group, in which the spinally-projecting A5 noradrenergic neurons give collaterals to the VLM. In order to evaluate the role of the VLM-A5-spinal pathway in pain modulation, retrograde transport of the neurotoxin saporin-anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase (SAP-anti-DBH) from the VLM was used. The VLM of Wistar rats was injected with 0.5μl of a 1% SAP-anti-DBH solution or saline (control group). Four days later, all animals were injected with 50 μl of 5% formalin in the ipsilateral hindpaw, and pain behavior and noxious-evoked spinal c-fos expression, were evaluated. In the SAP-anti-DBH group, a 27% decrease in DBH-immunoreactive neuronal population at the A5 noradrenergic cell group was detected and neuronal death was confirmed by Fluojade staining. Hyperalgesia was detected in the second phase of the formalin test. The numbers of Fos-immunoreacted neurons in the spinal dorsal horn increased. The data suggest that the VLM-A5-spinal pathway participates in pain modulation. It remains to be ascertained whether the lack of effect at the first-phase of the formalin test is due to an insufficient destruction of the A5 noradrenergic cell group or whether it points to a differential effect of this pathway in the two phases of the formalin test.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Selective lesion of ventral tegmental area neurons expressing mu-opioid receptors alters EEG power spectrum across sleep/wake cycle

Gallegos RA, Lee RS, Crawford E, Wills DN, Carr JR, Zhukov VI, Slaght KE, Huitron-Resendiz S, Criado JR, Henriksen SJ (2002) Selective lesion of ventral tegmental area neurons expressing mu-opioid receptors alters EEG power spectrum across sleep/wake cycle. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 276.14. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The ventral tegmental area (VTA) has long been implicated in motivated behaviors. Our previous study (Lee et al, J Neurosci 2001) also suggests a role for VTA GABAergic neurotransmission in REM sleep. In the current study the potential role of the VTA in modulating electroencephalogram (EEG) activation was explored by selectively deactivating mu-opioid receptor expressing cells in the VTA. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, rats received either (1) a sham operation (2) a single bilateral VTA injection of NMDA (3) a saporin injection or (4) an injection of a dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP) conjugate (Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego). Animals were also fitted with skull electrodes for recording the EEG. The filtered EEG was recorded continuously for 24 hours beginning 21 to 28 days after surgery. Frequency analysis of the EEG in 15-sec epochs revealed differences in the distribution of relative power in the DERM-SAP animals, compared to controls. Low frequency components (0.5-3.0 Hz and 3.0-8.0 Hz) were enhanced in dual lesioned animals during the dark phase but only during sleep. These results indicate that a selective inactivation of cells in the VTA has specific effects on arousal mechanisms in the intact animal.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Effect of 192-IgG saporin lesions of the entire basal forebrain on emotional and spatial learning

Frick KM, Kim JJ, Baxter MG (2002) Effect of 192-IgG saporin lesions of the entire basal forebrain on emotional and spatial learning. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 379.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Scopolamine administration studies suggest that acetylcholine appears to be important for acquisition of contextual fear conditioning (FC), but its involvement in consolidation of fear remains a matter of debate. We examined the role of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in emotional learning and memory by testing male Sprague-Dawley rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in contextual and tone FC. Lesions were made either 7 days before (n=10) or one day after (n=10) FC and targeted all basal forebrain nuclei; sham-operated rats (n=5 per condition) served as a comparison. Spatial learning in a one-day water maze task provided a comparison for effects of the lesions on FC. Pretraining lesions had no effect on freezing to tone or context. Posttraining lesions produced a mild impairment in freezing to context, but had no effect on freezing to tone. Both groups were impaired in production of 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) associated with fear. Performance on water maze training trials was surprisingly impaired in lesioned rats, although this impairment did not interact with training block and probe trial performance was unimpaired, suggesting that it did not reflect a learning impairment. Radioenzymatic assays of choline acetyltransferase activity in neocortex and hippocampus revealed substantial (>80%) decreases in cholinergic input. These data suggest that conditioned fear-induced USV is more sensitive to the loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons than conditioned fear-induced freezing.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Lack of capsaicin (CAP)-evoked sensitization following SP-SAP treatment is not attributed to decreased CAP-evoked exciataion

Khasabov SG, Rogers SD, Ghilardi JR, Peters CM, Mantyh PW, Simone DA (2002) Lack of capsaicin (CAP)-evoked sensitization following SP-SAP treatment is not attributed to decreased CAP-evoked exciataion. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 351.24. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The depletion of SPR+ neurons in the spinal cord by substance P-saporin conjugate (SP-SAP) prevents the development of central sensitization, induced by capsaicin (CAP). SP-SAP treatment causes a dramatic decrease in CAP-evoked excitation of remaining nociceptive neurons. The lack of central sensitization after SP-SAP may be due to the decreased excitation of these neurons by CAP. We therefore compared excitation and sensitization following intraplantar injection of different doses of CAP (10 and 100 μg) in rats pretreated intrathecally with vehicle (VEH) or SP-SAP. Injection of 10μg or 100 μg CAP evoked activation and sensitization of nociceptive neurons in VEH-treated rats. Mean responses to von Frey stimuli doubled and heat threshold decreased by about 6˚ C. In SP-SAP rats, 10 μg CAP evoked excitation that was <60% of control whereas 100 μg CAP evoked excitation that was similar to control values. However, sensitization failed to occur following either dose of CAP. In addition, we examined whether effects of SP-SAP was mediated by descending modulation. Transsection of the dorsolateral funiculus increased spontaneous activity of nociceptive neurons in rats pretreated with VEH, but not with SP-SAP. Our data show that the development of central sensitization is dependent on neurons that possess the SPR, and that these neurons appear to be part of a supraspinal loop that modulates descending tonic inhibition.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

Long-term effects on pain behavior of decreased spinal noradrenaline in neuropathic rats

Ohara PT, Boudah A, Jasmin L (2002) Long-term effects on pain behavior of decreased spinal noradrenaline in neuropathic rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 351.22. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: We sought to determine if a permanent reduction in the noradrenergic (NA) input to the spinal cord in adult rats would alter the pain behavior associated with nerve injury. Selective NA denervation of the lumbo-sacral cord was achieved by intrathecal injection of anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase antibodies conjugated to the toxin saporin in 12 female rats. Spinal NA denervation was confirmed histologically in all animals. Saline injected rats served as controls. Two weeks after toxin or saline treatment, a unilateral peripheral neuropathy was induced by tight ligation of the left L5 spinal nerve in both groups. Unexpectedly, the same degree of mechanical hyperalgesia was present in the neuropathic paw of rats in both the toxin and saline treated groups. Rats lacking NA spinal afferents, however, were less responsive to the antinoiceptive effects of morphine administered systemically or intracerebroventricularly. Also, toxin treated rats did not display opioid dependant stress analgesia. Finally, toxin treated rats were more responsive to the antinociceptive effect of the NK1 antagonist CP 96,345 but not to its enantiomer CP 96,344. From these results we conclude that the permanent loss of spinal NA does not alter neuropathic pain behavior, possibly because of compensatory changes in the CNS. The decreased response to opioids is consistent with the previous suggestions of an interaction between noradrenergic and opioidergic systems in producing analgesia. The increased response to NK1 antagonists shows that NA tonically inhibits substance.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Dermorphin-saporin targets descending facilitation in the rostral ventromedial medulla (rvm) to block CCK-induced abnormal pain

