Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN) November 12-16, 2011 • Washington, DC

36 entries found for : sfn2011

Leptin-receptor-expressing neurons in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus regulate white and brown adipose tissue

Kozicz T, Xu L, Geenen B, Gaszner B, Kovacs K, Roubos E (2011) Leptin-receptor-expressing neurons in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus regulate white and brown adipose tissue. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 822.19. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Leptin, produced by white adipose tissue (WAT), is a key factor that regulates food intake and energy expenditure in vertebrates. It conveys information about fat storage in the periphery to the brain. The leptin receptor long form (LepRb) can be found in the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) in the midbrain, which is the main site of urocortin 1 (Ucn1) production in the brain. In both mice and rats, intraperitoneal administration of leptin induces an increase in Ucn1 expression in the npEW whereas in mice that lack LepRb (db/db mice), the npEW contains considerably reduced amount of Ucn1. The npEW also responds to acute thermal exposure, indicating a role of this nucleus in thermoregulation. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is critical to maintain homoeothermia and is centrally controlled via sympathetic outputs. A recent study demonstrates a projection from EW to BAT by using retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV). In our study, using PRV injection into the WAT of rats, we identified PRV-labeled Ucn1 neurons in the npEW, indicating a connection from npEW to WAT. In order to analyze the involvement of the npEW in the regulation of sympathetic WAT and BAT outputs, we performed the experiment using the neurotoxin saporin. When conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP), Lep-SAP can selectively kill LepRb-expressing neurons. Wister rats were given injection of either Lep-SAP or a control blank saporin (B-SAP) into the left npEW Results showed that injection of Lep-SAP significantly blunted Ucn1 expression in the npEW. The weights of WAT and BAT were analyzed on both sides. The WAT and BAT weights were increased significantly on the contralateral side in Lep-SAP compared with B-SAP injected rats, however not different on the ipsilateral side. Interestingly, we observed that both WAT and BAT weighed more on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side only in the B-SAP animals. We will further test the effect of lesioning npEW neurons on the function of WAT and BAT by assessing specific WAT and BAT markers by RT-PCR and histology. Taken these data together, we provide evidence that LepRb-expressing neurons in the npEW regulate BAT and WAT most probably via sympathetic circuits.

Related Products: Leptin-SAP (Cat. #IT-47), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Decrease of GABAergic markers and Arc protein expression in the frontal cortex by injection of intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin

Jeong D, Chang W, Lee D, Chang J (2011) Decrease of GABAergic markers and Arc protein expression in the frontal cortex by injection of intraventricular 192 IgG-saporin. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 878.08. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Previous studies used 192 IgG-saporin to study cholinergic function because of its facility for selective lesioning; however, results varied due to differences in the methods of administration and behavioral tests used. We investigated whether intraventricular injections of 192 IgG-saporin were suitable to make a dementia animal model for the evaluation of therapeutic drugs or electrical stimulation techniques. We examined the effects of 192 IgG-saporin using the Morris water maze, immunochemistry, and western blotting. Animals were examined 2 weeks after intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin (0.63 µg/µl, 6 µl, 8 µl, and 10 µl) or phosphate buffered saline (8 µl). In the acquisition phase of the Morris water maze, the latencies of the injection groups were significantly delayed, but recovered within 1 week. In the probe test, two of four indices (time in the platform zone and the number of crossings) were significantly different between the control group and the group injected with 8 µl of 192 IgG-saporin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the extent of cholinergic destruction that was apparent in the basal forebrain of all 192 IgG-saporin injected rats. We found significantly decreased activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) expression in the frontal cortex (8 µl and 10 µl groups), but not in the hippocampus, using western blotting. Further, spatial memory impairment was associated with cholinergic basal forebrain injury as well as fronto-cortical GABAergic hypofunction and synaptic plasticity deceleration. We conclude that intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin is a suitable method for making a rat model of dementia.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

The effects of basal forebrain cholinergic neuron on novel object recognition

Lee J, Jeong D, Chang J (2011) The effects of basal forebrain cholinergic neuron on novel object recognition. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 878.10. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Medial septum and basal nucleus areas of the basal forebrain project cholinergic neurons to the frontal cortex and the Hippocampus.And degeneration of the cholinergic basal forebrain neurons is a common feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been correlated with cognitive decline. This research was studied to verify the effects of cholinergic neuron in basal forebrain to the role of the hippocampus and the frontal cortex on recognition through recognition test and immunohistochemistry after damaging cholinergic neuron of the basal forebrain by intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin. 192 IgG-saporin of 8ul (0.63ug/ul) was injected to the bilateral lateral ventricle of rats. After 2 weeks, novel object recognition (NOR) test was conducted to elucidate damage of cholinergic neuron. In the NOR test, rats are exposed to two identical objects for 15 minutes in empty plastic box (60cmx60cmx30cm). After 3 hours, they are reintroduced to the same object and a new novel object for 10 minutes. This procedure was repeated for 4 days After completing the behavioral experiment, the ChAT of cholinergic neuron in the basal forebrain was ascertained to confirm with immunohistochemistry if cholinergic neuron was damaged. In NOR test, the lesion group with 192 IgG-saporin showed 10% lower novel object preference than normal group. However, this rate is not that significant value enough to elucidate behavioral difference between normal group and lesion group. In immunohistochemistry, the number of cholinergic neuron was remarkably decreased in basal forebrain. According to both of the NOR test and Immunohistochemistry in the condition under lesion, Cholingergic input to hippocampus and frontal cortex from basal forebrain affects recognition somewhat, however the effect is not so essential.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Norepinephrine denervation by dopamine beta-hydroxylase saporin impacts L-DOPA efficacy and side effects in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model

Bhide NS, Dickinson S, Feinberg E, Mohamed M, Dupre K, Eskow-Jaunarajs K, Lindenbach D, Ostock C, Bishop C (2011) Norepinephrine denervation by dopamine beta-hydroxylase saporin impacts L-DOPA efficacy and side effects in a hemi-parkinsonian rat model. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 883.20. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is accompanied by concomitant loss in the norepinephrine (NE) system. The exact contribution of NE denervation in the development of PD remains elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that NE neurons may contribute to the efficacy and side effects of L-DOPA, however, to better mimic NE loss observed in PD we employed the selective NE neurotoxin dopamine beta hydroxylase saporin (DHB saporin) and evaluated its effects on the anti-parkinsonian efficacy of L-DOPA and the development & expression of L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). To do so, hemiparkinsonian adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intraventricular injections of either vehicle or DHB saporin. Three weeks later, animals were primed with L-DOPA (4mg/kg) for days 1-7 and L-DOPA (12 mg/kg) for days 9-15. During this period animals were monitored for motor-performance, a marker for L-DOPA’s anti-parkinsonian efficacy, and dyskinesia measured using Abnormal Involuntary Movements (AIMs) scale. Further, sensitivity of primed animals to different doses of L-DOPA (ranging from 2 to 12 mg/kg) was assessed. Results indicate that NE denervation resulted in reduced anti-parkinsonian efficacy of L-DOPA, but not the development of dyskinesia. In fully primed rats, NE denervation attenuated dyskinetic responses to L-DOPA when compared to animals with an intact NE innervation. These findings suggest that the NE system significantly modulates the anti-parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA and the expression of LID and indicate the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which NE modifies basal ganglia function in PD.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

The nucleus incertus contributes to the anxiety-like behaviour in rats

Lee C, Rajkumar R, Suri S, Chin WM, Dawe GS (2011) The nucleus incertus contributes to the anxiety-like behaviour in rats. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 901.09. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The nucleus incertus (NI), the principal source of relaxin-3 (Rln3) in the brain, is found in the periventricular gray, ventral and medial to the posterodorsal tegmental nucleus (PDTg). Several neuroanatomical studies have indicated that the NI projects to putative correlates of anxiety, especially the amygdala. Relaxin family peptide receptor type-3 (Rxfp3), the native receptor for Rln3, is expressed in the amygdala. These studies have hence predicted that the NI is strategically located to control neural circuits that underlie anxiety-like behaviour in rodents. Presence of Rln3-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the amygdala suggested the involvement of the Rln3/Rxfp3 system. Corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors type-1 (Crfr-1), one of the important anxiolytic drug targets, are prominently expressed in the NI neurons. Based on the aforesaid anatomical and receptor distribution reports, the present investigation was designed to clarify the function of the NI in anxiety-like behaviour of rats. We hypothesized that lesioning of the NI and the resulting decrease in Rln3 would affect the regulation of stress and anxiety response in rats. Firstly, the effect of NI neuron ablation, by CRF-Saporin toxin, on fear conditioning and elevated plus maze (EPM) exploration paradigms was evaluated. Secondly, the firing rates of NI neurons as the rat explored the EPM were assessed. Lastly, the effects of high frequency simulation of the NI on the expression of immediate early genes (IEG) in the amygdala were studied. The results revealed that, in a cued fear conditioning paradigm, NI-lesioned rats exhibited greater fear, indicated by longer freezing periods in the test phase, than sham-lesioned rats. Likewise, in the EPM, NI-lesioned rats made fewer entries into and spent less time in the open arms demonstrating an anxious phenotype. In addition, the NI also showed distinct firing patterns in the open and closed arms of the EPM. Stimulation of the NI activated the medial amygdaloid (MeA) nucleus as indicated by the increased expression of markers of neuronal activation. To sum up, the present study shows a significant contribution of the NI and NI-MeA pathway in the anxiety-like behaviour of rats. It also suggests that the NI and/or Rln3 have a role in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviour, implicating them as targets for anxiety-related disorders.

