References

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2890 entries

Gastric vagal afferent signaling to the basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behaviors in experimental colitis mice

Chen CH, Tsai TC, Wu YJ, Hsu KS (2023) Gastric vagal afferent signaling to the basolateral amygdala mediates anxiety-like behaviors in experimental colitis mice. JCI Insight e161874. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.161874 PMID: 37200091

Objective: This study aimed to characterize gut-to-brain signaling and brain circuitry responsible for anxiety-like behaviors in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease.

Summary: The researchers found that mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium administration displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors, which were prevented by cutting the vagus nerve connecting the gut to the brain. Further experiments showed that silencing brain cells in the locus coeruleus that project to the basolateral amygdala reduced anxiety behaviors in the colitis mice.

Usage: CCK-SAP (250 ng/µl) or Blank-SAP (250 ng/µl) were unilaterally or bilaterally injected to rostral (0.5 µl) and caudal (0.5 µl) parts of the nodose ganglia using a beveled injection pipette controlled by a microprocessor-controlled injector at the speed of 50 nl/sec.

Related Products: CCK-SAP (Cat. #IT-31), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

The effects of loss of orexin neurons on attention

Sainz AE (2023) The effects of loss of orexin neurons on attention. William & Mary Thesis.

Objective: This paper examines the effects of loss of orexin neurons on attention in mice.

Summary: This undergraduate honors thesis from William & Mary tested attention in mice after selective loss of orexin neurons, which are important for arousal. The researchers found impairments in sustained attention and cognitive flexibility in the mice missing orexin neurons.

Usage: 0.5 µl of Orexin-B-SAP (0.4 µg/µl) or saline was administered to both sides of the lateral hypothalamus for 30 seconds using a 1 µl syringe.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

The VLM a1/c1 ca/npy neuronal projections to the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus and its functional role in glucoprivic feeding

Choi P (2023) The VLM a1/c1 ca/npy neuronal projections to the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus and its functional role in glucoprivic feeding. Washington State Univ Thesis.

Objective: This dissertation aimed to determine the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor signaling from the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) catecholamine (CA) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) for glucoprivic feeding.

Summary: The results showed that NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the perifornical area of the LHA are required for glucoprivic feeding evoked by 2-deoxyglucose. Furthermore, antagonism of NPY Y1 or Y2 receptors in the LHA attenuated feeding evoked by chemogenetic activation of VLM CA neurons, indicating NPY release from VLM neurons activates LHA NPY receptors to elicit glucoprivic feeding.

Usage: NPY-SAP (50 ng per 100 nL/site) or control Blank-SAP (50 ng per 100 nL/site) dissolved in 0.01 M phosphate buffer was infused slowly over a 5 minute period directly into the perifornical lateral hypothalamic (stereotaxic coordinate: 2.8 mm caudal from bregma, +/- 1.2 mm lateral to the midline, and -7.4 mm from the dura mater) through a pulled glass capillary pipette (30 µm tip diameter) connected to a Picospritzer. The rats were allowed at least 7 days for a full recovery from surgery and NPY-SAP-induced neuronal ablation.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Neuraxial drug delivery in pain management: An overview of past, present, and future

Yaksh TL, dos Santo G, Lemes J, Malange K (2023) Neuraxial drug delivery in pain management: An overview of past, present, and future. Anaesthesiology doi: 10.1016/j.bpa.2023.04.003

Objective: Activation of neuraxial nociceptive linkages leads to a high level of encoding of the message that is transmitted to the brain and that can initiate a pain state with its attendant emotive covariates. The authors review the encoding of this message and describe the how it is subject to regulation by pharmacological targeting of dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn systems.

Summary: Authors provide an overview of the past, present and future directions of the biology, pharmacology and technology relevant to the use of the neuraxial route. SP-SAP was used as a neuraxial toxin to eliminate NK1R expressing cells, which characteristic of neurons known to be the second order neurons responding to C fiber input. Delivery of SP-SAP results in long-lasting loss of NK1 bearing dorsal horn neurons and analgesia.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

Targeting a vulnerable septum-hippocampus cholinergic circuit in a critical time window ameliorates tau-impaired memory consolidation

Wu D, Yu N, Gao Y, Xiong R, Liu L, Lei H, Jin S, Liu J, Liu Y, Xie J, Liu E, Zhou Q, Liu Y, Li S, Wei L, Lv J, Yu H, Zeng W, Zhou Q, Xu F, Luo MH, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Wang JZ (2023) Targeting a vulnerable septum-hippocampus cholinergic circuit in a critical time window ameliorates tau-impaired memory consolidation. Mol Neurodegener 18(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13024-023-00614-7 PMID: 37060096

Objective: There is an urgent need to study the targeting strategy for the MS-hippocampus cholinergic pathway to rescue tau-impaired memory.