Burgess SE, Gardell LR, Xie Y, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Malan TP, Porreca F, Lai J (2002) Dermorphin-saporin targets descending facilitation in the rostral ventromedial medulla (rvm) to block CCK-induced abnormal pain. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 351.11. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Abnormal pain from L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) has been shown to require a time-dependent activation of descending facilitatory pathways arising in the RVM. Additionally, RVM microinjection of L365,260, a cholecystokinin (CCKB) receptor antagonist, reverses SNL-induced tactile and thermal hyperalgesia. These observations suggest the possibility that RVM CCK might “drive” such facilitation from the RVM by activating the endogenous descending facilitation system. Rats were treated with a single RVM injection of dermorphin (DERM) (μ opioid agonist), unconjugated saporin (SAP), or dermorphin-saporin (DERM-SAP) and responses to non-noxious tactile (von Frey filaments) or noxious radiant heat stimuli applied to the hindpaw were measured before and after RVM microinjection of CCK to uninjured rats. RVM DERM-SAP, DERM or SAP did not significantly alter baseline sensory thresholds over 28 days post-injection. At day 28, the rats received bilateral microinjections of CCK (30ng) in the RVM. Rats pretreated with DERM or SAP showed a time-related and revsersible CCK-induced tactile and thermal hypersensitivity. In contrast, RVM CCK failed to produce changes in sensory threshold in animals pretreated with DERM-SAP. The RVM pretreatments did not alter responses in control rats challenged with CCK vehicle. Additionally, lesions of the dorsolateral funiculus also blocked RVM CCK-induced tactile and thermal hypersensitivity. These data support the possibility of CCK-mediated activation of descending facilitation from the RVM as a mechanism of neuropathic pain.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

The effects of 17ß-estradiol on odor discrimination of ovariectomized and intact young and aged rats following unilateral lesions of the nucleus of the horizontal diagonal band of broca (HDB)

Bradley QR, Borowski TB, de Lacalle S (2002) The effects of 17ß-estradiol on odor discrimination of ovariectomized and intact young and aged rats following unilateral lesions of the nucleus of the horizontal diagonal band of broca (HDB). Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 385.3. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Estradiol exerts beneficial effects on cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of estradiol on learning and memory following the destruction of cholinergic neurons of the HDB, a basal forebrain region that exhibits significant neuronal loss during aging and may underlie the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimers disease. Young (3 months old) and aged (20 months old) ovariectomized and gonadally intact Fisher 344 female rats were given unilateral lesions of the HDB with the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (.075mg/ml). Starting one week after surgery rats were tested on an odor discrimination task whereby rats were trained to associate a food reward buried within a scented cup of sand relative to a dissimilar scented cup of sand that contained no reward. Following stable levels of acquisition and retention, subjects were exposed to a reversal procedure where the previously unrewarded cup was now baited. Odor discrimination acquisition, retention and reversal were assessed before and after one month of 17β-estradiol exposure or placebo. Analysis of learning curves revealed that young rats performed better than the aged animals independent of estradiol treatment during the reversal component of the task. However, within each age group 17β-estradiol treatment facilitated performance in ovariectomized rats relative to placebo controls. These findings shed new light on the cognitive enhancing properties of estradiol in age-related cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Stem cell transplantation strategies for a lesion model of Alzheimer’s disease

Sugaya K, Qu T (2002) Stem cell transplantation strategies for a lesion model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 237.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Stem cell transplantation strategies are advocated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuroregeneration therapy. Since basal cholinergic neurons, which selectively degenerate in AD, extend long projections into the cortex and hippocampus, a stumbling block for neuroreplacement treatment in AD is whether these degenerating cholinergic cells can be replaced by the transplantation of stem cells. To answer this question, we transplanted human neural stem cells (HNSCs) into nucleus basalis magnocelluerlis (NBM) lesion model rats. The lesion was induced either by an injection of ibotenic acid or by anti-NGF receptor antibody conjugated with saporin. HNSCs were labeled by the incorporation of bromodeoxy uridine (BrdU) into the nuclei and simultaneously injected into the contralateral side of the lateral ventricle (Qu, 2001) of the NBM lesioned animal. Four weeks after the surgery, the brain was examined by immunohistochemistry for choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), βIII-tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and BrdU. We detected many GFAP-positive cells in the lesion area, but they were not BrdU-positive, indicating astrocytes activation in this area. We found BrdU-positive cells with ChAT or βIII-tubulin immunoreactivity in the lesion site, indicating that HNSCs migrated to the lesion site and had differentiated into cholinergic and other neuronal cells. These neuronally differentiating HNSCs were rather morphologically premature neurons, and although we have yet to confirm the physiological function or any projections into the hippocampus or cortex, our results could indicate that we have pioneered a positive study of neuroreplacement treatment for cholinergic neurons in AD.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Changes in rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) neurons after the selective loss of mu-opioid receptor expressing cells.

Meng ID, Harasawa I, Lai J, Porreca F, Fields HL (2002) Changes in rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) neurons after the selective loss of mu-opioid receptor expressing cells. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 351.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Different subpopulations of RVM neurons inhibit or facilitate dorsal horn nociceptive transmission. Microinjection of saporin conjugated to the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist dermorphin (derm-sap) into the RVM selectively ablates MOR expressing neurons and diminishes neuropathic pain symptoms (Porreca et al., 2001). We examined the properties of neurons surviving a single RVM injection of derm-sap or sap control. Three classes of RVM neurons (On, Off, and Neutral) have been described with distinct responses to noxious stimuli and MOR agonists. On-cells increase and Off-cells cease firing just prior to a tail flick; MOR agonists inhibit On-cells and disinhibit Off-cells. Neutral cells are unaffected by either noxious stimulation or MOR agonists. Using single unit recording in lightly anesthetized rats a total of 10 electrode tracks were made per rat and each unit encountered was characterized according to its tail flick related activity. Injection of derm-sap (n=8) resulted in fewer On- and Off-cells when compared to saporin controls (n=8). The number of Neutral cells remained unchanged. In separate experiments, after derm-sap pretreatment RVM injections of the MOR agonist DAMGO were ineffective whereas injections of the glutamate receptor agonist homocysteic acid into the same sites increased tail flick latencies. The decrease in number of On-cells after derm-sap is consistent with evidence that these neurons express MOR and facilitate nociceptive transmission. The decrease in number of Off-cells indicates that inhibitory neurons responsible for producing the Off-cell tail flick related pause also express MOR.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Effects of lesions in the medullary raphe nucleus on sleep and breathing in adult goats