Related Products: CRF-SAP (Cat. #IT-13)

Alterations in gene expression following cortical cholinergic denervation in rats

Savage ST, Olson L, Mattsson A (2011) Alterations in gene expression following cortical cholinergic denervation in rats. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 790.01. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Alterations in cholinergic signaling in the brain have been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Altered function and expression of both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been reported in cortical and subcortical regions in post-mortem schizophrenic brains. Pharmacologically, dopamine-releasing compounds, such as amphetamine, can induce the psychotic symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbate the symptoms in schizophrenics. Furthermore, the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) induces both negative symptoms (such as social withdrawal) and cognitive deficits similar to those exhibited in schizophrenics. We have previously shown that cholinergic denervation of cortex cerebri by stereotaxic infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm) in adult rats leads to an enhanced sensitivity to both amphetamine and PCP. The enhanced sensitivity to amphetamine, shown by a potentiated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens, along with a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to both amphetamine and PCP, suggested that the disruption of cortical cholinergic activity can lead to disturbances of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. Furthermore, bilateral lesioning of nbm led to a decrease in active social interaction, as well as, impairment after an acute PCP challenge in a cognitive task (novel object recognition). To further evaluate the consequences of cortical cholinergic denervation, we are analyzing the possible changes in mRNA expression levels of selected genes in rats with unilateral removal of the cortical cholinergic innervation by 192 IgG-saporin injections into nbm following acute PCP administration. Our data indicate that the induction of c-fos mRNA expression in cortex in response to PCP administration is markedly reduced in cholinergically denervated animals as compared to controls. Other genes are under investigation to elucidate the interplay between the cholinergic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic systems.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Selective activation of dorsal horn inhibitory interneurons produces anti-nociception

Wiley RG, Lappi DA (2011) Selective activation of dorsal horn inhibitory interneurons produces anti-nociception. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 804.14. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Intrathecal injections of the excitatory neuropeptide neurotensin are antinociceptive in rats. Lumbar intrathecal injections of the cytotoxic conjugate, neurotensin-saporin (NTS-sap), cause rats to engage in intense scratching, licking and biting of their hindquarters. This observation was interpreted as indicating the rats were experiencing discomfort presumably because NTS-sap selectively destroys nociceptive inhibitory interneurons expressing neurotensin receptors in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord resulting in decreased inhibitory input to nociceptive projection neurons. Based on this finding, we made the excitatory conjugate, neurotensin-cholera toxin A subunit (NTS-CTA) which we hypothesized would tonically activate the same nociceptive inhibitory interneurons and produce anti-nociception/analgesia. Two separate groups of Long Evans hooded female rats were injected, under general anesthesia, with 500 ng of NTS-CTA, produced by Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA using temporarily positioned subarachnoid catheters which were removed after 15 mins. For the next 72-96 hours, rats showed: 1 - normal spontaneous behavior including grooming, ambulation, defecation and urination; 2 - decreased nocifensive responses on the hotplate at 44C - 47C; 3 - increased hindpaw mechanical withdrawal thresholds; and, 4 - prolonged tail flick response latencies. Systemic naloxone (0.8-2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) did not reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NT-CTA. Hotplate responses completely returned to baseline within 7 days. These data are interpreted as showing that intrathecal NTS-CTA is reversibly anti-nociceptive by a naloxone-insensitive (non-opioid) mechanism. The likely mechanism of NTS-CTA action is hypothesized to involve tonic activation of NTS receptor-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord that increases inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons. This strategy may prove useful in treating intractable pain and may be generally useful in the study and manipulation of other populations of inhibitory (or excitatory) interneurons using various neuropeptide-CTA conjugates in such fields as epilepsy, learning and memory, etc. Ongoing work is aimed at identifying the neurons activated by NTS-CTA, testing NTS-CTA in operant pain tests, testing nociceptive effects of other neuropeptide-CTA conjugates and evaluating ways to produce more prolonged activation of the target neurons.

Related Products: Neurotensin-SAP (Cat. #IT-56), Neurotensin-CTA (Cat. #IT-60)

Consequences of the ablation of non-peptidergic nociceptive fibers on neurokinin-1 receptor expression by spinal lamina I neurons

Saeed AW, Ribeiro-Da-Silva A (2011) Consequences of the ablation of non-peptidergic nociceptive fibers on neurokinin-1 receptor expression by spinal lamina I neurons. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 804.21. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Spinal dorsal horn lamina I projection neurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) are important in relaying pain-related information from the periphery to the brain. These lamina I neurons have been classified, based on their morphological and physiological properties, into three types: fusiform, multipolar and pyramidal. Of these cell types, pyramidal neurons seldom express the NK-1r and are non-nociceptive. Previously, our laboratory has demonstrated in a cuff model of chronic constriction injury a de novo expression of NK-1r by pyramidal neurons, starting at the same time as the mechanical allodynia. We have also observed a similar de novo expression of NK-1r by pyramidal neurons in an animal model of arthritis. In the current study, we investigated whether the cytotoxic ablation of the non-peptidergic, isolectin B4 (IB4)-binding subpopulation of nociceptive primary afferents led to changes in NK-1r expression by the different lamina I cell types. We injected IB4 conjugated to saporin (SAP) into the left sciatic nerve of anesthetized male Sprague Dawley rats to specifically lesion IB4-positive non-peptidergic nociceptive C-fibers. Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was injected into the parabrachial nucleus to label lamina I projection neurons. Animals were tested for thermal and mechanical sensitivity and sacrificed from 2 weeks to 2 months post-lesion. We cut horizontal sections of spinal segments L4 and L5 and processed the tissue for IB4 binding and NK-1r and CTB immunoreactivities using immunofluorescence. IB4-SAP treated animals showed no behavioral changes compared to sham animals when tested for thermal (Hargreaves test), mechanical allodynia (von Frey test) or mechanical hyperalgesia (pin prick test) at any of the time points studied. Compared to the contralateral side and the sham group, lamina I projection neurons in the IB4-SAP treated group revealed an ipsilateral increase in the expression of NK-1r by the fusiform and multipolar neuronal populations. Nonetheless, there was no significant change in the percentage of pyramidal neurons which expressed NK-1r, which remained very low on the ipsilateral side of the IB4-SAP treated group. From these results, we infer that a loss of non-peptidergic afferents does not induce a phenotypic switch in the pyramidal neurons. However, the increase in NK-1r immunoreactivity in lamina I fusiform and multipolar neurons suggests that these cell populations may be important in maintaining the nociceptive responses in the absence of the IB4-positive non-peptidergic afferents. Finally, we suggest that a chronic pain state may be required for the de novo expression of NK-1r by pyramidal neurons.

Related Products: IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10)

Fourth ventricular glucosamine-induced feeding is catecholamine-dependent

Li AJ, Wang Q, Ritter S (2011) Fourth ventricular glucosamine-induced feeding is catecholamine-dependent. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 600.17. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Glucokinase has been identified as a glucose-sensor for detecting glucose changes both in the brain and periphery. Previous reports have shown that lateral ventricular injection of a glucokinase inhibitor, glucosamine, stimulates glucoprivic feeding in rats. Other work has demonstrated involvement of hindbrain glucokinase in glucoregulation. Here we compared the effects of lateral (LV) and fourth ventricular (4V) injections of glucosamine on food intake in rats. We found that glucosamine injected into 4V (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 mg/rat) enhanced food intake in a dose-dependent manner and that LV and 4V injections were of similar potency. Glucosamine did not elevate blood glucose under the conditions of our test. We also found that enhancement of feeding by 4V glucosamine was abolished by medial hypothalamic injections of anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase saporin, a retrogradely transported catecholamine immunotoxin that selectively lesions norepinephrine and epinephrine neurons that innervate the injection site. Furthermore, 4V injection of glucosamine increased Fos expression in catecholamine populations responsible for key glucoregulatory responses. These results demonstrate that glucokinase in hindbrain catecholamine neurons is a mediator of food intake and possibly a transduction mechanism for stimulation of glucoregulatory feeding by these neurons.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Cholinergic reinforcement and temporal learning in rodent visual cortex

Roach EB, Hussain Shuler MG (2011) Cholinergic reinforcement and temporal learning in rodent visual cortex. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 608.16. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The idea that neuromodulators act as reinforcement signals has an intricate scientific history, including the well-characterized analogue of prediction error relayed by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuromodulators released from discrete nuclei are poised to broadcast to many brain regions at once, and so it is an appealing concept to investigate other neuromodulatory systems within a reinforcement learning framework. Reward timing activity, a neural reflection of operantly learned stimulus-reward intervals in the primary visual cortex (V1), offers a tractable in vivo model to examine the role of candidate neuromodulators in temporal reward learning. Reward timing was first characterized in rats trained to lick a delivery tube to receive water rewards, where stimulation to one eye indicated reward availability after x licks, while stimulation to the other eye required y licks. Simultaneously recorded activity in V1 indicated that single unit responses evolve from reporting only visual characteristics to showing persistent increased/decreased firing or peak activity corresponding to the time of anticipated reward. Individual neurons report one interval or the other, even those with binocular peri-stimulus responses, arguing that reward timing is learned locally within V1. Theoretical work suggests that the local expression of reward associated intervals requires an interaction between the visually-evoked network response and a reinforcement signal conveying the time of reward. Based on anatomical and neurophysiological evidence, we hypothesized that cholinergic input from the basal forebrain (BF) could provide such a reward signal to V1. To test its necessity, BF cholinergic innervation in V1 was lesioned -- using the selective neurotoxin 192 IgG-saporin -- prior to changing the experimental policy between cues and associated reward delays. This allowed an examination of two potential roles for BF cholinergic input: in expressing previously learned intervals and in acquiring information about new intervals. We found that neurons from saline-infused controls, but not lesioned animals, shifted as a population to report the new, behaviorally relevant intervals (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, p < 0.05). Importantly, neurons from lesioned animals continued to report the previously learned intervals, suggesting that BF cholinergic input is required to learn, but not express, reward timing. These results support the notion that acetylcholine released from BF afferents acts as a reinforcement signal that guides cortical network plasticity.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Cognitive performance-associated increases in cholinergic neurotransmission also serve as a circadian signal to sustain performance-induced diurnal activity patterns.

