References

Related publications for ATS products and services
2904 entries

The basal forebrain cholinergic system as target for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease

Björklund A, Barker RA (2024) The basal forebrain cholinergic system as target for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Brain awae026. doi: 10.1093/brain/awae026 PMID: 38279949

Objective: Review the use of cholinergic cell replacement as a potential therapeutic strategy in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and how rodent models of PD-like cognitive decline can be used by analyzing rodent and primate studies.

Summary: Although therapies targeting the cholinergic system have so far been focused mainly on patients with Alzheimer´s disease, PD with dementia may be a more relevant condition. In PD with dementia the Basal Forebrain system undergoes progressive degeneration, and the magnitude of cholinergic cell loss has been shown to correlate with the level of cognitive impairment. Thus, cell therapy aimed to replace the lost basal forebrain cholinergic neurons represents an interesting strategy to combat some of the major cognitive impairments in patients with PD dementia.

Usage: Rats were given 192-IgG-SAP (IT-01), 0.2-0.4 μg, delivered as a single 0.3-1.0 μl injection into either the substantia innominate/nucleus basalis of Meynert (SI/NBM) or the medial septum/ventral diagonal band (MS/VDB).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Characterizing a new tool to manipulate area postrema GLP1R+ neurons across species

Fulton S, Horn CC, Zhang C (2024) Characterizing a new tool to manipulate area postrema GLP1R+ neurons across species. Physiol Behav 114474. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2024.114474 PMID: 38272107

Objective: Characterize the ligand exenatide conjugated to saporin as a tool to ablate GLP1 receptor-expressing cells from human, mice, and shrews, a small animal model capable of emesis (vomiting).

Summary: Nausea is a distressing sensation that is a common side effect of many medications. Nausea and emesis are among the top adverse side effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor (GLP1R) agonists-based medications to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. The area postrema is a brain structure that mediates nausea effects. The authors provide characterization of Ex4-SAP (GLP-1-SAP) to specifically ablate GLP1R-expressing HEK293T cells in vitro and in area postrema neurons in mice and house musk shrews in vivo.

Usage: C57BL-6J mice were injected with Ex4-SAP (IT-90) or Blank-Streptavidin-SAP at 200 ng/ul, in a total of 400 nl at a rate of 2 nl/second. Musk shrews were injected with Ex4-SAP (IT-90) or Blank-Streptavidin-SAP at 500 ng/ul, in a total of 200 nl at a rate of 2 nl/second.

Related Products: Ex4-SAP (GLP-1-SAP) (Cat. #IT-90), Blank-Streptavidin-SAP (Cat. #IT-27B)

Etonogestrel promotes respiratory recovery in an in vivo rat model of central chemoreflex impairment

Janes TA, Cardani S, Saini JK, Pagliardini S (2024) Etonogestrel promotes respiratory recovery in an in vivo rat model of central chemoreflex impairment. Acta Physiol (Oxf) e14093. doi: 10.1111/apha.14093 PMID: 38258900

Objective: Examine the use of progestins and synthetic progestins in the stimulation of breathing, especially after chemoreflexive impairment.

Summary: Central CO2 chemoreflex is important for respiratory control. The retrotrapezoid nucleus is involved in CO2 chemosensitivity where its removal or inhibition attenuates CO2 chemoreflexes and diminishes restful breathing. Progesterone stimulates restful breathing and CO2 chemoreflexes. The authors investigated whether acute or chronic administration of the progestinic drug, etonogestrel, could help in the recovery of respiratory chemoreflexes following lesion of the retrotrapezoid nucleus via a SP-SAP.

Usage: Rats were injected with 26-43.3 ng/ul of SP-SAP (IT-11) or 46.7 ng/ul of Blank-SAP (IT-21), with 150 nl per injection.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Crosstalk between colorectal CSCs and immune cells in tumorigenesis, and strategies for targeting colorectal CSCs

Zhao Q, Zong H, Zhu P, Su C, Tang W, Chen Z, Jin S (2024) Crosstalk between colorectal CSCs and immune cells in tumorigenesis, and strategies for targeting colorectal CSCs. Exp Hematol Oncol 13(1):6. doi: 10.1186/s40164-024-00474-x PMID: 38254219

Summary: Cancer immunotherapy has become a promising strategy in the treatment of colorectal cancer, and relapse after tumor immunotherapy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the capabilities of self-renewal and differentiation and are also resistant to the traditional therapies of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The authors review strategies for targeting colorectal CSCs, where one method described uses a biotinylated antibody against EpCAM (clone 3-171) conjugated to saporin via Streptavidin-ZAP (IT-27).

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27)

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A role of frontal association cortex in long-term object recognition memory of objects with complex features in rats

Masmudi-Martín M, López-Aranda MF, Navarro-Lobato I, Khan ZU (2024) A role of frontal association cortex in long-term object recognition memory of objects with complex features in rats. Eur J Neurosci doi: 10.1111/ejn.16243 PMID: 38238909

Objective: Provide evidence that the frontal association cortex and not the Perirhinal cortex is essential for object recognition memory (ORM) of objects with complex features.

Summary: The Perirhinal cortex is a brain area that has been seen as being crucial for ORM. However, the authors challenge that thought by using an ORM enhancer named RGS14414. Used as a tool, expression of it in rat brain frontal association cortex induced the formation of long-term complex ORM whereas the expression of the enhancer in Perirhinal cortex didn’t illicit the same effect. The authors also showed that expression of the enhancer in Perirhinal cortex instead caused formation of ORM of objects with only simple features. Furthermore, the selective elimination of frontal association cortex neurons via OX7-SAP (IT-02) completely removed the formation of complex ORM.