Summary: Abnormal tau accumulation and cholinergic degeneration are hallmark pathologies in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the sensitivity of cholinergic neurons to AD-like tau accumulation and strategies to ameliorate tau-disrupted spatial memory in terms of neural circuits still remain elusive. The authors found that cholinergic neurons with an asymmetric discharge characteristic in the MS-hippocampal CA1 pathway are vulnerable to tau accumulation. Photoactivating MS-CA1 cholinergic inputs within a critical 3 h time window during memory consolidation efficiently improved tau-induced spatial memory deficits in a theta rhythm dependent manner. 192-IgG-Saporin was used to create an Alzheimer’s Disease animal model.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

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Non-image-forming functional roles of OPN3, OPN4 and OPN5 photopigments

Karthikeyan R, Davies WIL, Gunhaga L (2023) Non-image-forming functional roles of OPN3, OPN4 and OPN5 photopigments. J Photochem Photobiol 15:100177. doi: 10.1016/j.jpap.2023.100177

Objective: To review recent studies that focus on the non-image-forming functional roles of the OPN3, OPN4, and OPN5 photopigments.

Summary: This publication explores the non-image-forming functions of OPN3, OPN4, and OPN5 photopigments, highlighting their roles in various physiological processes such as regulation of circadian rhythms, pupillary light responses, modulation of sleep, mood, and hormone secretion, providing insights into the diverse functions of these photopigments beyond vision.

Related Products: Melanopsin-SAP (Cat. #IT-44)

KNDy neurons as the GnRH pulse generator: Recent studies in ruminants

Nestor CC, Merkley CM, Lehman MN, Hileman SM, Goodman RL (2023) KNDy neurons as the GnRH pulse generator: Recent studies in ruminants. Peptides 164:171005. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2023.171005 PMID: 36990389

Objective: This publication aims to summarize and provide an overview of recent studies investigating the role of KNDy neurons as the pulse generator for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in ruminants.

Summary: Recent studies in ruminants, specifically sheep and cows, have investigated the role of KNDy neurons in driving the pulsatile release of GnRH. These studies have demonstrated the rhythmic electrical activity of KNDy neurons, coinciding with the pulsatile secretion of GnRH in ewes, suggesting their central role as the pulse generator. Additionally, the expression patterns of genes related to KNDy neurons and GnRH pulsatility have been examined in cows, revealing variations throughout the estrous cycle and indicating a potential involvement of KNDy neurons in regulating GnRH release in this species. These findings contribute to our understanding of reproductive physiology in ruminants and have implications for both animal and human reproductive health.

Related Products: NKB-SAP (Cat. #IT-63)

Temporal multimodal single-cell profiling of native hematopoiesis illuminates altered differentiation trajectories with age

Konturek-Ciesla A, Dhapola P, Zhang Q, Säwén P, Wan H, Karlsson G, Bryder D (2023) Temporal multimodal single-cell profiling of native hematopoiesis illuminates altered differentiation trajectories with age. Cell Rep 42(4):112304. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112304 PMID: 36961818

Objective: Using single-cell transcriptome and epitope profiling to study hematopoiesis and the effects from aging.

Summary: The contribution from Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to mature blood cells decline with age. The authors used transcriptome and epitope profiling to reconstruct early hematopoiesis and assessed HSC-specific lineage tracing. Their analysis identified previously uncharacterized cell populations which included multipotent progenitor cells (MPP) Ly-1 and Ly-II. Flt3 is a marker indicative of early differentiation found on MPP cells and was targeted for elimination via an antibody to Flt3 combined with Streptavidin-ZAP. This cell depletion provided evidence for the lack of self-renewal of Ly-1 and Ly-II cells in a transplantation setting and suggests that they need to be continuously replenished by upstream HSPCs.