Paolone G, Lamy D, Sarter M, Lee T (2011) Cognitive performance-associated increases in cholinergic neurotransmission also serve as a circadian signal to sustain performance-induced diurnal activity patterns. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 610.12. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) during the light phase of the light/dark cycle causes a stable, entrained, diurnal behavioral activity pattern (Gritton et al. 2009). As SAT performance is mediated by increases in cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, this experiment assessed levels of acetylcholine (ACh) release across the light and dark cycle of animals that previously performed the SAT at a fixed time. Circadian behavioral activity was recorded, and prefrontal ACh release was measured, using microdialysis, beginning on the third day following the last SAT session. SAT practice took place in either the light phase [ZT4], the dark phase [ZT16], or in a constant light condition [LL]. A control group practiced a daily fixed interval [FI-9] schedule of reinforcement at ZT4. A second control group was handled at randomly selected times but was neither water-deprived nor performed a task [NP]. Dialysates were collected, in a new environment, for 180 min total, beginning 90 min before the onset of prior task practice and again during the equivalent time period twelve hours later. For all animals, ACh release levels were higher during the dark phase. In SAT-performing animals, ACh levels increased for 45 min at ZT4 and ZT16. In addition, the ZT4 animals’ behavioral activity was robustly increased during this interval. Animals trained at ZT 4 reversed back to a nocturnal activity pattern 8-10 days after cessation of SAT practice, coinciding with the loss of the task time-synchronized cholinergic activity. In order to determine the necessity of these prior task period-synchronized release events for maintaining diurnal activity patterns, basal forerbain cholinergic neruons were lesioned by intra-basalis infusion of 192 IgG-saporin. As was expected, this lesion impaired SAT performance. Furthermore, following cessation of daily SAT practice, prior performance-period synchronized cholinergic release events were abolished in lesioned animals. Moreover, the lesion triggered a rapid post-performance return to a nocturnal acitvity pattern. Collectively, these results indicate that SAT performance-associated increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity not only support SAT performance but also contribute to cognition-induced diurnality. Furthermore, circadian control of cholinergic activation optimizes task performance as well as the generation of a cholinergic zeitgeber signal. In conclusions, the brain’s clocks and increases in cortical cholinergic neurotransmission interact bidirectionally to sustain cognitive performance and performance-evoked diurnal activity patterns.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Cardiovascular dysfunction and cardiac injury result from selective glial damage in the nucleus tractus solitarii

Talman WT, Nitschke Dragon D, Jones S, Moore SA, Lin L-H (2011) Cardiovascular dysfunction and cardiac injury result from selective glial damage in the nucleus tractus solitarii. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 664.14. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: In man, extensive CNS dysfunction as may occur after subarachnoid hemorrhage may lead to cardiac damage and cardiac arrhythmias. We have shown that highly selective and restricted lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) may lead to similar cardiac and cardiovascular compromise. For example, using conjugates including the cytotoxin saporin (SAP) to selectively damage NTS neurons that express NK1 receptors or those that express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) leads to cardiac dysfunction and associated lability of arterial pressure. In continuing efforts to better characterize cellular changes produced by introducing into the NTS conjugates containing SAP, we have studied the effect of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (anti-DBH)-SAP, stabilized substance P (SSP)-SAP, SAP (unconjugated), blank-SAP (non-targeted peptide conjugate), IgG-SAP (non-targeted immunoglobulin conjugate), and 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a control without SAP injected into NTS. We assessed effects of the injected agents both on cellular markers [NMDAR1 (NMDA receptor subunit 1), GluR2 (AMPA receptor subunit 2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type a and b, neuronal nitirc oxide synthase (nNOS), TH, vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluTs), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), connexin 43 (Cx43), DBH and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5)] and on cardiovascular and cardiac function. We have found that each compound containing SAP (including blank-SAP, IgG-SAP, unconjugated SAP) led to loss of GFAP and Cx43 immunofluorescent labeling in the NTS as well as lability of arterial pressure, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac myocytolysis. Those outcomes occurred despite neuronal specificity for each of the SAP conjugates. For example, anti-DBH-SAP led to a decrease in TH and DBH staining as well as a profound loss in GFAP and Cx43. In contrast, SSP-SAP led to loss of NK1 as well as GFAP, Cx43, and glutamate receptor markers but did not lead to loss of DBH or GABA. SSP-SAP also caused a loss in PGP9.5 which was not observed in all other agents. SAP and blank-SAP, on the other hand, led to loss of GFAP and Cx43 while 6-OHDA led to loss of TH and DBH, increased GFAP and decreased Cx-43. We are still investigating the effects of 6-OHDA on lability of arterial pressure and cardiac events but preliminary data suggest that, in doses used, it led to loss of TH and DBH but did not lead to either lability or cardiac events that were seen with each of the conjugates containing an SAP moiety. This study suggests that glial dysfunction may alone interefere with cardiovascular control through the NTS and may lead to cardiac damage and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11), Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21), Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)

The role of descending facilitation in the initiation and maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity following inflammation

Carr F, Géranton SM, Hunt SP (2011) The role of descending facilitation in the initiation and maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity following inflammation. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 702.10. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Central sensitisation is the key mechanism involved in the generation of mechanical hypersensitivity associated with tissue injury. Dorsal horn excitability is subject to regulation by descending modulation via the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and enhanced descending facilitation under conditions of persistent nociceptive input contributes to the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. Depletion of mu-opioid receptor expressing (MOR+) cells of the RVM and depletion of spinal serotonin have been used previously to demonstrate the contribution of descending facilitation to the maintenance of neuropathic pain. Here we have used the same ablation techniques to investigate the contribution of descending pathways to the initiation and maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity associated with ankle joint inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (215-220g at the time of injection) received bilateral microinjections of the selective cytotoxin dermorphin-saporin (1.5pM each side). 28 days later the animals received either an injection of 10μl Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) to the left ankle joint or underwent a sham procedure. Mechanical hypersensitivity of the hindpaw plantar surface was assessed using von Frey hairs from 2 hours up to 8 days post CFA injection. In a separate group of rats (160-180g at the time of injection) depletion of spinal serotonin was out carried out by intrathecal administration of 5,7-dihydroxytrptamine (5,7-DHT). Animals received either 10 μl of 5,7-DHT in saline (6μg/μl) or vehicle control. 6 days later animals received either CFA injection or underwent a sham procedure and mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed as in the dermorphin-saporin experiment. Depletion of the MOR+ cells of the RVM and of spinal serotonin was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Dermoprhin-saporin pre-treatment resulted in significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds from 6 hours up to 8 days following CFA injection (p < 0.01, ANOVA with repeated measures). In contrast depletion of spinal serotonin by 5,7-DHT led to a smaller attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity at 24 hours and 48 hours following inflammation (LSD post hoc test, p < 0.01) but did not result in significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds at the earlier time points.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Arcuate NK3 receptor-expressing KNDy neurons are essential for estrogen modulation of LH secretion and body weight in the female rat

Smith MA, Williams H, Krajewski SJ, Mcmullen NT, Rance NE (2011) Arcuate NK3 receptor-expressing KNDy neurons are essential for estrogen modulation of LH secretion and body weight in the female rat. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 712.07. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Arcuate kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) neurons have been proposed to mediate estrogen negative feedback in multiple species. To determine if these neurons are essential for this feedback, we ablated KNDy neurons in the arcuate nucleus of female rats using [MePhe7]Neurokinin B, a selective NK3 receptor (NK3R) agonist, conjugated to Saporin ([MePhe7]NKB-SAP, Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA). The specificity of this conjugate for NK3R-expressing KNDy neurons is described in a separate abstract (see Krajewski et al., Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2011). Twenty-four female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and received bilateral arcuate microinjections of either [MePhe7]NKB-SAP or a scrambled peptide conjugated to Saporin (Blank-SAP controls). 20-23 days later, animals were implanted with s.c. silastic capsules containing 17β-estradiol (E2), and animals were sacrificed 11 days later. Blood samples for RIA of serum LH were taken at time of OVX and injections (baseline), 20-23 days post-OVX, and 11 days after E2-treatment. Because OVX and E2-treatment have well-described effects on body weight, animals were weighed at the same three time points. In control animals, OVX induced a 13-fold rise in serum LH, which returned to baseline 11 days after E2 replacement. In contrast, OVX had no effect on serum LH in [MePhe7]NKB-SAP animals. There was a small decrease in serum LH 11 days after E2 replacement in [MePhe7]NKB-SAP animals, but the magnitude of this change was much less than seen in control animals. Control animals also exhibited a 20% increase in body weight 20-23 days after OVX, followed by a significant reduction after E2 replacement. Surprisingly, neither OVX nor E2 replacement affected body weight in [MePhe7]NKB-SAP-treated animals. Rather, these animals showed a steady increase in body weight throughout the experiment, at rates comparable to intact female rats or OVX rats treated with E2 (Williams et al., Endocrinology, 2010). Immunohistochemical studies showed near-complete destruction of KNDy neurons in the arcuate nucleus of [MePhe7]NKB-SAP animals. There was preservation of proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus and GnRH-immunoreactive fibers in the median eminence. These data provide compelling evidence that arcuate KNDy neurons play an essential role in estrogen negative feedback on LH secretion as well as the estrogen modulation of body weight.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates, Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