Hodges MR, Forster HV, Wenninger JM, Brozoski DT, Leekley T, Klum L, Feroah TR, Pan LG, Sengupta J (2002) Effects of lesions in the medullary raphe nucleus on sleep and breathing in adult goats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 321.8. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The medullary raphe nucleus (MRN) contains populations of both neurokinin-1 and glutamate receptor positive neurons (NK1R+, GluR+). The MRN is also thought to influence breathing during wakefulness and sleep. Therefore, to test the MRN influence on breathing during sleep, adult goats (n=4) were chronically instrumented with microtubules into the MRN and allowed >3 weeks to recover. Sleep was monitored during a period of 6 hours (9pm-3am) prior to and 6-8 days after injection of saporin-substance P (SAP-SP), and the night of and 10-14 days after injection of ibotenic acid (IA). During sleep, EEG, EOG, diaphragm EMG, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored, and arterial blood was sampled. We found no significant effect of neurotoxic lesions on relative percentages of time spent in NREM and REM sleep compared to the post-implant control studies. We also found no evidence of ataxic breathing patterns during awake, NREM or REM states after injection of SAP-SP or IA into the MRN. However, evidence of central apnea was present in 3 of 4 goats. The apneustic events were most frequent during NREM, and less frequent or absent during wakefulness and REM sleep. These apneas were 6-20 seconds in duration and resulted in marked variations in PCO2 and PO2. There was also a tendency for hyperventilation during sleep after IA injections. We conclude that lesions in the MRN by loss of NK1R+ and GluR+ neurons can affect breathing during sleep without affecting sleep itself.

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Effects of cholinergic depletion on the expression of synaptic proteins and functional properties in the rat somatosensory cortex

Herron P, Ismail NS (2002) Effects of cholinergic depletion on the expression of synaptic proteins and functional properties in the rat somatosensory cortex. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 256.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Loss of acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to contribute to numerous cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral deficits in animal studies and in Parkinson and Alzheimer’s patients. The purposes of these experiments were to determine the effects of cholinergic depletion on the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, synaptophysin, and CaMKII and on functional properties of single neurons in the somatosensory cortex. These experiments were done in the posteromedial barrel subfield (PMBSF) cortex of young adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Selective lesion of cholinergic neurons in the NBM was achieved with intraventricular injections of the immunotoxin (IT), 192 IgG saporin. Electrophysiological recordings and Western blot analyses for the expressions of GAD, NMDA receptors, and synaptophysin were done after a two-week post-injection survival period. The magnitude of evoked and spontaneous activities and the receptive field size of single neurons in the somatosensory cortex were investigated. Recordings and Western blot analyses were obtained from the same area of the PMBSF cortex. Results show that cholinergic depletion causes a significant decrease (11.7%) in the magnitude of evoked activity and an increase (10.7%) in the size of receptive fields. GAD, NMDA receptors, and synaptophysin levels in the in the PMBSF cortex were reduced 25%, 12%, 29%, and 12.5% respectively, in cholinergic depleted animals. Thus, cholinergic depletion leads to effects that significantly alter the expression of synaptic proteins involved in plasticity, learning, and memory.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Enhanced morphine analgeisa after spinal dermorphin-saporin

Miller SA, Lappi DA, Wiley RG (2002) Enhanced morphine analgeisa after spinal dermorphin-saporin. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 218.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Dermorphin-saporin (derm-sap) is a neuropeptide toxin conjugate which is selective for neurons expressing the mu-opiate receptor (MOR). The dermorphin moiety of the conjugate binds MOR which is then internalized by the neuron, carrying the toxin with it. The saproin moiety inactivates ribosomes resulting in cell death. In the present study we sought to determine the effect of destroying MOR expressing neurons in Lamina II of the spinal cord dorsal horn on baseline thermal pain sensitivity and response to systemic morphine analgesia. 456 ng derm-sap (n=8) and vehicle (n=8) were injected into the lumbar CSF of adult male Sprague Dawley rats using a subarachnoid catheter inserted through the atlanto-occipital membrane and passed cadually to the level of the lumbar enlargement. 10 minutes following toxin injection, the catheters were withdrawn and the animals allowed to recover. When tested on a hotplate at 52C and on tail-flick assay, toxin rats did not differ from rats injected with vehicle. However, the dose-response curves for subcutaneous morphine were significantly shifted to the left (increased potency) in the toxin treated rats when compared with vehicle controls. Histological analysis of multiple dorsal root ganglia failed to reveal evidence of any primary afferent cell loss. We interpreted these findings to indicate that the neurons destroyed by derm-sap are lamina II MOR expressing neurons and play a role in morphine analgesia at high stimulus intensities.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Breathing of awake goats after neurotoxic lesions in the medullary raphe

Forster HV, Hodges MR, Wenninger JM, Pan LG, Klum L, Leekley T, Feroah TR, Brozoski DT (2002) Breathing of awake goats after neurotoxic lesions in the medullary raphe. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 321.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Neurokinin I immunoreactive neurons are abundantly present in the medullary raphe of adult goats. We therefore wished to determine the effect on breathing of destroying such neurons using the neurotoxin saporin (SAP) conjugated to substance P (SP). Injections (1 to 10 µl) of SAP-SP were made at one or two sites in the raphe pallidus and/or raphe obscurus of 4 awake goats. Over the subsequent 5 hours, breathing remained near control levels. Within a few days, there was mild to marked hypoventilation in 2 goats and an attenuated CO2 sensitivity in 3 goats but breathing did not become irregular or ataxic in any goat. The attenuated CO2 sensitivity was associated with evidence of airway constriction. Eight to 14 days later, we injected (1 to 10 µl) at the same sites 50mM ibotenic acid (neurotoxic through glutamate receptors). In the awake state, this injection caused a further marked hypoventilation in one goat who became terminally apneic when anesthetized. After this injection, in the other 3 goats, eupneic PaCO2 was stable and CO2. sensitivity was normal or below normal. We conclude that in awake goats, normal eupneic breathing and CO2 sensitivity are dependent on medullary raphe neurokinin and glutamate receptor activity which apparently includes but is not limited to regulation of airway diameter.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

192-IgG-saporin lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain do not impair attentional set-shifting, but do increase latency to dig

Tait DS, McGaughy JA, Latimer MP, Brown VJ (2002) 192-IgG-saporin lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain do not impair attentional set-shifting, but do increase latency to dig. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 286.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain which project to cortex, the thalamic reticular nucleus and the amygdala, have been implicated in vigilance and attention (Sarter and Bruno, 2000). This study examined the effects of basal forebrain cholinergic depletion on a shifting of attentional set. Male Lister hooded rats were stereotaxically injected with 192-IgG-saporin into basal forebrain to effect cholinergic depletion. Doses of 0.20mg or 0.25mg resulted in a loss of cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain and depletion of cholinergic input to frontal cortex and the thalamic reticular nucleus. The test of attentional set shifting task for the rat (Birrell and Brown, 2000) measures acquisition, reversal learning and shifting of attention between stimulus dimensions. Trials to criterion and latency to dig were recorded. There was no evidence of impairment in acquisition, reversal learning or set-shifting performance in the rats with cholinergic depletion compared to controls. There was a significant effect on dig latency. This was apparent only when the lesioned rats first approached an incorrect (i.e. unbaited bowl): although no more likely to dig in the incorrect bowl, the lesioned rats took longer to then move to the correct bowl. No effects were seen on dig latency if the rat by chance approached the correct bowl first. We conclude that attentional set-shifting is spared following basal forebrain lesions. Changes in latency in the task might be account for by deficits in sustained attention (attention to task) or related to frustration.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Apoptotic affect of cholinergic denervation and hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth following selective immunolesioning with 192-IgG-saporin in rat hippocampus

Kolasa K, Harrell LE (2002) Apoptotic affect of cholinergic denervation and hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth following selective immunolesioning with 192-IgG-saporin in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 295.16. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: In rat, injection of specific cholinotoxin, 192IgG-saporin, into the medial septum (MS) results not only in a selective denervation of hippocampus(CD), but in an ingrowth of peripheral sympathetic fibers, originating from the superior cervical ganglion, into the hippocampus(HSI). A similar process, in which sympathetic axons invade hippocampus, may also occur in Alzheimer's disease(AD). Our previous studies using MS electrolytic lesions suggested that HSI and CD appear to induce opposite effect on apoptotic markers. Apoptosis has also been implicated in some aspects of AD. By using 192IgG-saporin we have been able to more specifically and precisely study the affect of apoptosis on HSI and CD. Thus, 12 weeks after injection we measured apoptotic protein expression and DNA degradation using Western blot and in situ techniques e.x. TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling(TUNEL). Choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT) and norepinephrine (NE) level was also detected. Like the previous results, we have found increase in apoptotic markers in CD group, while HSI reduced or normalized apoptotic effect to the control group level. We also found decrease in ChAT activity in HSI and CD groups of dorsal hippocampus.The results of the study suggest that cholinergic denervation is responsible for most of the proapoptotic responses, while hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth produced protective effect in the process of programmed cell death in rat dorsal hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Specific killing of rat medullary raphe 5-HT neurons by a serotonin transporter antibody-saporin conjugate reduces the ventilatory response to increased CO2 during sleep and wakefulness.

Nattie EE, Li A, Richerson G, Lappi D (2002) Specific killing of rat medullary raphe 5-HT neurons by a serotonin transporter antibody-saporin conjugate reduces the ventilatory response to increased CO2 during sleep and wakefulness. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 221.3. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: CO2 increases the firing rate of medullary raphe 5-HT neurons in vitro (Richerson et al., Respir. Physiol. 129: 175-190, 2001) and focal CO2 dialysis in the medullary raphe increases ventilation in the sleeping rat (Nattie and Li, J. Appl. Physiol. 90: 1247-1257, 2001). To examine in vivo the relative importance of these 5-HT neurons in chemoreception we used an antibody to the external ring of the serotonin tranport protein (SERT)(SFN abstract #814.9, 2001) conjugated to the cell toxin saporin (SAP). Rat medullary raphe neurons (P0) in culture assayed by TPOH immunoreactivity were killed by 10 and 5 nM SERT-SAP with peak effects at 4 and 7 days, respectively. Non-serotonergic neurons were unaffected. In adult rats after measurement of baseline ventilatory values, we placed EEG/EMG electrodes and injected the SERT-SAP conjugate (1 uM) into the medullary raphe (two adjacent 100 nl injections). There was substantial loss of TPOH but not NK1R immunoreactivity measured at 14 days. There was no effect on ventilation during air breathing awake or asleep. Ventilation during 7% CO2 was significantly decreased in sleep (P < 0.001; repeated measures ANOVA) at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 (-13 to -15%; P < 0.05; Tukey post-hoc test) and in wakefulness (P < 0.01; repeated measures ANOVA) at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 (-10 to -16%; P < 0.05; Tukey post-hoc test). Medullary raphe serotonergic neurons in the rat play an important role in the ventilatory response to systemic hypercapnia during sleep and wakefulness.

Related Products: Anti-SERT-SAP (Cat. #IT-23)

Habituation and dexamethasone (DEX) suppression of the stress response following selective lesions of cholinergic input to hippocampus in rats

Helm KA, Ziegler DR, Gallagher M (2002) Habituation and dexamethasone (DEX) suppression of the stress response following selective lesions of cholinergic input to hippocampus in rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 370.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Hippocampal neurons have been identified as targets for glucocorticoids that exert inhibitory control over hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Prior research has shown that selective removal of cholinergic input to the hippocampus reduces mRNA expression for low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors, while leaving unaffected both mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA and basal levels of circulating corticosterone (CORT). The current study investigated the possibility that loss of cholinergic support from cells in the basal forebrain alters the CORT response to stress. Cholinergic lesions were made by microinjections of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band, and 3 weeks later rats were subjected to six daily sessions of 30 min restraint stress. Blood samples taken before, during and after stress on Day 1 revealed a prolonged elevation of CORT in response to acute stress in cholinergic lesioned rats. After 5 days of chronic stress, however, both groups significantly habituated to the stressor, as indicated by similarly low CORT profiles throughout both the response and recovery period. Against this similar background, rats were administered a Dexamethasone (DEX) challenge on Day 6, and DEX-induced suppression of endogenous CORT before, during and after stress was attenuated in lesioned rats. These results indicate a mechanism whereby loss of cholinergic function (e.g. in aging and Alzheimer's Dementia) may compromise the dynamic range of sensitivity to glucocorticoid mediated stress pathways in the brain.