Usage: Biotinylated anti-CD135 (clone A2F10) was combined with Streptavidin-ZAP at a 1:1 molar ratio, diluted in PBS to 0.2 mg/ml and injected into mice at 3 mg/kg.

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27)

Locus coeruleus-noradrenergic modulation of trigeminal pain: Implications for trigeminal neuralgia and psychiatric comorbidities

Donertas-Ayaz B, Caudle RM (2023) Locus coeruleus-noradrenergic modulation of trigeminal pain: Implications for trigeminal neuralgia and psychiatric comorbidities. Neurobiol Pain 13:100124. doi: 10.1016/j.ynpai.2023.100124 PMID: 36974102

Objective: To summarize the knowledge about the involvement of noradrenaline in acute and chronic trigeminal pain conditions and how the activity of the locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons changes in response to acute and chronic pain conditions and how these changes might be involved in pain-related comorbidities including anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance.

Summary: LC inhibition of nociceptive transmission in acute pain and in longterm neuropathic pain increases the tonic activity of LC-NA neurons. These changes may contribute to impaired descending pain modulation and pain-related comorbidities such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.

Usage: Elimination of NA neurons via injection of anti-dopamine β-hydroxylase-saporin (Anti-DBH-SAP) into the lateral ventricle and trigeminal brainstem nuclei three weeks after infraorbital nerve injury attenuated mechanical allodynia

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Acute and chronic lipopolysaccharide-induced stress changes expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the rat brain region-specifically and affects learning and memory.

Zaichenko MI, Philenko P, Sidorina V, Grigoryan GA (2023) Acute and chronic lipopolysaccharide-induced stress changes expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes in the rat brain region-specifically and affects learning and memory. Biochemistry Moscow 88:526-538. doi: 10.1134/S0006297923040089

Objective: Goal of the work was to conduct comparative analysis of the effects of acute and chronic lipopolysaccharide- induced stress on the behavior of rats in the Morris water maze test and on expression of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines and BDNF in different brain structures.

Summary: Chronic stress, depression, and other neuropsychiatric disorders have been often associated with inflammation processes and activity of the brain immune system. In order to investigate association of neuroinflammation with such disorders the model of proinflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide intoxication was used. In the experiments with rats, acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress improved learning in the Morris water maze and caused substantial increase of the TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA concentrations in the hippocampus and amygdala, but not in the frontal lobe in comparison with the control animals. Hprt and Ywhaz genes were selected for use as molecular biology reference genes based on the analysis of the rat hippocampus transcriptome from the work done by Dobryakova, Y.V. et. al (2018) Intracerebroventricular administration of 192IgG-saporin alters expression of microglia-associated genes in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

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Targeting nociceptive and cholinergic nerves in irradiated oropharyngeal cancer model reveals novel mechanism for dysphagia

Myers B, Islam S, Gleber Netto FO, Debnath KC, Srivastava S, Xie T, Akhter S, Adebayo AA, Miller J, Lothumalia S, Sathiskumar HN, Amit M (2024) Targeting nociceptive and cholinergic nerves in irradiated oropharyngeal cancer model reveals novel mechanism for dysphagia. Cancer Neuroscience Symposium

Objective: Explore the hypothesis that modulation of cholinergic (CHAT+) and nociceptive (CGRP+) neurons correlate with improved dysphagia.

Summary: Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common types of head and neck cancer. Treatment for OPSCC includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of therapies. Despite advances in treatment, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) is still a major burden for patients with OPSCC. The study established a novel murine OPSCC model to explore the role of nerves in dysphagia with cholinergic (CHAT) and nociceptive (CGRP) neurons playing an important role in swallowing outcomes. Targeting CHAT and CGRP could be a novel strategy for OPSCC patients with dysphagia.

Usage: 500 ng of Anti-ChAT-SAP was injected into the trigeminal ganglion in mice.