ATS Poster of the Year Winner

Ablation of NK3 receptor-expressing KNDy neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus using [MePhe7]Neurokinin B-Saporin

Krajewski SJ, Smith MA, Williams H, Ciofi P, Lai JY, Mcmullen NT, Rance NE (2011) Ablation of NK3 receptor-expressing KNDy neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus using [MePhe7]Neurokinin B-Saporin. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 712.09. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: A subpopulation of neurons expressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) has been shown to reside within the arcuate nucleus of many mammalian species. Although these peptides are critical for reproductive function, the precise role of the arcuate KNDy neurons is not fully understood. Here we describe a method to ablate KNDy neurons based on their co-expression of the Neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R, Burke et al., J. Comp. Neurol, 2006). Saporin, a molecular neurotoxin, was conjugated to [MePhe7]Neurokinin B, a selective NK3R agonist ([MePhe7]NKB-SAP, Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA). Binding studies revealed that the conjugation of saporin did not alter the affinity of [MePhe7]NKB to NK3R in rat cerebral cortex membranes. To investigate the specificity of this conjugate for ablation of NK3R neurons, stereotaxic surgery was used to bilaterally inject [MePhe7]NKB-SAP into the arcuate nucleus of female rats. Control rats were injected with saporin conjugated to a scrambled peptide (Blank-SAP, Advanced Targeting Systems). Rats were sacrificed 31-34 days later and the brains were processed for immunohistochemical studies. Nissl stained sections from [MePhe7]NKB-SAP-treated rats showed no signs of inflammation at the injection sites and no qualitative changes in cell density compared to Blank-SAP control rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed near-complete loss of NK3R-immunoreactive (ir) neurons throughout the arcuate nucleus of [MePhe7]NKB-SAP rats. When the injection site was dorsal to the arcuate nucleus, there was also variable loss of NK3R-ir cells in the lateral hypothalamus and zona incerta. In the arcuate nucleus, [MePhe7]NKB-SAP injections resulted in a 98% and 94% reduction in the number of kisspeptin and neurokinin B-ir neurons, respectively, compared to Blank-SAP controls. The number of dynorphin-ir neurons in the arcuate nucleus of [MePhe7]NKB-SAP-treated rats was reduced by 67%, a value consistent with the co-expression of NK3R on dynorphin neurons in our previous study (Burke et al., J. Comp. Neurol, 2006). In contrast, arcuate proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity were preserved in [MePhe7]NKB-SAP rats. Moreover, there was no difference in GnRH-ir fiber density in the median eminence between the two groups. These results document the utility of [MePhe7]NKB-SAP for selective ablation of NK3R-expressing KNDy neurons in rat hypothalamus. These rats were used to examine the role of KNDy neurons in the estrogen regulation of LH secretion and body weight in the female rat (see Smith et al., Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 2011).

Related Products: Custom Conjugates, Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

ATS Poster of the Year Winner

P300-like event related potentials in IgG192-saporin induced rat model of Alzheimer´s disease

Clausen B, Klipec W, Bastlund J, Collins M (2011) P300-like event related potentials in IgG192-saporin induced rat model of Alzheimer´s disease. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 550.01. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a time-locked response to rare, response-relevant stimuli. Decreased ERP amplitude is correlated with decreased memory function. Not surprisingly, alterations in P300 ERP amplitude are commonly associated with the progressive disruption of cognitive function in human Alzheimer’s disease. Here, a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease was created by injecting the antibody-linked toxin, IgG192-saporin, into the basal forebrain, producing a progressive degeneration of cholinergic cells to mimic the cholinergic degeneration that is part of Alzheimer’s disease. The goal of this experiment was to investigate the rat model by examining the relationship between the expected degenerative deficits and possible changes in the EEG patterns. Following preliminary training that has produced reliable P300-like ERPs in prior experiments in our lab, half of the rats were injected with IgG192-saporin (lesioned), while the other half were injected with saline (controls). Recording electrodes were surgically implanted on the surface of the brain and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus (vHipp). Following recovery, P300-like ERP data was recorded for three weeks, after which a ChAT analysis of choline acetyltransferase activity confirmed the extent of cholinergic damage in PFC and Hipp. While no systematic increases in latency were found, surprisingly, significant increases in P300-like ERP amplitude occurred in PFC and vHipp in the lesioned compared to the control rats. The implication of these findings for a rat model of Alzheimer’s disease will be discussed.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Lesions targeting leptin-sensitive neurons in the ventromedial and suprachiasmatic nuclei differentiate sites for circadian control of feeding

Dinh TT, Smith BR, Wiater MF, Jansen H, Li A-J, Ritter S (2011) Lesions targeting leptin-sensitive neurons in the ventromedial and suprachiasmatic nuclei differentiate sites for circadian control of feeding. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 600.13. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: We have previously investigated the role of leptin sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) for feeding using the saporin toxin conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP) and a control conjugate, blank-saporin (B-SAP). Lep-SAP binds to, is internalized by and destroys leptin receptor expressing neurons at the injection site. We found that injections of Lep-SAP directed at the arcuate nuclei (Arc) caused profound regulatory and circadian deficits including arrhythmia for feeding. We have proposed that leptin-sensitive circuitry within the MBH, particularly the arcuate nuclei (Arc), is required for the maintenance of feeding rhythms. Here we tested this hypothesis further by examining effects of Lep-SAP injections into two additional hypothalamic nuclei in the vicinity of the Arc, the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). In an additional group, the SCN was lesioned electrolytically. Feeding data were collected using BioDAQ computerized meal monitors (Research Diets, Inc) and analyzed using ClockLab software to generate double raster eatogram plots. Lomb-Scargle periodograms were used to assess rhythms and their robustness. Feeding was monitored under light:dark (LD) and dark:dark (DD) conditions in all groups except SCN Lep-SAPs. Unlike Arc-directed injections of Lep-SAP, VMN injections did not alter the diurnal distribution of feeding in either LD or DD and lesioned rats did not become obese or hyperphagic. Lomb-Scargle analysis and eatograms indicated that VMN rats have intact circadian rhythms for feeding. Both Lep-SAP and electrolytic lesions of the SCN caused a slight reduction body weight, compared to controls. Total 24h food intake was unchanged, but light-period food intake was increased. Rats with electrolytic lesions of the SCN were arrhythmic for feeding under both LD and DD conditions. Together with results from Arc Lep-SAP injections, these findings strongly implicate leptin-sensitive circuitry in the MBH in control of circadian feeding rhythms. In addition, they point to the particular significance of the Arc and its connections with the SCN in this circuitry. Leptin-sensitive neurons in the VMN appear to be of less importance in this role.

Related Products: Leptin-SAP (Cat. #IT-47)

Growth factor infusion increases BrdU-positive cells in the denervated medial septum following 192-IgG-saporin lesion

Winter SS, Köppen JR, Stout JM, Cameron HA, Wallace DG, Cheatwood JL (2011) Growth factor infusion increases BrdU-positive cells in the denervated medial septum following 192-IgG-saporin lesion. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 331.04. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: During the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease, degeneration of basal forebrain structures is associated with a decline in mnemonic function and frequently results in episodes of wandering behavior. Previous work has demonstrated that the septohippocampal cholinergic system uniquely contributes to rat spatial orientation. Enhancement of endogenous adult neurogenesis represents one potential method to restore function to the septohippocampal system. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that co-infusion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) would increase the number of new cells in the medial septum following a lesion of the cholinergic system produced by focal injection of the ribosome-inactivating selective immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin in rats. For this, rats received injections of 192-IgG-saporin into the medial septum. At the same time, a cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle and attached to a subcutaneously-placed osmotic minipump containing either 1) EGF, bFGF, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), or 2) BrdU alone. Infusion of growth factors and BrdU continued for a period of two weeks, at which point the pumps were removed. At 21 days following 192-IgG-saporin injury, rats were perfused following standard protocols. Cryostat sections were collected at 40 microns and were processed via double-fluorescent immunochemistry (IHC) using antibodies against BrdU and doublecortin (DCX). Photomicrographs of BrdU and DCX immunofluorescence were captured under epifluorescence and the number of BrdU-positive and DCX-positive cells was quantified. We detected significantly higher numbers of BrdU-positive cells in the medial septum of rats that received growth factors compared to rats that received BrdU-only (p<0.05). These results indicate that infusion of growth factors following 192-IgG-saporin lesion of the medial septum resulted in an increase in the number of new immature neurons in the medial septum. Studies aimed at determining the fate of these young neurons and their influences on spatial orientation are ongoing.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Noradrenergic neurons of the A5 region play a role on hypoxic ventilatory response in unanesthetized rats.

Taxini CL, Bícego K, Takakura A, Moreira T, Gargaglioni L (2011) Noradrenergic neurons of the A5 region play a role on hypoxic ventilatory response in unanesthetized rats. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 345.09. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The ventrolateral pons contains the A5 group of noradrenergic neurons which is involved in cardiorespiratory control. These cells are strongly activated by carotid body stimulation and display central respiratory modulation. Recently, we showed that A5 neurons contribute to the cardiorespiratory effects elicited by chemoreflex stimulation in anesthetized rats. In the present study, we assessed the role of A5 noradrenergic neurons on cardiorespiratory responses produce by hypoxia in unanesthetized rats. To selectively destroy noradrenergic neurons, we administered the immunotoxin anti-dopamine β-hydroxylase-saporin (anti-DβH-SAP, 200nL) bilaterally in the A5 region of male Wistar rats (n = 8). Hypoxia (7% O2, 30 min) produced an increase in ventilation (Ve) (1470 ± 141 mLkg-1min-1), respiratory frequency (RF) (179 ± 139 brethsmin-1) and heart rate (484 ± 29 bpm), without affect mean arterial pressure (MAP) in conscious rats. Bilateral destruction of the catecholaminergic A5 neurons reduced the hypoxia-induced hyperventilation (942 ± 110 mLkg-1min-1, p<0.05), increase in RF (139 ± 11 breathsmin-1, p<0.05) and tachycardia (399 ± 39 bpm, p<0.05). These results suggest that A5 noradrenergic neurons contribute to the increase in heart rate, ventilation and respiratory frequency during peripheral chemoreflex stimulation.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Lesions targeting leptin-sensitive neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus dissociate activity and temperature circadian rhythms.