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Somatostatin immunoreactivity is a diagnostic marker of the pre-Boetzinger complex

Guyenet PG, Stornetta RL, Rosin DL, Wang H, Sevigny CP, Weston MC (2002) Somatostatin immunoreactivity is a diagnostic marker of the pre-Boetzinger complex. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 362.4. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Selective ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor-ir (NK1R-ir) neurons of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) causes major respiratory deficits. Since this population of NK1R-ir neurons is heterogeneous, additional markers are needed to identify which subgroup is most critical to respiratory rhythmogenesis. In the present study, the pre-Boetzinger complex (pre-BoetC) was defined as a 500 μ-long segment of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) located rostral to the spinally projecting inspiratory premotor neurons. This region of the ventral medulla was the only one that contained somatostatin-immunoreactive (SST-ir) neuronal somata. These cells were small (108 μ²), generally fusiform and they expressed very high levels of preprosomatostatin (PPSST) mRNA. All SST-ir neurons were strongly NK1R-ir and were destroyed by saporin conjugated with an NK1R agonist. Most SST-ir neurons (>90%) contained vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA whereas <1% contained GAD-67 mRNA and few (6%) contained preproenkephalin mRNA. The results of retrograde labeling experiments with Fluoro-Gold demonstrated that SST-ir neurons do not project to the spinal cord but that over 75% project to the contralateral pre-BoetC. In conclusion, somatic SST immunoreactivity can be used as a diagnostic marker of the pre-BoetC. The SST-ir cells of the pre-BoetC are small glutamatergic interneurons with contralateral projections and they express high levels of NK1 receptors. The homogeneous features of this group of interneurons and their exclusive location in the pre-BoetC suggest that they could be the NK1R-ir neurons whose destruction disrupts respiratory rhythm. (HL 28785 & 60003).

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Selective lesion of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-receptor neurons in hypothalamus inhibit food intake and reduces body weight in rats.

Sheriff ST, Xiao C, Chance WT, Kasckow JW, Balasubramaniam A (2002) Selective lesion of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-receptor neurons in hypothalamus inhibit food intake and reduces body weight in rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 384.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Administration of NPY into hypothalamic areas elicits a most powerful feeding response in rats. The neuronal cell type mediating this orexigenic signal is not clearly understood. To determine the role of NPY-responsive neurons in feeding behavior, we selectively lesioned NPY-receptor neurons by using avidinylated saporin (Av-Sap) mixed with biotinylated NPY. Av-Sap-Biotin NPY complex (ASBN 2.5ug/5ul CSF) or saporin (2ug/4ul CSF) was injected into intracerebroventricle (ICV) of Sprague Dawley rats. Food intake (FI) and body weight was monitored for seven days. On the eighth day NPY (1ug/1ul CSF) was injected into ICV and the FI was monitored for four hours. Injection of ASBN showed a severe reduction in food intake (54%) on the seventh day in comparison to saporin-treated group. ASBN-treated group showed a decrease in the body weight by 24%. The Saporin-treated group showed little body weight reduction (4%). NPY-induced food intake was also reduced in ASBN-treated group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a moderate reduction of Y1 receptor (Y1R) neurons in the PVN and arcuate nucleus in this group. Loss of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the arcuate nucleus was observed in ASBN-treated group. These results suggest that NPY-receptor neurons may be essential for maintaining the energy homeostasis.

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Effects of gabaergic or cholinergic medial septal lesions on anxiety

Yoder RM, Pang KCH (2002) Effects of gabaergic or cholinergic medial septal lesions on anxiety. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 378.1. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The hippocampus (HPC) is a structure important for spatial learning and memory. GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the medial septal area (MSA) provide the two major projections to HPC. Complete destruction of HPC or MSA impairs spatial memory. MSA lesions have an anxiolytic effect, and rats with MSA damage appear be more exploratory. Spatial learning and memory may therefore be influenced by anxiety information reaching HPC through MSA. The present study assessed the effects of MSA GABAergic or cholinergic lesions on anxiety in the elevated plus maze and open-field task. Control rats received intraseptal saline; GABAergic lesions were induced by intraseptal domoic acid; cholinergic lesions were induced by intraseptal 192 IgG-saporin. An elevated plus maze was constructed with 2 open arms and 2 closed arms. Following habituation, each rat was placed in the center of the maze, then observed for 5 minutes. Time spent in the open vs. closed arms and number of entries into open vs. closed arms were compared between groups. The open-field task utilized a square arena with center and outer sections delineated on the floor. Following habituation, each rat was placed into the outer section, then observed for 5 minutes, during which the number of line crossings and amount of time spent in center vs. outer sections were calculated for comparison between groups. In both tasks, frequency of freezing, rearing, head dips, stretched-attend posture, grooming, and defecation was also compared between groups. Results of the present study may help elucidate the role of MSA in the effects of anxiety on learning and memory.

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Spatial strategies in rats with cholinergic or GABAergic lesions of the medial septum

Wright KM, Yoder RM, Pang KCH (2002) Spatial strategies in rats with cholinergic or GABAergic lesions of the medial septum. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 378.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The major projection neurons of the septohippocampal (SH) system are GABAergic and cholinergic. When both populations of neurons are damaged together, deficits in learning and memory occur. However, when only one population is damaged, spatial memory in the water maze and radial arm maze is intact. The present study evaluated whether spatial strategies differed between rats with either GABAergic or cholinergic septal lesions. Domoic acid or 192 IgG saporin (sap) was injected into the medial septum (MS) to damage GABAergic or cholinergic neurons, respectively. Spatial strategies were examined on the plus maze and water maze. In the plus maze, rats were started from a single arm and trained to enter a goal arm containing both the reward and an intra-maze cue. Probe trials assessed whether the rats used place, response or cue strategies. During a probe trial, the starting location and the intra-maze cue were moved from that during training. In the water maze, animals were trained for 9 days in 3-day cycles. The first two days of the cycle used a visible platform and the third day of training was performed with a submerged platform. A single probe trial was conducted on day 10. On the probe trial, the first quadrant visited determined whether rats were using cue, place, or response strategies. Preliminary results show that rats treated with domoic acid use the place strategy on all probe trials in the plus maze, but do not use a consistent strategy in the water maze. Sap-treated animals also use mainly a place strategy. The results of this study may help determine the role of MS neurons in spatial strategy selection.

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Spatial memory impairments in rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis

Butt AE, Hamilton DA, Duerkop MS, King DD, Gibbs RB, Sutherland RJ (2002) Spatial memory impairments in rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 378.5. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: In three experiments we test the hypothesis that the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) is involved in spatial learning and memory. Rats received 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the NBM or sham surgeries prior to testing in the Morris water maze task. In Exp. 1, rats were trained to find a hidden platform, receiving 4 trials per day. In Exp. 2, rats were trained with the hidden platform located in one position on the first 3 trials and in a second position on the 4th trial each day. In Exp. 3, rats were trained in a novel environment with the hidden platform located in a new position every 2 days. In Exp. 1, the NBM lesion group showed longer mean latencies to locate the platform than controls on the first several days of testing. Group differences were greatest on the earlier trials within the 4-trial blocks, with performance in the NBM lesion group recovering to control levels on later trials. In Exp. 2, performance in the NBM lesion group was again impaired, with greater group differences occurring on earlier trials within the 4-trial blocks. In Exp. 3, performance during the first block of trials for the different platform locations did not differ between groups, whereas performance on the 1st trial within the second block of trials was impaired in the NBM lesion group. Analysis of AChE staining and assay of ChAT activity confirm the selectivity of the lesions to the cortically-projecting neurons of the NBM and the sparing of cholinergic medial septal projections to hippocampus. Data suggest that NBM lesions interfere with consolidation of memory for spatial locations.

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Visual-spatial conditional discrimination learning in rats with lesions of cholinergic medial septal/diagonal band neurons

Janisiewicz AM, Rodefer JS, Baxter MG (2002) Visual-spatial conditional discrimination learning in rats with lesions of cholinergic medial septal/diagonal band neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 378.6. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Loss of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band (MS/VDB) seems to impair visual-spatial conditional learning tasks, in which the location of a correct spatial response is signaled by a visual cue. We examined visual-spatial conditional learning in several automated touchscreen tasks in male Long-Evans rats with selective lesions of MS/VDB cholinergic neurons produced by 192 IgG-saporin. One group of rats was first trained on a simple visual discrimination followed by two visual-spatial conditional tasks. In the first conditional task the rat responded to the left or right member of a pair of identical visual stimuli depending on which stimulus pair was displayed. In the second conditional task one of two centrally-displayed stimuli directed the rat to respond to an illuminated panel on the left or right, depending on which visual stimulus was displayed centrally. MS/VDB-lesioned rats were unimpaired on the simple visual discrimination and the first conditional task, but were severely impaired relative to controls on the second conditional task. However, in a second group of rats trained only on the second conditional task, MS/VDB-lesioned rats were superior to controls, who performed poorly. The different results between the two cohorts appear to reflect transfer effects present in the control rats that are absent in the MS/VDB-lesioned rats. These findings suggest that conditional learning deficits following MS/VDB cholinergic lesions may depend on the particular strategy used to solve the conditional task, which may in turn be influenced by the animal's testing history.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Neonatal basal forebrain cholinergic lesions disrupt retention of socially transmitted food preferences and alter EEG activity in adult rats

Ricceri L, Moles A, Pezzola A, Popoli P, Calamandrei G (2002) Neonatal basal forebrain cholinergic lesions disrupt retention of socially transmitted food preferences and alter EEG activity in adult rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 82.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Previous studies using selective neonatal lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons showed mild long-term effects on spatial discrimination capabilities, whereas water maze learning appeared intact. In the present study we examined long-term effects of icv injections of 192 IgG saporin performed in 7-day-old rats on the social transmission of food preferences (a form of non-spatial associative memory) at adulthood. In 6-month-old rats the neonatal cholinergic lesion impaired 4-h and 24-h retention of a learned social food preference relative to controls, despite performance on an immediate retention trial was indistinguishable from controls. A second experiment excluded alterations in neophobia towards unfamiliar scented food after neonatal cholinergic lesions: level of novel food consumption did not differ between neonatally saporin-lesioned and control rats. Computerized EEG spectral analysis (FFT transform) performed in 6-month-old rats revealed that the neonatal cholinergic lesions increased δ power and reduced β power in both fronto-parietal and parieto-occipital cortex. Effectiveness of the neonatal lesion was confirmed by a marked cholinergic loss in both hippocampal and cortical regions. Altogether, behavioral and electrophysiological data suggest that the neonatal cholinergic lesion of the basal forebrain - more than the adult one - could represent a useful experimental model of Alzheimer-like memory dysfunctions.

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Amphetamine hyperresponses in cholinergically denervated rats and alpha7 nAChR knockout mice, and effects of nicotinic agonists

Mattsson A, Lindqvist E, Ögren SO, Olson L (2002) Amphetamine hyperresponses in cholinergically denervated rats and alpha7 nAChR knockout mice, and effects of nicotinic agonists. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 136.7. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: We have recently shown that cholinergic denervation of the basal forebrain in adult rats, using intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192-saporin, leads to overreactivity in dopaminergic systems, in the form of enhanced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity. This increased sensitivity to amphetamine in cholinergically denervated rats can be partially counteracted by nicotine if given before the amphetamine challenge. The results provide a possible link between deficits in central cholinergic systems and overactivity in dopaminergic systems, which might be of relevance for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To further evaluate the role of cholinergic dysfunction for dopaminergic hyperactivity we have focused on the α7 nAChR due to its presumed involvement in schizophrenia. First, we tested if a selective α7 nAChR agonist, AR-R17779, could mimic the effect of nicotine (partial blockade of amphetamine hyperresponse) in cholinergically denervated rats. Second, we tested if mice lacking the α7 nAChR gene have a similar increased sensitivity to amphetamine, as cholinergically denervated rats. Preliminary results from these studies show that AR-R17779 normalizes the effect of amphetamine cholinergically denervated rats, and further, that lack of the α7 nAChR gene leads to an increased sensitivity to amphetamine. Cholinergic deficiencies that cause dopaminergic overactivity are compatible with a role of the α7 nAChR in schizophrenia and may suggest a role for the cholinergic system in other psychotic states.

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Effect of intrathecal substance P-saporin conjugate on bladder hyperactivity induced by intravesical capsaicin

Seki S, Erickson KA, Sasaki K, Sugaya K, Chancellor MB, de Groat WC, Yoshimura N (2002) Effect of intrathecal substance P-saporin conjugate on bladder hyperactivity induced by intravesical capsaicin. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 68.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Substance P and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors in the spinal cord reportedly play an important role in the micturition reflex as well as in nociceptive responses. We investigated the effect of elimination of NK 1 receptor-expressing spinal cord neurons using the substance P-saporin conjugate (SSP-SAP) on the micturition reflex. Using female rats, an intrathecal catheter was implanted at the level of the L6-S1 spinal cord for injection of either 8 µl of saporin (1.5 µM) or SSP-SAP (1.0 µM). Awake cystometry performed 3 weeks after injection showed no changes in normal bladder function in saporin and SSP-SAP-treated rats. When bladder hyperactivity was induced by intravesical instillation of capsaicin (15 µM), the reduction of intercontraction interval (ICI) was significantly smaller (43.0 ± 6.2% of reduction) in SSP-SAP-treated rats than in saporin-treated rats (59.3 ± 3.1%). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the area positively stained with NK1 receptor antibodies in the lamina I of the dorsal horn was significantly reduced by 34% in SSP-SAP treated rats, compared with saporin-treated rats. These results suggest that NK1 receptor-expressing neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord play an important role in inducing bladder hyperactivity elicited by intravesical capsaicin. Thus elimination of NK1 receptor-expressing neurons in the spinal cord using SSP-SAP at this concentration could be effective to treat bladder hyperactivity induced by bladder irritation without affecting normal bladder function.

