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2119 entries

Mitigating the functional deficit after neurotoxic motoneuronal loss by an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission

Ciuro M, Sangiorgio M, Cacciato V, Cantone G, Fichera C, Salvatorelli L, Magro G, Leanza G, Vecchio M, Valle MS, Gulino R (2024) Mitigating the functional deficit after neurotoxic motoneuronal loss by an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission. Int J Mol Sci 25(13):7059. doi: 10.3390/ijms25137059 PMID: 39000168

Objective: To use the Cholera Toxin B-Saporin (CTB-SAP) mouse animal model of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to determine the efficacy of mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1) for its potential neuroprotective effect.

Summary: Mdivi-1 reduced motor deficits in the ALS model. It also showed neuroprotective effects on motoneurons and promoted plasticity. This could represent a translational approach for motoneuron disorders.

Usage: To establish the model, mice received two injections of the retrogradely transported, ribosome-inactivating toxin, CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14) into the medial and lateral right gastrocnemius muscles, respectively, with a toxin dose of 6 μg/2 μL in PBS per injection.

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

The basal forebrain cholinergic system as target for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease

Björklund A, Barker RA (2024) The basal forebrain cholinergic system as target for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Brain awae026. doi: 10.1093/brain/awae026 PMID: 38279949

Objective: Review the use of cholinergic cell replacement as a potential therapeutic strategy in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and how rodent models of PD-like cognitive decline can be used by analyzing rodent and primate studies.

Summary: Although therapies targeting the cholinergic system have so far been focused mainly on patients with Alzheimer´s disease, PD with dementia may be a more relevant condition. In PD with dementia the Basal Forebrain system undergoes progressive degeneration, and the magnitude of cholinergic cell loss has been shown to correlate with the level of cognitive impairment. Thus, cell therapy aimed to replace the lost basal forebrain cholinergic neurons represents an interesting strategy to combat some of the major cognitive impairments in patients with PD dementia.

Usage: Rats were given 192-IgG-SAP (IT-01), 0.2-0.4 μg, delivered as a single 0.3-1.0 μl injection into either the substantia innominate/nucleus basalis of Meynert (SI/NBM) or the medial septum/ventral diagonal band (MS/VDB).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Characterizing a new tool to manipulate area postrema GLP1R+ neurons across species

Fulton S, Horn CC, Zhang C (2024) Characterizing a new tool to manipulate area postrema GLP1R+ neurons across species. Physiol Behav 114474. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2024.114474 PMID: 38272107

Objective: Characterize the ligand exenatide conjugated to saporin as a tool to ablate GLP1 receptor-expressing cells from human, mice, and shrews, a small animal model capable of emesis (vomiting).

Summary: Nausea is a distressing sensation that is a common side effect of many medications. Nausea and emesis are among the top adverse side effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) receptor (GLP1R) agonists-based medications to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. The area postrema is a brain structure that mediates nausea effects. The authors provide characterization of Ex4-SAP (GLP-1-SAP) to specifically ablate GLP1R-expressing HEK293T cells in vitro and in area postrema neurons in mice and house musk shrews in vivo.

Usage: C57BL-6J mice were injected with Ex4-SAP (IT-90) or Blank-Streptavidin-SAP at 200 ng/ul, in a total of 400 nl at a rate of 2 nl/second. Musk shrews were injected with Ex4-SAP (IT-90) or Blank-Streptavidin-SAP at 500 ng/ul, in a total of 200 nl at a rate of 2 nl/second.

Related Products: Ex4-SAP (GLP-1-SAP) (Cat. #IT-90), Blank-Streptavidin-SAP (Cat. #IT-27B)

Etonogestrel promotes respiratory recovery in an in vivo rat model of central chemoreflex impairment

Janes TA, Cardani S, Saini JK, Pagliardini S (2024) Etonogestrel promotes respiratory recovery in an in vivo rat model of central chemoreflex impairment. Acta Physiol (Oxf) e14093. doi: 10.1111/apha.14093 PMID: 38258900

Objective: Examine the use of progestins and synthetic progestins in the stimulation of breathing, especially after chemoreflexive impairment.