Usage: OX7-SAP (IT-02) was injected into the frontal association cortex of rats at a dose of 0.2 ug in 1 ul.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Self-assembly of epitope-tagged proteins and antibodies for delivering biologics to antigen presenting cells

Gong S, Qiu J, Thayumanavan S (2023) Self-assembly of epitope-tagged proteins and antibodies for delivering biologics to antigen presenting cells. J Am Chem Soc doi: 10.1021/jacs.3c09334 PMID: 38147631

Objective: To describe a simple self-assembly strategy for generating artificial immune complexes.

Summary: The built-in recognition domains in the antibody, viz. the Fab and Fc domains, are judiciously leveraged for cargo conjugation to generate the nanoassembly and macrophage targeting, respectively. A responsive linker is engineered into the nanoassembly for releasing the protein cargo inside the macrophages while ensuring stability during delivery.

Usage: Cytotoxicity assay to measure cell death with targeted saporin.

Related Products: Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)

Intracellular protein delivery: Approaches, challenges, and clinical applications

Chan A, Tsourkas A (2024) Intracellular protein delivery: Approaches, challenges, and clinical applications. BME Frontiers doi: 10.34133/bmef.0035

Objective: To review progress made towards achieving cytosolic delivery of recombinant proteins and possible strategies to enable proteins to cross cell membranes.

Summary: Drug delivery researchers have worked to deliver saporin into tumor cells in the hopes of producing potent next-generation cancer therapeutics. Cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic versions of poly(β-amino ester) have been developed for delivery of saporin. Chemically-modified saporin can be encapsulated by cationic LNPs for in vivo tumor inhibition. Saporin has been used as a model cargo protein for in vivo delivery via fluoropolymer nanoparticles for successful tumor growth inhibition.

Related Products: Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)

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Regulation of ethanol-mediated dopamine elevation by glycine receptors located on cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens

Loftén A, Adermark L, Ericson M, Söderpalm B (2023) Regulation of ethanol-mediated dopamine elevation by glycine receptors located on cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens. Addict Biol 28(12):e13349. doi: 10.1111/adb.13349 PMID: 38017639

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of glycine receptors (GlyRs) on cholinergic interneurons (CIN) in sustaining extracellular dopamine levels and in ethanol-induced dopamine release.

Summary: Alcohol use disorder is one of the major psychiatric disorders worldwide. Ethanol reward is one of the many factors contributing to the disorder. The rewarding and reinforcing properties of ethanol have been linked to activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, an effect that involves glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens. The study suggests that CIN are not important for GlyR-mediated regulation of basal dopamine output, but that CIN ablation blunts the ethanol-induced dopamine release by reducing the release of GlyR agonists.

Usage: CIN were ablated by Anti-ChAT-SAP administered locally in the nucleus accumbens of male Wistar rats. Rabbit-IgG-SAP was used as a control. Microinfusion was performed unilaterally into the nAc at a concentration of 0.5 ug/ul at 0.05 ul/min for 10 min for a total of 0.5 ul.

Related Products: Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42), Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35)

Sensory spinal interoceptive pathways and energy balance regulation

Münzberg H, Berthoud HR, Neuhuber WL (2023) Sensory spinal interoceptive pathways and energy balance regulation. Mol Metab 78:101817. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2023.101817 PMID: 37806487

Objective: To review and discuss the roles of spinal sensory pathways, specifically dorsal root ganglia (DRG) afferents, in energy balance regulation, highlighting their contributions to metabolic homeostasis in health and disease.

Summary: This comprehensive review explores the emerging significance of spinal sensory neurons, beyond traditional gut-brain and adipose tissue-to-brain signaling pathways, in regulating energy intake and metabolism. It delves into the anatomy and functions of spinal sensory pathways, emphasizing the potential of DRG afferents in providing metabolic information to the brain. The review suggests that identifying specific DRG neurons and understanding their molecular mechanisms are crucial steps toward developing targeted therapies for metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

Usage: The publication references that CCK-SAP (IT-31) injected into the nodose ganglia of mice and rats selectively ablates vagal afferent neurons expressing CCKA receptors.

Related Products: CCK-SAP (Cat. #IT-31)

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Submaximal loss of KNDy neurons accelerates and amplifies pulsatile LH secretion in female rats

Campideli-Santana AC, da Costa Silva KS, Araújo-Lopes R, Antunes LM, Szawka RE (2023) Submaximal loss of KNDy neurons accelerates and amplifies pulsatile LH secretion in female rats. J Endocrine Society 7(S1):bvad114.1214. doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvad114.1214

Objective: To investigate the impact of the submaximal loss of KNDy neurons on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in female rats.

Summary: The study found that a partial loss of these neurons led to irregular estrous cycles and increased frequency and amplitude of LH pulses. This suggests a new role for KNDy neurons in moderating LH pulse frequency and amplitude in ovary-intact animals, with implications for early antral follicle recruitment.

Usage: Adult female rats underwent a neurochemical ablation of KNDy neurons via intra-ARC stereotaxic injections of NKB-SAP (IT-63), while control animals received Blank-SAP (IT-21).

Related Products: NKB-SAP (Cat. #IT-63), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

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