Wiater MF, Jansen H, Oostrom M, Li A-J, Dinh T, Ritter S (2011) Lesions targeting leptin-sensitive neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus dissociate activity and temperature circadian rhythms. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 396.11. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Previously we investigated the role of NPY and leptin sensitive networks in the mediobasal hypothalamus in sleep and feeding and found profound regulatory and circadian deficits. We propose that the MBH, particularly the arcuate nuclei (Arc), is required for the integration of homeostatic circadian systems including temperature and activity. We tested this hypothesis with the use of the saporin toxin conjugated to leptin (Lep-SAP) or a blank molecule with no known biological function or receptor (B-SAP) directed to the Arc. Lep-SAP binds to, is internalized by and destroys leptin receptor expressing neurons at the injection site. Lep-SAP rats became obese and hyperphagic and progressed through a dynamic phase to a static phase of growth similar to a ventromedial lesioned rat. Activity and temperature data were collected using intraperitoneal PDT-4000 Emitters with Vital View Data Acquisition Software (Mini Mitter, Philips Respironics, Bend, OR). Circadian rhythms were examined over 49 days during the static phase of obesity in B-SAP (n=10) and Lep-SAP (n=12) rats. Rats were maintained on a 12:12 light:dark (LD) schedule for 13 days and thereafter maintained in continuous dark (DD). After the first thirteen days of DD, food was restricted to four hours per day from 9AM until 1PM for ten days. Immediately thereafter, rats were fasted for three days to evaluate persistence of food-entrained rhythms. Using ClockLab software (Natick, MA) actograms and tempograms were generated as double raster plots. Lomb-Scargle periodograms were used to assess rhythms and their robustness. We found that Lep-SAP rats were arrhythmic for activity in DD, but that food anticipatory activity was nevertheless entrainable to the restricted feeding schedule and the entrained rhythm persisted during the subsequent 3-day fast. Thus, for activity, the light-entrainable oscillator, but not the food entrainable oscillator, was disabled by the MBH lesion. In contrast, temperature remained rhythmic in DD in the Lep-SAP rats, but did not entrain to restricted feeding. We conclude that the leptin-sensitive network of the Arc and MBH is required for entrainment of activity by photic cues and for entrainment of temperature by food and for the integration of these rhythms.

Related Products: Leptin-SAP (Cat. #IT-47), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and nitric oxide-mediated regulation of sleep homeostasis.

Kalinchuk AV, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Mccarley RW, Basheer R (2011) Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and nitric oxide-mediated regulation of sleep homeostasis. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 397.15. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The levels of adenosine (AD) and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)-mediated NO increase during sleep deprivation (SD) in the basal forebrain (BF), and, with prolongation of SD, in the frontal cortex (FC). NO donor (DETA NONOate) infusion increases AD and sleep, while iNOS/NO inhibition prevents SD-induced AD increase, suggesting that iNOS/NO stimulates AD increase (Kalinchuk et al., 2006). iNOS induction during SD occurs in wake-active neurons in the BF and FC (Kalinchuk et al., 2010, 2011), however, neurotransmitter specificity of these cells has not described. The lesion of BF cholinergic cells attenuates both SD-induced AD increase and recovery sleep response (Kalinchuk et al., 2008). Hence in this study, we tested the role of cholinergic versus non-cholinergic neurons in iNOS/NO release in BF and FC and homeostatic sleep response. Methods. We performed two types of experiments. Experiment #1. Immunohistochemical detection of neurotransmitter specificity of cells inducing iNOS during SD. The brains of SD animals and their non-SD time-of-day matched controls were subjected to double-labeling with specific markers for iNOS, acetylcholinetransferase (ChAT), vesicular glutamate transporters (VGlut) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67). Experiment #2. The effects of SD on iNOS/NO production and the effect of NO-donor, DETA NONOate infusion on sleep were investigated before and after destruction of BF cholinergic neurons using 192 IgG-saporin. In both experiments male rats were implanted for electrographic recording and Experiment # 2 used guide cannula for microdialysis probes targeting BF and FC. In Experiment #2, recording of sleep-waking cycle, SD for 3h and infusion of DETA NONOate for 3h were performed on the same animals before and 2 weeks after targeted saporin injections. Results. Experiment #1. SD led to significant increases in number of iNOS+ cells in the BF and FC. Preliminary data showed that in the BF, in SD group, 96% of ChAT+ cells were also iNOS+, while in the non-SD group only 4% of ChAT+ neurons had weak iNOS+ staining. Numbers of iNOS+/ChAT+ cells positively correlated with SD-induced increase in theta power. Experiment #2. Before saporin injection, both SD and infusion of DETA NONOate induced significant increases in subsequent NREM sleep/NREM delta power (by 35/47% and 39/41%, respectively). After saporin injection, both recovery NREM sleep and DETA NONOate-induced sleep were significantly attenuated (8 and 4% increase as compared with baseline) and increases in delta power were totally blocked. Conclusions. We conclude that cholinergic neurons of the BF are important for iNOS/NO-mediated homeostatic sleep control.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Role of the medial septal-diagonal band nucleus in working memory: Effects of cholinergic or GABAergic lesions on memory demand and interference

Stewart AL, Roland JJ, Servatius RJ, Pang K (2011) Role of the medial septal-diagonal band nucleus in working memory: Effects of cholinergic or GABAergic lesions on memory demand and interference. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 513.09. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB), a major source of afferents to the hippocampal formation, is critical for learning and memory. The primary cells comprising the septohippocampal systems are cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic. Selective damage of cholinergic MSDB neurons results in mild to no impairment of spatial working memory tasks, suggesting that non-cholinergic MSDB projections are important in learning and memory. Recently, we demonstrated that GABAergic MSDB lesions impair a delayed match to position task (DNMTP) with errors suggesting enhanced proactive interference. The current study assesses the effect of manipulating the intertrial interval (ITI) and retention interval (RI) on DNMTP performance in normal rats and those with cholinergic or GABAergic MSDB damage. In addition, activation of MSDB neurons on the last day of training will be assessed. Male Sprague Dawley rats receive sham, 192-IgG saporin (192-Sap) or GAT1-saporin (GAT1-Sap) administration into the MSDB before training on a DNMTP task using a T-maze. On the sample phase of each trial, rats are forced to one arm for reinforcement. Following an RI, a choice phase allows the rats to choose from both arms. Rats are reinforced for choosing the arm not entered during the sample phase. Following the choice phase, an ITI occurs before the sample phase of the next trial. Rats are trained one session per day, 12 trials per session, and 10 sessions. In a 2 x 2 experimental design, each rat is trained on either a 0 or 60s RI and a 0 or 60s ITI. Conditions with a long RI (60 s) are designed to tax working memory, whereas conditions with a similar RI and ITI are designed to increase interference. Immunocytochemistry for c-Fos is used to assess activation of cholinergic or GABAergic MSDB neurons following the last training session. As expected, our preliminary results show that sham rats performed better on 0 s than 60 s RI (0 s = 78% correct vs 60 s = 57%, both ITI’s pooled). Analysis of the 0 s RI demonstrates that performance in conditions with different RI and ITI was better than when RI and ITI were similar (0 s RI/60 s ITI = 74% vs 0 s RI/0 s ITI = 67%). Further analysis of the 60 s RI was difficult due to the near chance performance. Rats treated with either intraseptal 192-Sap or GAT1-Sap were impaired on the 0 s RI/60s ITI condition (Sham: 85%; 192-Sap: 65%; GAT1-Sap: 72%). However, only the 192-Sap rats were impaired in the 0 s RI/0 s ITI condition (Sham: 71%; 192-Sap: 62%; GAT1-Sap: 69%). Anatomical studies are currently underway. The results of this study will further elucidate the role of MSDB neurons in two aspects of working memory: memory demand and interference.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

Reduced hippocampal acetylcholine efflux after medial septal-diagonal band (MSDB) GABAergic lesion is associated with impaired working memory: behavioral and neurochemical effects of physostigmine.

Roland JJ, Stewart AL, Savage LM, Servatius RJ, Pang KCH (2011) Reduced hippocampal acetylcholine efflux after medial septal-diagonal band (MSDB) GABAergic lesion is associated with impaired working memory: behavioral and neurochemical effects of physostigmine. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 513.10. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The medial septum provides cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus and changes in hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) have been tied to memory; deficits and enhancements in memory are correlated with decreases or increases of ACh, respectively. Damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons impaired spatial working memory in a delayed non-match to position task with a 30-s retention interval (DNMTP). Interestingly, lesions reduced maze activated hippocampal ACh efflux, but did not alter basal hippocampal ACh efflux. The current study has two aims. First, is performance impaired and ACh efflux reduced in a non-match to position task (NMTP) with a 0-s retention interval following GABAergic MSDB damage? Second, is performance on DNMTP improved by enhancing hippocampal ACh efflux? Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraseptal PBS or GAT1-saporin (to damage GABAergic neurons) and a ventral hippocampal microdialysis cannula to assess ACh efflux. In Exp. 1, rats were trained on NMTP for 10 days and received microdialysis on either day 2 (early) or day 9 (late). GAT1-saporin rats were not behaviorally impaired and hippocampal ACh efflux was similar in both treatment groups. These results suggest that performance with a short retention interval (NMTP) is more independent of MSDB influences than training with a long retention interval (DNMTP). Exp. 2 was designed to determine whether the reduced ACh efflux is a critical factor in impaired DNMTP performance in rats with GABAergic MSDB damage. In Exp. 2, all rats will receive 10 day of DNMTP training. On days 8 and 9, rats will be administered (i.c.v.) either saline or the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, physostigmine (5μg/μl). The effects of physostigmine on behavioral performance and hippocampal ACh efflux will be determined. We predict that physostigmine will increase ACh efflux but not improve behavior, suggesting that hippocampal ACh is not important for DNMTP performance. However, support that both MSDB cholinergic and GABAergic neurons are important for DNMTP performance would be seen if physostigmine increases ACh efflux and enhances DNMTP performance. In summary, damage of MSDB GABAergic neurons modulates hippocampal ACh efflux during performance of a working memory task. Whether hippocampal ACh release plays a critical role in impaired working memory will be answered by these studies.

