Exenatide is a synthetic version of exendin-4, a hormone found in the saliva of the Gila monster. It displays biological properties similar to human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a regulator of glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Exenatide is a 39-amino-acid peptide that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, slows gastric emptying, presents a subtle yet prolonged effect to reduce appetite and promote satiety via hypothalamic receptors, and reduces liver fat content. Exenatide demonstrates a 50% greater half-life than native GLP-1 in vivo and is DPP-4 resistant.
Ex4-SAP is a bonded conjugate of exendin-4 peptide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist and the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. It eliminates cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor.