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12 entries

Mab-ZAP binds to Fc portion of mouse IgG

Q: Does Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04) bind to the FC portion of mouse IgG?

A: The antibody used to create our Mab-ZAP (IT-04), will react with whole molecule mouse IgG, which includes the Fc portion and the two antigen binding Fab portions.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

FabFc-ZAP cross-reaction with another species

Q: Can your FabFc-ZAP human (Cat# IT-65) bind to the Fc portion of another species, such as mouse IgG? It looks like it binds to mouse IgG in our assay.

A: The antibody used to create our FabFc-ZAP Human (IT-65), can react with the Fc (gamma) portion of human IgG heavy chain and should not react with the Fab portion of human IgG. However, there could be minimal cross-reaction with mouse, horse, or bovine serum proteins, and it is possible to see cross-reaction with immunoglobulins from other species. 

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

Dosage of Fab-ZAP for antibody concentration

Q: Is the dosage of Fab-ZAP always enough for any level of antibody concentration?

A: The 4.5 nM dosage of Fab-ZAP is the recommended concentration.  We do not typically see unspecific killing at 4.5 nM on most cell lines.  If the concentration of Fab-ZAP is increased, it may undergo bulk-phase endocytosis and kill cells indiscriminately.  A lower concentration of Fab-ZAP may lead to antibody competition, resulting in a lack of killing of cells at the highest concentration of antibody.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

Recommended ratio between Fab-ZAP dosage and antibody concentration

Q: Is there a recommended ratio between Fab-ZAP dosage and antibody concentration?

A: A recommended good starting point is 4.5 nM of Fab-ZAP, with a titration of the antibody starting at a concentration of 10 nM.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

Fab-ZAP number of replications

Q: Each concentration is suggested to perform 6 replications, can it be adjusted more or less in practice?

A: Yes, the assay design is meant to be a thorough approach but can be adjusted by the user. We recommend 6 replications based on our 96-well plate template design. The concentration of Fab-ZAP is 4.5 nM in the suggested protocols.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

Detecting the targeted antibody in supernatant

Q: Can Fab-ZAP detect the targeted antibody still in supernatant?

A: As long as there is nothing in the supernatant inhibiting the reactivity of Fab-ZAP, it should work.  We do not typically recommend this, but in theory it should be possible.  I would be cautious of this approach based off of the presumed lack of established concentration of antibody.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

ZAP Internalization Kit Concentrations

Q: We have your ZAP internalization kit and I have a question regarding the concentrations used in the cytotoxicity assay. The Hum-ZAP used in the assay (mentioned in the PDF protocol) is 4.5 nM and the target agent was 10 nM to 1 fM. Is there a stoichiometric relation between Hum-ZAP and the target agent concentrations?

A: To answer your question simply, yes, there is a stoichiometric relation between a secondary conjugate and the targeting agent.

Q: If I use higher concentrations of the target antigen, then should I also increase the concentration of Hum-ZAP?

A: It may be intuitive to think that using a higher dose of primary antibody induces a higher amount of cell death, but as seen in the attached figure, at the highest concentration of 192-IgG (10 nM = Log -8) there is a lessened amount of killing, at a 25-fold lower concentration, as compared to the antibody. The explanation for this is that, at the higher concentrations of primary antibody, there is more unconjugated 192-IgG and fewer 192-IgG+Fab-ZAP complexes. The free 192-IgG then out-competes the conjugates for cell surface binding sites which, in turn, decreases the amount of Saporin being internalized, hence less cell death.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

in vitro Cytotoxicity Assays

Q: For in vitro cytotoxicity assays, could you tell me: 1) whether you incubate primary with your Saporin secondary for a specific amount of time prior to cell addition, and 2) do you use a single concentration of secondary per well or a primary:secondary ratio — like 1:2 or 1:4?

A: The primary antibody should be incubated with the ZAP product for 20 min prior to addition to the cells. Internalization often happens so quickly that you would lose some efficacy due to the antibody being bound and internalized prior to the ZAP product complexing with the primary. We do recommend maintaining a constant 5 nM (~ 45 ng/well) concentration of the ZAP product in the well and titrating your primary only. This way the EC50 you generate will be the EC50 of the primary antibody with all else held constant. The best starting concentration for your primary antibody is 10-100 nM in the well.