Related Products: GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

Evidence that focal interneuron lesions in the hippocampus may lead to a model of epileptogenesis in the mouse.

Rossi CA, Lehmkuhle MJ, Dudek FE (2011) Evidence that focal interneuron lesions in the hippocampus may lead to a model of epileptogenesis in the mouse. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 249.09. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: A selective loss of part of the overall population of GABAergic interneurons is a seminal component of many forms of human epilepsy, and is manifest in many animal models of acquired epilepsy, including those based on chemoconvulsant-induced status epilepticus. The current study specifically tests the hypothesis that partial interneuron loss in the dorsal CA1 area of the hippocampus induces epileptiform activity, and the subsequent hypothesis that interictal-like spikes and seizures progressively worsen during the following weeks and months. Focal interneuron lesions were made by intra-hippocampal injection of SSP-Saporin into dorsal CA1 in the hippocampus of GAD67-GFP transgenic mice. Chronic recording electrodes were implanted at the injection site, and local field potentials (LFPs) were monitored continuously during video recording for several weeks. LFP recordings were analyzed for the occurrence of inter-ictal-like paroxysmal events (hippocampal sharp waves of 50-100 msec), and frank seizures. Although interneuron lesions alone were seen to generate inter-ictal-like activity within several days following surgery, full-blown seizure activity was not observed until several weeks later. The current data suggest that disruption of the local GABAergic interneuron population may be a key event that triggers alteration of neural networks in the hippocampus, leading to paroxysmal events and ultimately seizures. The delay in onset suggests other factors besides interneuron loss play a role in the generation of seizures and the development of epilepsy. Thus, loss of local inhibition may be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for epileptogenesis.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

Cholinergic modulation of cross-modal attentional orienting

Ljubojevic V, De Rosa E, Luu P (2011) Cholinergic modulation of cross-modal attentional orienting. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 294.07. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: We modified the classic cued target detection paradigm, using odor cues to predict a visual target, to examine cholinergic modulation of attentional control signals. It has been proposed that without ACh top-down processing will inappropriately dominate in the presence of a low validity cue, i.e., the cue will still drive attention. Thus, we reduced central cholinergic influences in rats after they acquired high validity cues to examine whether top-down processing would dominate even when these same cues changed to a lower validity. The validity effect (VE = invalid cue RT - valid cue RT) is thought to measure the ability to reorient attention, i.e., it reflects the time a subject needs to disengage from an invalidly cued location and shift attention to the actual target location. We trained 8 male Long-Evans rats until they reached the stable performance under baseline conditions: cue validity (CV) = 100%, target duration = 1s. Then we simultaneously manipulated the rats’ cholinergic system and cue validity within a testing session in a 3x3 repeated measures design. The three drug conditions were: muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (0.2mg/kg), muscarinic antagonist methylscopolamine as a peripheral nervous system control (0.2mg/kg), and saline. CV in each session was set to 100%, 75%, or 50%. In sessions with the lower cue validity of 75% and 50%, rats with scopolamine showed the predicted higher validity effect when compared to their performance with the control drugs. Based on the increased VE in scopolamine condition, we conclude that ACh plays a role in attentional orienting when cue and target are presented in a different sensory modality. We hypothesize that scopolamine may have exacerbated the top-down expectations from the cue and increased the validity effect. Thus, we are collecting data from rats that had selective cholinergic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis, which provides ACh input into the neocortex, with the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin to support this pharmacological effect. We expect that NBM-ACh-lesioned rats will also have an increased validity effect as the CV decreases relative to the sham-lesioned rats. Also, we will collect the data from 8 additional rats to increase the statistical power of the experiment.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

The effects of noradrenergic lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex on reversal learning

Bates AT, Duys AN, Miller CE, Miller R, Mcgaughy J (2011) The effects of noradrenergic lesions to the orbitofrontal cortex on reversal learning. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 296.03. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Poor impulse control is one of the major symptoms of disorders such as attention deficit disorder and is hypothesized to result from dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex. Specifically the ability to inhibit responding to a previously reinforced stimulus as required in tests of reversal rely on the functional integrity of the orbitofrontal cortex. Previous work from our lab and others have shown that norepinephrine in the prelimbic cortex is necessary to perform attentional set shifting. Lesions to this region result in attentional set shifting impairments that can be remediated by the administration of a selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker. Though many studies have shown monoamine levels in the orbitofrontal cortex are critical to reversal learning, few studies have directly addressed the impact of norepinephrine depletion in the orbitofrontal cortex on reversal learning. In the present study, we assess the effects of noradrenergic deafferentation of the orbitofrontal cortex in the intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional set shifting task using adult male, Long-Evans hooded rats. Preliminary data support the hypothesis that norepinephrine in orbitofrontal cortex is critical to successful reversal learning as the lesioned animals required more trials to reach criterion performance on reversals than sham-lesioned rats. Performance on the ID and ED portions of the task were not impacted by lesion. After behavioral testing was completed, brains were processed to elucidate norepinephrine transporters (NET). Fiber density of NET positive fibers was assessed in the regions of the orbitofrontal, prelimbic, and cingulate cortices for all subjects. These findings point to the function of the noradrenergic system within the orbitofrontal cortex on mediating impulse control while leaving attentional set shifting performance intact.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Transmission of neuropathic pain by spinal neurons expressing the NPY Y1 receptor

Donahue RR, Corder GF, Mcnamara KC, Wiley RG, Taylor BK (2011) Transmission of neuropathic pain by spinal neurons expressing the NPY Y1 receptor. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 179.16. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts at Y receptors in the dorsal spinal cord to exert a tonic inhibitory control of chronic allodynia (Solway et al, PNAS 108:7224-9, 2011). In this and the adjacent presentation, we tested the hypothesis that NPY does this by inhibiting Y1 receptors on pain transmission neurons or on central terminals of primary afferent neurons. We selectively lesioned cells expressing the NPY receptors in the dorsal horn with intrathecal administration of the NPY-conjugated ribosomal toxin, NPY-saporin. NPY-saporin significantly reduced the population of Y1 receptors in the lumbar dorsal horn by over 50%. Neither NK1 receptors in the dorsal horn, nor neuronal counts in the DRG were affected, suggesting a specific effect on Y1+, NK1- neurons in the dorsal horn, while sparing Y1+ central presynaptic terminals. Fourteen days later, we ligated the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve (spared nerve injury, SNI), and evaluated the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia on post-SNI days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. When compared to saporin controls, NPY-saporin (1000 ng) decreased mechanical allodynia (von Frey threshold), cold allodynia (paw withdrawal response to application of a drop of acetone) and mechanical hyperalgesia (paw response to blunt pin). This effect began three days after SNI and lasted until forty two days after SNI. When injected in uninjured rats, NPY-saporin did not disrupt motor coordination (accelerating rotarod), baseline heat or mechanical thresholds, or animal activity levels. We conclude that Y1-expressing cells in the dorsal horn exert a tonic facilitatory control of neuropathic pain, and partially mediate the inhibitory actions of NPY.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)

Activation of postsynaptic NPY Y1 and presynaptic Y2 receptors reduce spinal nociceptive transmission

Corder GF, Donahue R, Winter MK, Chen W, Mccarson KE, Marvizon J, Taylor B (2011) Activation of postsynaptic NPY Y1 and presynaptic Y2 receptors reduce spinal nociceptive transmission. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 179.17. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Exogenous (Intondi et al, Neuroscience, 2008) and endogenous (Solway et al, PNAS 108:7224-9, 2011) neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts at Y1 and Y2 receptors in the dorsal horn (DH) to inhibit hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli. The adjacent poster (Donahue, et al, SFN 2011) describes our use of a targeted NPY-saporin neurotoxin approach to selectively remove spinal cord (SC) neurons expressing the Y1 receptor -- the data implicate a contribution of Y1-expressing, pain transmission neurons to behavioral signs of persistent pain. To determine whether persistent noxious input is associated with a compensatory increase in NPY-mediated inhibitory signaling (presumably at Y1-expressing DH neurons), we performed GTPγS binding assays in SC slices taken from animals following the intraplantar (i.pl) injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). CFA significantly reduced the EC50 of Y1 agonist (Leu31,Pro34-NPY)-induced [35S]GTPγS binding in ipsilateral DH to 0.24 ± 0.17 μM, as compared to sham (1.38 ± 0.51 μM). This support the hypothesis that injury increases in the efficiency of coupling between Y1-receptors and G-proteins. To determine whether compensatory NPY inhibition occurs at presynaptic sites, we studied the activity of presynaptic Y2 receptor in NPY-saporin-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of the Y2 receptor antagonist BIIE0246 reduced von Frey thresholds (saporin group from 1.3±0.4 to 0.6 ±0.1g; 750 ng NPY-saporin group from 5.4±1.0 to 1.2±0.2g, p<0.05), suggesting that presynaptic Y2 receptors contribute to a tonic endogenous inhibition of inflammatory pain. In support of this hypothesis, BIIE0246-induced hyperalgesia (21 days after CFA) significantly increased the Emax of Y2 agonist (PYY3-36)-induced [35S]GTPγS binding. We next determined whether NPY acts at presynaptic terminals of primary afferent neurons to reduce the release of substance P (SP). First, in both the i.pl carrageenan and CFA models of inflammatory pain, intrathecal administration of NPY reduced in vivo neurokin-1 (NK1) receptor internalization (an indirect measure of functional SP release). Second, application of either (Leu31,Pro34)-NPY) or PYY3-36 to spinal cord slices concentration-dependently reduced NK1 internalization in the ipsilateral dorsal horn evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal root (1000 pulses of 20 V, 0.4 ms at 100 Hz); these effects were reversed by the Y1 antagonist BIBO3304. We conclude that injury up-regulates post-synaptic Y1 and pre-synaptic Y2 spinal inhibitory mechanisms to reduce behavioral signs of persistent pain.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)