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Lesions of spinothalamic neurons in lumbar spinal cord disrupt ejaculatory reflexes in male rats

Truitt WA, McKenna KE, Coolen LM (2002) Lesions of spinothalamic neurons in lumbar spinal cord disrupt ejaculatory reflexes in male rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 69.2. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Previously we tested the significance of a population of lumbar spinothalamic (LUST) cells for male sexual behavior in rats. Anatomically, LUST cells are positioned to relay ejaculation-related sensory signals from reproductive organs to the brain and express substance P receptors as well as several neuropeptides including galanin. Ablation of LUST neurons by the selective toxin SSP-saporin resulted in a complete disruption of ejaculatory behavior. These results suggested that LUST cells play a pivotal role in generation of ejaculatory behavior and may be part of a spinal ejaculation generator. To test this hypothesis, we investigated ejaculatory reflexes in male rats with LUST lesions, using the urethrogenital reflex model. SSP-saporin (4 ng/µl) was injected bilaterally into L3-L4 region in sexually experienced male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten days following surgery, animals were deeply anesthetized and spinal cords were transected at upper thoracic levels. Next, urethral stimulation was provided and muscle contractions were recorded in the bulbocavernous muscle (BCM). Following the experiment, animals were sacrificed and lesions were confirmed using immunostaining for galanin, a marker for LUST cells. In non-lesioned animals (n=5), urethral stimulation produced stereotypical reflex contraction of the BCM, and penile reflexes were observed. In contrast, in animals with complete lesions of LUST cells (n=5) the urogenital reflex was severely attenuated. These results indicate that LUST cells are involved in control of ejaculatory reflexes and are part of a spinal ejaculation generator. Supported by: NIH R01 MH60781(LMC)

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Cholinergic neurons in the rabbit forebrain: Chemoarchitecture, in vivo labeling, immunolesions

Varga C, Grosche J, Brauer K, Seeger J, Harkany T, Hartig W (2002) Cholinergic neurons in the rabbit forebrain: Chemoarchitecture, in vivo labeling, immunolesions. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 35.3. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: While the rabbit basal forebrain and its cholinergic components became useful targets for modeling of neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease, their neuroanatomical organization is still largely elusive. Hence, we focused on (i) the number of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons (CBFN)in the major nuclei based on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoperoxidase labeling, (ii) the density of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers in distinct neocortical and hippocampal areas, (iii) mapping of projecting CBFN by low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR ) staining and (iv) the double fluorescence labeling of ChAT and the neuronal markers p75NTR, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, tyrosine hydroxylase and substance P. While cholinergic interneurons were found in the hippocampus, they were not detectable in the neocortex. CBFN were shown to abundantly co-express p75NTR, except in the substantia innominata and ventral pallidum. Whereas cholinergic neurons were devoid of most investigated markers, a subset also contained calbindin or NOS. The selective in vivo labeling of CBFN was achieved with intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected carbocyanine 3-conjugated ME20.4IgG that recognizes an extracellular epitope of p75NTR. Parallel experiments revealed that the i.c.v. injection of ME20.4IgG-saporin conjugates led to the specific immunolesion of cholinergic cells in about one week, whereas long-term effects of the immunotoxin remain to be further elucidated.

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Alterations in forebrain acetylcholine influence hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rodent

Mohapel P, Leanza G, Lindvall O (2002) Alterations in forebrain acetylcholine influence hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult rodent. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 23.9. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Little is known about how various experiential, environmental and pathological factors regulate neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Since the hippocampus receives abundant cholinergic innervation and contains some of the densest distributions of acetylcholine (ACh) fibers, we investigated its potential role in adult neurogenesis. Adult rats received multiple bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) injections 3 weeks following lesions of the adult rodent forebrain cholinergic projections by intracerebroventricular infusions of 192 IgG-saporin. The day following BrdU administration we observed a significant 20% to 30 % decrease in proliferation in the subgranular cell layer of the dentate gyrus with ACh lesioning. This decrease persisted through to 4 weeks after BrdU administration, when most proliferated cells co-expressed neuronal markers. Conversely, in a separate experiment, naive rats receiving simultaneous injections of the ACh agonist physostigmine and BrdU demonstrated a 30 % increase in proliferated cells (1 day later) and neurons (4 weeks later) in the subgranular cell layer. Our data indicate that cholinergic mechanisms in the forebrain are involved in the regulation of neurogenesis and that this effect may be indirect or direct in the hippocampus.

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Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of rhinal cortex on visual recognition in monkeys

Turchi JN, Saunders RC, Mishkin M (2002) Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of rhinal cortex on visual recognition in monkeys. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 82.5. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Excitotoxic lesions of the rhinal (perirhinal/entorhinal) cortices yield substantial deficits in visual recognition (Baxter and Murray, 2001; Malkova et al., 2001). To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this region, we compared the visual recognition performance of untreated monkeys with that of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of the selective cholinergic immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP. This toxin binds to the p75 receptor, borne by corticopetal cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, and is retrogradely transported to the cell body where it permanently destroys ribosomal function. Both groups were first trained to criterion in the rule for delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) with trial-unique stimuli at a 10-s delay in a Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus. This was followed by treatment and recovery for the experimental group (n=3) and an equivalent rest period for the control group (n=4), after which both groups were retrained on the DNMS rule and then given a memory performance test with increasing delays (30, 60, and 120 s) and list lengths (3, 5, 10, and 20 stimuli). The experimental group relearned the DNMS rule without significant impairment but then demonstrated robust deficits when tested with increasing delays (a mean of 83% vs 95% for controls) and list lengths (67% vs 86% for controls). The findings complement results obtained in a study of muscarinic receptor blockade in the perirhinal cortex (Tang et al., 1997) and indicate that cholinergic integrity of the rhinal cortex is critical for visual recognition memory.

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Steroid sulfatse inhibition potentiates working memory deficit induced by 192 IgG-saporin

Zambon NJ, Liberatore MA, Nagle RA, Pokala VN, Li P, Johnson DA (2002) Steroid sulfatse inhibition potentiates working memory deficit induced by 192 IgG-saporin. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 82.6. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Infusion of 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) into the medial septum (MS) of rats selectively lesions cholinergic neurons and impairs acquisition of a delayed matching to position T-maze task. Since steroid sulfatase inhibitors allosterically inhibit the GABA-A receptor and enhance cognition, the present study investigated the cognitive effects of sulfatase inhibition on SAP lesioned animals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraseptal infusions of either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or 0.22 μg/μl SAP. Eight days after the infusion, the rats were given an IP injection of either the steroid sulfatase inhibitor DU-14 (30mg/ml) or vehicle daily for 14 days, then every other day during the testing period. In the acquisition phase of testing, each rat completed 8 trial pairs per day until reaching criterion (15 of 16 correct choices). The rats were then tested for retention of the task by inserting delays of 10, 20, and 30 seconds after the first trial of a pair. DU-14 potentiated the impairment in acquisition produced by SAP. The introduction of a delay resulted in deceased performance in all treatment groups except rats administered DU-14 without SAP lesioning. These results suggest that DU-14 may enhance cognition in cholinergically intact animals, but the combination of DU-14, with cholinergic lesioning of MS, impairs working memory by inhibition of both cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

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Effect of 192 IgG-saporin medial-septum lesion on hippocampal receptor density in rats

Pokala VN, Libertore MA, Zambon NJ, Nagle RA, Li PK, Witt-Enderby PA, Johnson DA (2002) Effect of 192 IgG-saporin medial-septum lesion on hippocampal receptor density in rats. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 82.7. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of selective cholinergic neurotoxin192 IgG-saporin (SAP) medial septal (MS), lesions on hippocampal muscarinic, GABAA and NMDA receptor density. Rats were injected with SAP (0.22 and 0.45 μg/μl) into the MS. After 6 weeks, hippocampal tissue was collected and saturation radioligand binding assays were performed to determine the receptor density. 3H-QNB was a muscarinic antagonist, 3H-muscimol a GABAergic agonist and 3H-MK-801 an NMDA antagonist were utilized. The results demonstrated a dose dependent increase in muscarinic receptor density (B-max) of 226 and 355% respectively. These results suggest changes in receptor density in response to hippocampal cholinergic denervation.

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Immunotoxin lesion of spinally projecting catecholamine neurons impairs the adrenal medullary response to glucoprivation and the sympathetic response to forced swim

Dinh TT, Duffy P, Ritter S (2002) Immunotoxin lesion of spinally projecting catecholamine neurons impairs the adrenal medullary response to glucoprivation and the sympathetic response to forced swim. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 76.5. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Distinct populations of hindbrain catecholamine neurons project spinally to innervate sympathetic and adrenal medullary preganglionic neurons. Previously we injected the immunotoxin, saporin conjugated to anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase (DSAP), into the spinal cord to selectively lesion these neurons. DSAP lesions abolished adrenal medullary Fos expression following insulin-induced hypoglycemia or 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) and eliminated the hyperglycemic response to 2DG, which is mediated by adrenal medullary epinephrine (E) secretion. Here we examine the plasma E and norepinephrine (NE) responses to 2DG (250 mg/kg, s.c.) and to 5 min of forced swim in rats injected at T2-T4 with DSAP or unconjugated saporin (SAP) control solution. Blood was sampled remotely via jugular catheters between 0 and 240 min after 2DG or swim. Immunohistochemistry confirmed loss of dopamine B-hydroxylase throughout the spinal cord of DSAP rats. In DSAPs, both plasma E and hyperglycemic responses to 2DG were abolished or severely impaired compared to SAPs. 2DG did not elevate plasma NE in either group. Swim stress increased NE in both SAPs and DSAPs, but the DSAP response was only 60% of the SAP response. Results show for the first time that the selective activation of the adrenal medulla by glucoprivation, described previously, is mediated by spinally projecting catecholamine neurons. Results also demonstrate that spinal catecholamine terminals, presumeably arising from different hindbrain neurons, contribute to, but are not entirely responsible for, sympathetic neuronal responses to swim stress.

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Residual hippocampal cholinergic functions after 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the medial septum/ventral diagonal band (MS/VDB)

Chang Q, Gold PE (2002) Residual hippocampal cholinergic functions after 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the medial septum/ventral diagonal band (MS/VDB). Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 82.8. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: 192 IgG-saporin (SAP) injections into the MS/VDB reportedly destroy acetylcholine (ACh) neurons projecting to hippocampus (HC) without associated impairments of learning and memory on HC-dependent tasks. These findings contrast sharply with those obtained with many other methods showing close associations between ACh functions in the HC and learning and memory. The present experiment addressed this conflict. SAP was injected into MS/VDB 1 week before the start of neural and behavioral measures. We found: 1) Using in vivo microdialysis, release of ACh in the HC was not abolished but was ~30% of control values. The percent increase in ACh release during spontaneous alternation testing was greater in SAP-treated than in control rats. 2) SAP-treated rats had significant impairments on the HC-dependent alternation task. Moreover, intra-HC injections of physostigmine (20 ng in 1 µl), an indirect ACh agonist, enhanced alternation scores. 3) Physostigmine (0.6 mg/kg, IP) induced more intense tremors in SAP-treated than in control rats. 4) While SAP-treated rats had near-total depletion of cells in MS/VDB stained using immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), quantitative densitometry showed no depletion of ChAT staining in either CA1 or the dentate gyrus in the SAP group. These findings suggest that there are residual and even heightened ACh functions which can compensate for the insult of MS/VDB SAP lesions, complicating the use of this lesion to evaluate the role of septohippocampal cholinergic projections in learning, memory or other functions.

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Physiological and pharmacological characteristics of the inhibitory muscarinic response in septohippocampal cholinergic neurons.

Wu M, Xu C, Alreja M (2002) Physiological and pharmacological characteristics of the inhibitory muscarinic response in septohippocampal cholinergic neurons. Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts 35.7. Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, FL.

Summary: Septohippocampal cholinergic neurons in the MSDB provide the hippocampus with almost its entire ACh and also release ACh locally within the MSDB. The released ACh sustains activity in the GABAergic limb of the septohippocampal pathway. Septohippocampal cholinergic neurons undergo atrophy in neurodegenerative disorders associated with loss of cognition. In a recent study we demonstrated that 65% of septohippocampal cholinergic neurons are inhibited by ACh via muscarinic receptors. Because of the importance of ACh and septohippocampal cholinergic neurons in cognition, we studied the physiological and pharmacological properties of the muscarinic response in MSDB neurons. Using intracellular and whole-cell recordings, we tested the effects of muscarine on retrogradely-labeled septohippocampal cholinergic neurons in vitro in rat brain slices. The cells were labeled using the Cy3-192IgG, a selective marker of septohippocampal cholinergic neurons. Prolonged (10-15 mins) but not short (1-2 min) applications of muscarine or oxotremorine produced a marked desensitization (>50%). The muscarine-induced outward current was found to be mediated via direct as well as indirect mechanisms. It reversed at Ek and was blocked by external barium. The M2/M4 antagonist, methoctramine blocked the muscarine response in only 10% of the neurons tested and tropicamide, an M4-prefering antagonist, blocked the muscarine response in 5/5 neurons tested, suggesting possible involvement of M4 receptors.

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