Related Products: ZAP Conjugates

Flow cytometry for AB-N07

Q: We have a publication in review and put this statement in the paper, “The mouse monoclonal antibody to the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR; Advanced Targeting Systems) was derived from immunization of mice with WM245 melanoma cells and recognizes p75NTR in human, primate, rabbit, sheep, dog, cat, and pig. According to the manufacturer’s information, the antibody was tested by flow cytometry.” One of the reviewers wants to know more about the flow cytometry used to characterize this antibody (Cat. #AB-N07). Can you help, please?

A: This antibody is routinely tested by flow cytometry. The quality control flow data can be found on the data sheet on our website. HS294T cells, human metastatic melanoma cells, were used in flow cytometry with Anti-p75NTR (ME20.4, Cat. #AB-N07). Cells were treated with 4 µg of AB-N07 and subsequently with Anti-murine IgG-FITC (Cat. #FL-07). This assay shows the binding affinity of AB-N07 to cells known to express p75NTR.

Cytotoxicity Assay Protocols

Q: We are setting up some experiments in rat where we’d use your 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) in cytotoxicity assays. How much material do we need to order?

A: You can find protocols for calculating the amount of material needed for a cytotoxicity assay and protocols for the assay and interpretation of results on our website.


Assay Parameters for Mab-ZAP

Q: Using Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04) in a cytotoxicity assay, I obtained a nice dose-response curve up to around 10-9 M of antibody and then lost progressively the toxic effect of Mab-ZAP. What should I do to improve in my assay?

A: If the highest dose for which you got a good response was 10 nM and you lost effect when the primary concentration was increased beyond that, then that is the result we would expect. Often we have seen in cytotoxicity assays that when the primary antibody concentration is raised beyond a certain level (10-100 nM frequently being that level) there is so much free primary antibody that it competes with the Mab-ZAP-bound antibody for binding sites, thereby reducing the toxic effect. We recommend that you pre-incubate your primary with Mab-ZAP before adding the solution to the wells.

Related: Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04)

Cytotoxicity Assay Protocols

One of the tests you can use to test your targeting agent for internalization is the in vitro Cytotoxicity Assay. Protocols to assist in preparing for, executing and interpreting results are now posted on our website.

There are several protocols available.

Preparing for a Cytotoxicity Assay using Secondary Conjugates. This protocol will be helpful when using our secondary antibody-saporin conjugates with your primary antibody. These include Anti-M-ZAP (Cat. #IT-30), Goat-ZAP (Cat. #IT-36), Hum-ZAP (Cat. #IT-22), Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04), Rab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-05), and Rat-ZAP (Cat. #IT-26).

Preparing for a Cytotoxicity Assay using Streptavidin-ZAP. This protocol will be helpful when using our streptavidin-saporin conjugate (Streptavidin-ZAP, Cat. #IT-27) with your biotinylated targeting agent (peptide, ligand, cytokine, growth factor, antibody, etc.).

Concentration Calculation: Convert molarity to mg/ml and mg/ml to molarity. This protocol will help in determining the correct amount of material to use in your assay. There is also a link to an Online Calculator.

Cytotoxicity Assay for Targeted Toxins in vitro. This protocol includes photos of what your plates should look like during the assay process. It takes five days to complete this assay. Start on a Monday and develop on Friday. There are many factors that go into a successful cytotoxicity assay. This protocol should help you design and execute appropriately.

Preparing Cytotoxicity Data. This protocol will give an example of how to process the data from a Cytotoxicity Assay. ATS uses SOFTMax Pro software connected to a plate reader to determine the A490 value. Then we import this data into Prism software (GraphPad) to conduct further data analysis. Here is a figure generated with Prism.

We hope these protocols will be helpful to you in your research. If there are additional protocols or tutorials we can provide, please do not hesitate to ask.

This graph gives important information about how the potency of your targeted toxin. The ED50 is the Median Effective Dose (produces desired effect in 50% percent of population). The lower this number is, the more potent the targeted toxin.

Related: Protocols Listing, Targeted Toxins Catalog, Secondary Conjugates Catalog

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