The role of medial septal/diagonal band GABAergic neurons in proactive interference: Effects of selective immunotoxic lesions in latent inhibition

Sinha SP, Roland JJ, Servatius RJ, Pang KCH (2011) The role of medial septal/diagonal band GABAergic neurons in proactive interference: Effects of selective immunotoxic lesions in latent inhibition. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 199.22. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The medial septum/diagonal band (MSDB) is a critical structure for learning and memory, yet the functional contributions of its individual neuronal populations (including cholinergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and peptidergic cells) are still being characterized. Recent studies have implicated a contributing role for the GABAergic MSDB neuronal population, as selective immunotoxic GABAergic lesions of the MSDB (with GAT1-saporin) produce behavioral impairments in spatial and instrumental tasks. Compared to intact controls, rats with GABAergic MSDB lesions are impaired in learning new spatial locations in a delayed match to position procedure and also exhibit a slower rate of extinguishing a previously acquired avoidance response - behaviors that are consistent with an exacerbation of proactive interference. To further establish the role of these neurons in proactive interference, this study examined the effects of selective GABAergic MSDB lesions in latent inhibition (LI) of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. LI in delay eyeblink conditioning is a phenomenon in which pre-exposure to the conditioned stimulus (CS) interferes with the subjects’ ability to subsequently associate the CS with an unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in slower acquisition of the conditioned response (CR). We hypothesized that if damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons increases proactive interference, then rats with selective lesions of these neurons would show facilitated LI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=18) were administered either phosphate-buffered saline or GAT1-saporin via intracranial injection into the MSDB. After 7-10 days of recovery, electrodes were implanted into the upper eyelids of the rats for delivery of US and EMG recording. Conditioning began after another 5-7 days of recovery, with Day 1 consisting of 30 minutes of acclimation to the conditioning context. Day 2 began with either 30 presentations of the CS (82dB, 500ms white noise, 25 - 35s ITI) or context pre-exposure of equal duration, followed immediately by 100 paired CS-US trials (82 dB, 500ms white noise co-terminating with a 10V, 10ms square-wave stimulus). In preliminary results, intraseptal GAT1-saporin did not alter CR acquisition in context pre-exposed rats. Rats with GABAergic MSDB lesions continued to exhibit latent inhibition. These preliminary results do not support the idea that damage of GABAergic MSDB neurons increase proactive interference of the classically conditioned eyeblink response. Future studies will examine whether manipulations of the number of CS pre-exposures would facilitate LI in rats with GABAergic MSDB lesions.

Related Products: GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

Targeted ablation of intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells early in development alters retinal morphology within the inner plexiform layer of mice

Van Der List DA, Chapman B (2011) Targeted ablation of intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells early in development alters retinal morphology within the inner plexiform layer of mice. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 232.12. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: It has been demonstrated in adult mice, that eliminating a small subset of retinal ganglion cells expressing the photopigment melanopsin (ip-RGCs) with an immunotoxin alters the effects of light on circadian rhythms. The immunotoxin was made by conjugating the melanopsin antibody with ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. It has also been observed that the ablation of ip-RGCs in adult mice did not alter retinal morphology. Specifically, it was found that dendrites arising from starburst amacrine cells retained their position within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) suggesting no reorganization within this synaptic layer (Goz et al. 2008). In this study, we used the same melanopsin immunotoxin (Mx) (Advanced Targeting Systems) to perform intravitreal injections into mice at postnatal day one. The animals were sacrificed at P26 and the retina fixed in 4%PFA, frozen transverse sections were then immunostained with antibodies against melanopsin, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), calreinin, calbindin, PKC and Kv4.2. In control retinae, melanosin antibody stained ip-RGC cell bodies and dendrites stratifying in both On and Off layers of the IPL, whereas retinae treated with Mx shows a loss of melanopsin-containing cell bodies and dendrites. In control retinae, ChAT stains starburst amacrine cells with cell bodies in the RGC and INL layers and two distinct bands in the IPL. In Mx treated retinae, most starburst amacrine cells appear to be eliminated along with melanopsin RGCs. Interestingly, if there is a hint of residual melanopsin expressing dendrites remaining, there is also a ChAT expressing cell body and a hint of dendrites in the synaptic layer. In control retinae, calretinin and calbindin antibodies stain a subset of RGCs and amacrine cells and show a characteristic three-layered pattern of dendrites in the IPL. In Mx treated retinae, the calretinin and calbindin layers within the IPL are altered showing an absent or more diffuse labeling pattern in the ON and OFF bands. Antibodies against PKC (staining rod bipolar cells) and Kv4.2 (stains a subset of retinal ganglion cells) do not show an altered staining pattern. These findings suggest that the initial stratification and structural development of synaptic layers in the IPL are altered by Mx treatment.

Related Products: Melanopsin-SAP (Cat. #IT-44)

Deficits in attentional control of balance, mobility, and complex movements in a rat model of early state, multisystem Parkinson disease

Spuz CA, Paolone G, Briscoe S, Bradshaw M, Albin RL, Sarter MF (2011) Deficits in attentional control of balance, mobility, and complex movements in a rat model of early state, multisystem Parkinson disease. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 244.02. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: In Parkinson disease (PD), basal forebrain cholinergic loss coincides with midbrain dopaminergic neuron loss and contributes to attentional deficits in PD. We hypothesize that these attentional deficits contribute to L-DOPA-insensitive impairments of mobility and postural control in PD. To assess complex movement control, we developed a novel Complex Motor Control Test (CMCT) for rats. The CMCT consists of several 2 m long beams (plank, 13.34 cm width; round rod, 3.81 cm diameter; square rod, 2.54 cm side length), which can be placed at zero, 22.5° or 45° angles in the vertical plane. Rods can rotate at 1 rpm or 10 rpm. A separate ladder apparatus (100 cm long, 7 cm wide, 2 cm between rungs, 5 mm rung diameter) can be placed at zero, 22.5° or 45° angles in the vertical plane and tilted laterally at 15° or 30° angles. Four high-resolution cameras and mirror system record animals’ performances. Rats are habituated by learning that plank traversal allows entry of home compartments containing individual bedding and palatable food. To separately assess attentional performance, we employed our Sustained Attention Task (SAT), including a distractor condition (dSAT). Our initial experiments determined CMCT and SAT performance in three groups: (1) animals with limited (40-60%) loss of cortical cholinergic afferents following immunotoxin 192-IgG saporin basal forebrain lesions (SAP); (2) animals with dopaminergic deafferentation following 6-OHDA dorsal striatal lesions (6-OHDA); (3) animals with both types of deafferentation (DUAL). SAT performance was dramatically impaired in SAP and DUAL animals. Control animals rapidly traversed angled and rotating rods and angled and tilted ladders. Deafferented animals were able to traverse the plank at all angles as effectively as control animals. Cholinergic lesions robustly impaired animals’ ability to maintain balance on the rods, to re-adjust posture on and traverse rotating rods, and had falls (into a net) or dismounts more frequently than control animals. These data reveal unexpectedly striking impairments in complex gait and movement control resulting from loss of corticopetal cholinergic neurons. These results support the hypothesis that basal forebrain cholinergic cell loss in PD contributes to complex posture and movement control deficits.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Highly selective lesion of the cholinergic pedunculopontine neurons using a minimally-invasive angular stereotaxic surgery with the Diphteria-Urotensin-II neurotoxin in rat