Related Products: Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42)

Streptavidin-saporin: Converting biotinylated materials into targeted toxins

Ancheta LR, Shramm PA, Bouajram R, Higgins D, Lappi DA (2023) Streptavidin-saporin: Converting biotinylated materials into targeted toxins. Toxins 15(3):181. doi: 10.3390/toxins15030181

Summary: This manuscript describes the myriad of ways Streptavidin-ZAP is used and how this technology supports the scientific process of ‘Molecular Surgery’ and progress in research and drug development. Insights from publications and research performed using Streptavidin-ZAP and its impact on academia and industry for research and drug development are presented.

Read the full article.

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27)

Adrenergic signalling to astrocytes in anterior cingulate cortex contributes to pain-related aversive memory in rats

Iqbal Z, Lei Z, Ramkrishnan AS, Liu S, Hasan M, Akter M, Lam YY, Li Y (2023) Adrenergic signalling to astrocytes in anterior cingulate cortex contributes to pain-related aversive memory in rats. Commun Biol 6:10. doi: 10.1038/s42003-022-04405-6 PMID: 36604595

Objective: To identify the role of norepinephrine in colorectal distention (sub-threshold for acute pain) induced conditioned place avoidance and plasticity gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

Summary: The findings suggest that projection-specific adrenergic astrocytic signaling in ACC is integral to system-wide neuromodulation in response to visceral stimuli and plays a key role in mediating pain-related aversion consolidation and memory formation.

Usage: 0.25 ug of Anti-DBH-SAP (1 μg/μl) was injected into each hemisphere of locus coeruleus (LC).

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Towards astroglia-based noradrenergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease

Leanza G, Zorec R (2023) Towards astroglia-based noradrenergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Function (Oxf) 4(1):zqac060., IT. doi: 10.1093/function/zqac060 PMID: 36590326

Summary: These results indicate a prominent role of NA-neurons vs. ACh neurons in impairments of working memory, relevant for AD, and are consistent with an astrocyte-specific metabolic impairment in a mouse model of intellectual disability.

Usage: Bilateral icv injection of 192-IgG-SAP and/or Anti-DBH-SAP

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

The impact of advanced age on morphine anti-hyperalgesia and the role of mu opioid receptor signaling in the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats

Fullerton E (2022) The impact of advanced age on morphine anti-hyperalgesia and the role of mu opioid receptor signaling in the periaqueductal gray of male and female rats. Georgia State University doi: 10.57709/30509896

Objective: To investigate the impact of advanced age on the antihyperalgesic effect of morphine, as well as its association with changes in μ-opioid receptor expression and binding in the rat midbrain Periaqueductal Gray (PAG) in both male and female rats.

Summary: This study examined the effects of advanced age on the antihyperalgesic properties of morphine and its relationship with mu-opioid receptor expression and binding in the rat midbrain Periaqueductal Gray (PAG). The findings revealed that advanced age attenuated the antihyperalgesic effect of morphine, accompanied by a decrease in mu-opioid receptor expression and binding in the PAG of both male and female rats, suggesting age-related alterations in opioid signaling that may contribute to reduced analgesic efficacy in older individuals.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Pituitary adenylate cylase-activating polypeptide receptor: Multiple signaling pathways involved in energy homeostasis

Maunze B (2022) Pituitary adenylate cylase-activating polypeptide receptor: Multiple signaling pathways involved in energy homeostasis. Marquette University Dissertations 1212. Thesis.

Objective: To determine the endogenous role of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in affecting the ventromedial nuclei (VMN) of the hypothalamus and its control of feeding and energy expenditure through the Type I PAC1 receptor (PAC1R).

Summary: VMN cells expressing PAC1 receptors in Male Sprague Dawley rats were knocked down via injection of Saporin or PACAP-SAP and trafficking also pharmacologically inhibited. This increased meal sizes, reduced total number of meals, and induced body weight gain. PACAP signaling replicates the effects of leptin administration in the VMN and appears to enable leptin regulation of energy homeostasis. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to show that VMN PAC1 and leptin receptors are found in the same cell, and they form an immunocomplex. Inhibiting downstream effectors of PACAP signaling, such as PKA and PKC, enhanced or prevented leptin signaling respectively. The current findings revealed that endogenous PACAP signaling in the VMN has a potent regulatory influence over both energy intake in the form of feeding, and energy output via thermogenesis and locomotor activity. Moreover, PACAP actions in the VMN share nearly identical secondary effects as with leptin administration in the same brain region suggesting that these two neuropeptides could functionally intersect.