Summary: Central CO2 chemoreflex is important for respiratory control. The retrotrapezoid nucleus is involved in CO2 chemosensitivity where its removal or inhibition attenuates CO2 chemoreflexes and diminishes restful breathing. Progesterone stimulates restful breathing and CO2 chemoreflexes. The authors investigated whether acute or chronic administration of the progestinic drug, etonogestrel, could help in the recovery of respiratory chemoreflexes following lesion of the retrotrapezoid nucleus via a SP-SAP.

Usage: Rats were injected with 26-43.3 ng/ul of SP-SAP (IT-11) or 46.7 ng/ul of Blank-SAP (IT-21), with 150 nl per injection.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

A role of frontal association cortex in long-term object recognition memory of objects with complex features in rats

Masmudi-Martín M, López-Aranda MF, Navarro-Lobato I, Khan ZU (2024) A role of frontal association cortex in long-term object recognition memory of objects with complex features in rats. Eur J Neurosci doi: 10.1111/ejn.16243 PMID: 38238909

Objective: Provide evidence that the frontal association cortex and not the Perirhinal cortex is essential for object recognition memory (ORM) of objects with complex features.

Summary: The Perirhinal cortex is a brain area that has been seen as being crucial for ORM. However, the authors challenge that thought by using an ORM enhancer named RGS14414. Used as a tool, expression of it in rat brain frontal association cortex induced the formation of long-term complex ORM whereas the expression of the enhancer in Perirhinal cortex didn’t illicit the same effect. The authors also showed that expression of the enhancer in Perirhinal cortex instead caused formation of ORM of objects with only simple features. Furthermore, the selective elimination of frontal association cortex neurons via OX7-SAP (IT-02) completely removed the formation of complex ORM.

Usage: OX7-SAP (IT-02) was injected into the frontal association cortex of rats at a dose of 0.2 ug in 1 ul.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

New methods to investigate the GnRH pulse generator

Ivanova D, O’Byrne KT (2024) New methods to investigate the GnRH pulse generator. J Mol Endocrinol 72(2):e230079. doi: 10.1530/JME-23-0079 PMID: 38085702

Objective: To review the latest methodologies and insights into the GnRH pulse generator and its role in regulating reproductive hormone secretion.

Summary: The paper discusses recent advancements in understanding the GnRH pulse generator and its role in reproductive hormone secretion. It highlights the involvement of kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons and the use of advanced techniques like genetic mouse models, electrophysiology, optogenetics, and calcium imaging. These findings enhance our comprehension of the KNDy network’s oscillatory behavior and its regulation by gonadal steroids, which is crucial for developing better infertility treatments.

Related Products: NKB-SAP (Cat. #IT-63)

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Immunomodulatory impact of memory T lymphocyties in periodontitis

de Paula FS (2023) Immunomodulatory impact of memory T lymphocyties in periodontitis. Univ Minnesota Thesis.

Objective: This thesis paper sought to determine whether local reactivation of oral tissue resident memory cells (TRM) of a defined antigen specificity could exacerbate ligature-induced periodontal (LIP), a model for periodontal disease in mice.

Summary: Reactivation of oral TRM aggravated alveolar bone loss and amplified gingival and cervical lymph node (cLN) inflammation. Furthermore, oral TRM reactivation enhanced transcriptional changes in pro-inflammatory and periodontitis-related genes. Therapeutic depletion of CD103-expressing oral TRM in advanced of LIP mitigated alveolar bone loss and associated gingiva and cLN inflammation. The study provides evidence that local reactivation of oral TRM can potentiate periodontitis.

Usage: Anti-CD103-SAP (IT-50) was administered in mice via i.p. injection (7 ug in PBS).