Cyr, M Maclaren DA, Bédard M-A, Clark SD, Mechawar N, Rochford J, Winn P (2011) Highly selective lesion of the cholinergic pedunculopontine neurons using a minimally-invasive angular stereotaxic surgery with the Diphteria-Urotensin-II neurotoxin in rat. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 37.06. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Highly selective cholinergic lesions of the basal forebrain can be achieved with the immunotoxin 192-IgG saporin. This toxin has no effect however on the cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg). For many years, most studies have used excitotoxins such as ibotenate, quisqualate, kainate, or N-methyl-D-aspartate, with a relative efficacy in targeting the PPTg cholinergic neurons, however these toxins also destroy the interdigitated glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. More recently, selective cholinergic lesions were obtained with the Dtx-UII neurotoxin in both rats (Clark et al., 2007) and monkeys (Karachi et al., 2010). This toxin binds at the Urotensin-II receptor predominantly expressed in the pedunculopontine and the laterodorsal, but not the basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei. Because of the scattered distribution of the cholinergic neurons in the rat PPTg, infusion of the Dtx-UII requires multiple skull holes and needle lowering through areas containing critical blood vessels, increasing therefore surgery time, incidence of bleeding and mortality rate. Here, we report that these disadvantages can be avoided by doing a single Dtx-UII infusion, through an angular stereotaxic pathway. Results were contrasted with those obtained from the classical flat skull stereotaxic surgery used by Clark et al. (2007). Long Evans rats (males 250g - 300g) were operated according to three different methods. In group one, 3μl of Dtx-UII (3% concentration) was infused evenly in three unilateral stereotaxic coordinates along the PPTg (pars oralis, centralis, caudalis), using a flat skull position. In groups two and three, 2μl and 3μl of Dtx-UII were infused respectively using the angular stereotaxic method described by Wishaw et al. (1977). Incisor bar was elevated such that there was an 8º29’ angle (.147) between the latter and the interaural line. Following rat sacrifices, ChAT and NeuN immunohistochemistry were conducted in order to determine the cholinergic specificity and magnitude of the lesions. Results revealed similar PPTg cholinergic lesions between the three groups, reaching > 80% on the side of the lesions. Group 1 showed the greatest non specific lesions outside the PPTg, attributable to the needle pathways. This group of rats also showed the greatest number of surgical complications. We conclude that the cholinergic PPTg neurons can be optimally lesioned by using an angular surgical approach with the Dtx-UII toxin. Clark S.D., et al. (2007). J Neurochem., 102, 112-120. Karashi C., et al. (2010). J Clinical Investigation, 120, 2745-2754. Wishaw et al. (1977). Physiol. Behav., 19, 719-722.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

[18F] fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV): A reliable PET radiocompound for the in-vivo assessment of cholinergic terminals.

Parent M, Rosa-Neto P, Aliaga A, Soucy J-P, Bedard M-A (2011) [18F] fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV): A reliable PET radiocompound for the in-vivo assessment of cholinergic terminals. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 37.13. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) can be used as a surrogate target for PET imaging of brain cholinergic terminals. [18F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol (FEOBV) appears as a promising VAChT radioligand for PET imaging (Mulholand et al., 1998). Its pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and brain distribution have been well described in rodent and in primates (Kilbourn et al., 2010; Landry-St-Pierre et al., 2006; Soucy et al., 2010). The current study aims to assess the availability of VAChT binding sites in animals with presynaptic deficits induced by age or experimental lesions. We predict declines of FEOBV binding in brain regions innervated by cholinergic fibers. Twenty-one male Long-Evans rats were evenly divided in three groups: 1) Young rats (one month old); 2) Older rats (18 months old); 3) Rats with unilateral cholinergic lesions. In the latter group, 192-IgG-saporin (0.5 μg/μl) was infused under stereotaxic control into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). A three weeks recovery period followed the surgery. FEOBV PET was conducted with a microPET (Siemens R4) on anesthetized animals. FEOBV (~11MBq) was injected and radioactivity measured in 27 sequential time frames of increasing duration, from 30 s to 5 min, for a total duration of 60 min. Images were reconstructed using a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) algorithm, coregistered to a typical rat MRI template, and binding potential (BP) was calculated using the cerebellar cortex as reference tissue. Student t-tests were carried out at the voxel level: 1) Between lesioned (n=7) and non-lesioned (n=14) rats; 2) Between young (n=7) and old (n=7) non-lesioned rats. In lesioned rats, maximal BP reduction was observed in the ventral frontal cortex on the side of the lesion (t=6.5, p<0.0005, µ=41.88 mm3). Aged rats show significant clusters of BP reduction in both hippocampi (t=7.5 p<0.0005 24.61 mm3). We conclude that FEOBV PET allows quantification of cholinergic denervation following both normal aging and surgically induced cholinergic lesions.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Rapid beta-amyloid deposition and behavioural impairment after cholinergic denervation in APPswe/PS1dE9

Pacheco-Herrero M, Thyssen D, Ramos-Rodriguez J, Berrocoso E, Bacskai B, Garcia-Alloza M (2011) Rapid beta-amyloid deposition and behavioural impairment after cholinergic denervation in APPswe/PS1dE9. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 47.02. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the ultimate neurotoxic mechanisms are not known, extensive evidence supports the role of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition as senile plaques (SP) in the disease. On the other hand, neuronal loss is the pathological feature that best correlates with the duration and severity of the illness and specifically, cholinergic denervation of the basal forebrain seems to be a good predictor of clinical dementia in AD. A close relationship has been documented between Aβ deposition and neurodegeneration, however, whether specific neurodegeneration may lead to senile plaque deposition remains unclear. We addressed this by inducing selective cholinergic lesions in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with murine p-75 saporin, an inmunotoxin that selectively removes cholinergic innervation. We performed intracerebroventricular murine p-75 lesions in animals with an incipient (~3 months) and robust (~7 months of age) Aβ deposition and removed ~50% of basal forebrain cholinergic innervation to cortex and hippocampus. Immediately after injections, cranial windows were implanted and Aβ deposition was monitored in vivo and in real time in the cortex using methoxy-XO4 and multiphoton microscopy. We observed increased SP deposition as soon as 1 week after the lesion. We further corroborated our in vivo data post-mortem, using anti- Aβ and anti-fibrils antibodies as well as thioflavin S staining, both in the cortex and the hippocampus. 7 days after the surgery, when the lesion is established, animals were tested in the new object discrimination and Morris water maze tests. We observed an early memory impairment in young lesioned mice (~3 months) and this effect worsened with age (~7 months of age), when Aβ deposition is more robust. Altogether, our data suggest that cholinergic denervation may contribute to the deposition of Aβ and synergistically contribute to the cognitive impairment observed in AD.

Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

Diminished norepinephrine release in the BSTv decreases anxiety but does not promote maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats.

Holschbach MA, Lonstein JS (2011) Diminished norepinephrine release in the BSTv decreases anxiety but does not promote maternal behavior in nulliparous female rats. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 86.06. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Postpartum caregiving heavily depends on both increased motivation to interact with offspring and decreased emotional reactivity. The early postpartum period is associated with reduced anxiety in mammals, which may promote contact with potentially anxiogenic young. The ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) is associated with both anxiety and maternal behaviors in laboratory rats and may be a site of integration for mediating tradeoffs between mothering and emotional reactivity. Our laboratory has previously shown that increasing norepinphrine (NE) release in the BSTv of postpartum rats via infusion of an autoreceptor antagonist increases dams’ anxiety behaviors to levels seen in untreated virgin rats. Interestingly, this treatment also disrupts maternal retrieval of pups (Smith and Lonstein, SFN 2009). Unlike postpartum rats, nulliparous females are not spontaneously maternal, and we hypothesized that if NE release in the BSTv disrupts maternal behaviors even in highly motivated postpartum rats, it may greatly hinder expression of maternal behaviors in virgins. To investigate whether depleting NE input to the BSTv is sufficient to reduce anxiety and promote maternal behavior in virgin female rats we injected an antiserum- based neurotoxin selective for noradrenergic fibers and cells (anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase-saporin; anti-DBH-SAP; 50 mg/side), into the BSTv of ovariectomized virgin female rats. Two weeks later, we examined females’ anxiety behavior in an elevated plus maze and the next day began a maternal sensitization procedure. We placed three recently fed pups into each animal’s homecage and observed behavior for the following fifteen minutes each day until rats exhibited full maternal behavior (i.e. retrieved all three pups to a common nest site and hovered over them) during three consecutive tests. Histological analysis of the brains confirmed that anti-DBH-SAP greatly reduced NE fiber content in the BSTv. Compared to control animals injected with artificial CSF, animals injected with anti-DBH-SAP showed reduced anxiety in an elevated plus maze. Anti-DBH-SAP did not, however, reduce the latency to show full maternal behavior. Thus, although reduced anxiety permits or promotes expression of maternal behaviors in already motivated postpartum rats, reducing BSTv-mediated anxiety is not sufficient to facilitate maternal responsiveness without otherwise activating maternal motivational systems.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Basal metabolic substrate utilization is altered by lesion of hindbrain catecholamine neurons that innervate the medial hypothalamus and substrate selection during glucoprivation is impaired.

Ritter S, Li A-J, Wang Q, Dinh TT (2011) Basal metabolic substrate utilization is altered by lesion of hindbrain catecholamine neurons that innervate the medial hypothalamus and substrate selection during glucoprivation is impaired. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 88.05. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Central injection of the targeted immunotoxin, anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH)-saporin (DSAP), retrogradely and selectively lesions norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) neurons with projections to the injection site. Previous work has shown that DSAP injections targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus eliminate key counterregulatory responses to acute glucose deficit, including feeding and corticosterone secretion. To examine the role of these NE an E neurons in metabolic control under basal conditions, we injected rats in the PVH with DSAP or control unconjugated saporin (SAP) and analyzed their metabolic profiles using metabolic chambers (Columbus Instruments). Rats were maintained on a standard pelleted rodent diet. We found that the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was consistently elevated in DSAP rats across the entire circadian cycle under basal conditions, compared to the RER of SAP controls, indicating increased dependence on carbohydrate utilization. Metabolic rate and activity did not differ between groups. This result suggests a chronic enhancement of glucose mobilization or an impairment of the ability to mobilize fatty acids in the DSAP rats. We also found that when challenged by 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced glucoprivation, SAP controls exhibited a rapid decrease in RER, indicating a switch to fat metabolism, whereas DSAP rats did not exhibit this response. Together these results favor the possibility that a central mechanism for fat mobilization is impaired in DSAP rats and that this impairment is reflected under both basal and glucoprivic conditions. The previously reported observation that PVH DSAP-injected rats exhibit a slowly-developing obesity also supports this possibility. Additional findings suggest that this impairment may be due to the loss of NE/E control of corticosterone secretion in the DSAP rats.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), , Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)