Related Products: PACAP-SAP (Cat. #IT-84)

CD3e-immunotoxin spares CD62Llo Tregs and reshapes organ-specific T-cell composition by preferentially depleting CD3ehi T cells

Kim S, Shukla RK, Yu H, Baek A, Cressman SG, Golconda S, Lee GE, Choi H, Reneau JC, Wang Z, Huang CA, Liyanage NPM, Kim S (2022) CD3e-immunotoxin spares CD62Llo Tregs and reshapes organ-specific T-cell composition by preferentially depleting CD3ehi T cells. Front Immunol 13:1011190. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1011190

Objective: To use a new murine testing model to demonstrate a substantial enrichment of tissue-resident Foxp3+ Tregs following CD3e-IT treatment.

Summary: The multi-organ pharmacodynamics of CD3e-IT and potential treatment resistance mechanisms identified in this study may generate new opportunities to further improve this promising treatment.

Usage: Male C57BL/6J mice were injected into retro-orbital sinus with 15 μg S-CD3e-IT (Biotinylated Anti-CD3 mixed with Streptavidin-ZAP in sterile 200 μl PBS twice a day for four consecutive days.

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27)

A role for thalamic projection GABAergic neurons in circadian responses to light

Brock O, Gelegen CE, Sully P, Salgarella I, Jager P, Menage L, Mehta I, Jęczmień-Łazur J, Djama D, Strother L, Coculla A, Vernon A, Brickley S, Holland P, Cooke S, Delogu A (2022) A role for thalamic projection GABAergic neurons in circadian responses to light. J Neurosci doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0112-21.2022 PMID: 36280260

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

The role of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) in inflammatory disorders and cancer

Gudgeon J, Marin-Rubio JL, Trost M (2022) The role of macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) in inflammatory disorders and cancer. Front Immunol 13:1012002. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1012002

Objective: Review the role of Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) in health and disease, focusing on the molecular mechanisms influencing expression, its effect on disease process, macrophage function and signaling pathways, and the therapeutic potential of targeting MSR1.

Summary: MSR1 is primarily found on the surface of various types of macrophages and affects processes such as astherosclerosis, innate and adaptive immunity, lung and liver disease and cancer. Recently, MSR1 has been implicated to trigger inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways. MSR1 is most often correlated with the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Investigations into anti-inflammatory signalling downstream of MSR1 are vital to fully understand the influence of MSR1 expression in inflammatory disease. Manipulating M2 macrophages through MSR1 may represent a new targeted therapeutic approach for diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases.

Usage: In reviewing therapeutic strategies, an antibody-based method was developed using the 2F8 anti-SR-A monoclonal antibody. The antibody conjugated to RAT-ZAP and unconjugated saporin was delivered to mice via intraperitoneal injection to deplete vascular leukocytes (VLCs) from the peritoneum to reduce the tumor burden. 4.8 μg of Rat-ZAP in the absence or presence of 4 μg of clone 2F8 antibody was incubated on ice for 30 min.

Related Products: Rat-ZAP (Cat. #IT-26)

Aerobic exercise training reduces atherogenesis induced by low-sodium diet in LDL receptor knockout mice

Bochi APG, Ferreira GDS, Del Bianco V, Pinto PR, Rodrigues LG, Trevisani MDS, Furukawa LNS, Bispo KCS, da Silva AA, Velosa APP, Nakandakare ER, Machado UF, Teodoro WPR, Passarelli M, Catanozi S (2022) Aerobic exercise training reduces atherogenesis induced by low-sodium diet in LDL receptor knockout mice. Antioxidants (Basel) 11(10):2023. doi: 10.3390/antiox11102023 PMID: 36290746

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of aerobic exercise training (AET) in the prevention of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and atherogenesis induced by severe low-sodium (LS) diet.

Summary: AET counteracts the deleterious effects of chronic LS diet in atherogenesis by reducing peripheral insulin resistance, lipid infiltration, carboxymethyllysine, receptor for advanced glycation end products, 4-HNE, and AT1 receptor in the intima-media of the brachiocephalic trunk in LDL receptor knockout mice.

Usage: IF staining (1:50)

Related Products: Angiotensin II receptor (AT-1R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N27AP)

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