Related Products: Anti-CD103-SAP (Cat. #IT-50)

Regulation of ethanol-mediated dopamine elevation by glycine receptors located on cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens

Loftén A, Adermark L, Ericson M, Söderpalm B (2023) Regulation of ethanol-mediated dopamine elevation by glycine receptors located on cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens. Addict Biol 28(12):e13349. doi: 10.1111/adb.13349 PMID: 38017639

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the role of glycine receptors (GlyRs) on cholinergic interneurons (CIN) in sustaining extracellular dopamine levels and in ethanol-induced dopamine release.

Summary: Alcohol use disorder is one of the major psychiatric disorders worldwide. Ethanol reward is one of the many factors contributing to the disorder. The rewarding and reinforcing properties of ethanol have been linked to activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system, an effect that involves glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens. The study suggests that CIN are not important for GlyR-mediated regulation of basal dopamine output, but that CIN ablation blunts the ethanol-induced dopamine release by reducing the release of GlyR agonists.

Usage: CIN were ablated by Anti-ChAT-SAP administered locally in the nucleus accumbens of male Wistar rats. Rabbit-IgG-SAP was used as a control. Microinfusion was performed unilaterally into the nAc at a concentration of 0.5 ug/ul at 0.05 ul/min for 10 min for a total of 0.5 ul.

Related Products: Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42), Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35)

Function of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in ocular itch transmission in the mouse trigeminal sensory system

Takanami K, Kuroiwa M, Ishikawa R, Imai Y, Oishi A, Hashino M, Shimoda Y, Sakamoto H, Koide T (2023) Function of gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in ocular itch transmission in the mouse trigeminal sensory system. Front Mol Neurosci 16:1280024. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2023.1280024 PMID: 38098939

Objective: To investigate the role of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and GRP receptor (GRPR) in itch transmission in the spinal somatosensory system, and to determine whether the GRP system is involved in itch neurotransmission of the eyes in the trigeminal sensory system

Summary: Administering itch mediators like histamine (His) and chloroquine (CQ) caused high levels of eye scratching in a concentration-dependent manner, with significant gender differences observed for His. Histological studies showed that His and CQ significantly activated GRPR-expressing neurons in a specific brain region of transgenic mice. Blocking these neurons with a GRPR antagonist or eliminating them reduced CQ-induced scratching. Injecting a GRPR agonist without an itch stimulus led to excessive facial scratching, indicating the central role of GRPR neurons in mediating itch responses.

Usage: 500 ng Blank-SAP (IT-21) or 500 ng Bombesin-SAP (IT-40) were intracisternally administered (5-uL volume) 2 weeks prior to behavioral experiments.

Related Products: Bombesin-SAP (Cat. #IT-40), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Sensory spinal interoceptive pathways and energy balance regulation

Münzberg H, Berthoud HR, Neuhuber WL (2023) Sensory spinal interoceptive pathways and energy balance regulation. Mol Metab 78:101817. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2023.101817 PMID: 37806487

Objective: To review and discuss the roles of spinal sensory pathways, specifically dorsal root ganglia (DRG) afferents, in energy balance regulation, highlighting their contributions to metabolic homeostasis in health and disease.

Summary: This comprehensive review explores the emerging significance of spinal sensory neurons, beyond traditional gut-brain and adipose tissue-to-brain signaling pathways, in regulating energy intake and metabolism. It delves into the anatomy and functions of spinal sensory pathways, emphasizing the potential of DRG afferents in providing metabolic information to the brain. The review suggests that identifying specific DRG neurons and understanding their molecular mechanisms are crucial steps toward developing targeted therapies for metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

Usage: The publication references that CCK-SAP (IT-31) injected into the nodose ganglia of mice and rats selectively ablates vagal afferent neurons expressing CCKA receptors.

Related Products: CCK-SAP (Cat. #IT-31)

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