Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN) – San Diego, CA | November 10-15, 2001

25.9 NESTIN EXPRESSION IN NEURONS OF THE MEDIAL SEPTUM/DIAGONAL BAND IN THE ADULT RAT.

J.Yan*; D.L.Price; V.E.Koliatsos

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

55.4 INTRATHECAL INFUSION OF SUBSTANCE P-SAPORIN ABLATES SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR EXPRESSING NEURONS IN THE DORSAL HORN OF THE SPINAL CORD AND ATTENUATES BONE CANCER PAIN.

N.M.Luger1; M.C.Sabino1; M.J.Schwei1; S.D.Rogers1; J.D.Pomonis1; C.P.Keyser1; D.B.Mach1; J.Salak-Johnson*2; D.R.Clohisy1; P.W.Mantyh1

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Poster)

84.13 MEMORY ENHANCEMENT INDUCED BY POST-TRAINING NOREPINEPHRINE IN THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA IS BLOCKED BY 192-IGG SAPORIN LESIONS OF THE NUCLEUS BASALIS MAGNOCELLULARIS.

A.E.Power*1,2; L.J.Thal3; J.L.McGaugh1,2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

85.13 THE EFFECTS OF 192 IGG-SAPORIN LESIONS TO THE NUCLEUS BASALIS MAGNOCELLULARIS/SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA (NBM/Si) ON TWO LEARNING SET FORMATION TASKS AND OPEN FIELD ACTIVITY.

A.M.Bailey*; M.L.Rudisill; E.M.Hoof; M.L.Loving

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

101.11 CYCLOSPORINE-A IMPROVES PERFORMANCE IN PASSIVE AVOIDANCE TASK IN ADULT RATS WITH BASAL FOREBRAIN LESIONS.

C.E.Stahl1,4; T.Kusayama2; M.Keep3; E.Elmer3; S.Watanabe2; C.V.Borlongan*4

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

101.17 DIFFERENTIAL DENDRITIC ATROPHY IN FRONTAL CORTEX AFTER CHOLINERGIC LESION IN YOUNG ADULT AND AGED RATS.

S.J.Works1; C.L.Wellman*1,2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

131.4 TARGETED DESTRUCTION OF A2/C2 CATECHOLAMINE NEURONS ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC RESPONSES TO VAGAL STIMULATION.

L.Rinaman*; C.P.Wonders

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Slide)

145.1 SEPTAL INNERVATION OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS REGULATES EXPRESSION a7 NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN Ca1 AND Ca3 PYRAMIDAL NEURONS.

A.L.Camara1,2; E.F.Pereira1; M.Alkondon1; W.R.Randall1; N.G.Castro3; W.M.Cintra*3; E.X.Albuquerque1,3

featuring FL-01 CY3-labeled 192-IgG (Poster)

157.4 SCHWANN CELLS CAN ENTER THE DEMYELINATED SPINAL CORD FROM DORSAL ROOTS VIA SCAR TISSUE.

G.Janni*1; L.Jasmin2; P.T.Ohara3

featuring IT-14 CTB-SAP (Poster)

158.13 CAPSAICIN-SENSITIVE INHIBITORY PATHWAY IN RAT SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN.

J.G.Gu1; T.Nakatsuka1; E.Tanaka*2; D.Takeda1; L.X.Jennifer1

featuring IT-10 IB4-SAP (Poster)

158.16 a, b-METHYLENE ATP SENSITIVE P2X RECEPTOR MEDIATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLUTAMATE RELEASE FROM THE CENTRAL TERMINALS OF A d PRIMARY AFFERENTS ONTO LAMINA V NEURONS IN RAT SPINAL CORD.

T.Nakatsuka*; D.Takeda; J.G.Gu

featuring IT-10 IB4-SAP (Poster)

175.10 SELECTIVE CHOLINERGIC DEAFFERENTATION AFFECTS GR mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE RAT BRAIN.

K.A.Helm*; J.S.Han; M.Gallagher

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

202.5 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN PARTIAL CORTICAL CHOLINERGIC DEAFFERENTATION AND AGING ON SUSTAINED ATTENTION PERFORMANCE IN RATS.

J.A.Burk*; C.D.Herzog; M.C.Porter; J.Mahoney; J.P.Bruno; M.Sarter

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

224.13 NK1-EXPRESSING NEURONS CRITICAL FOR MORPHINE REWARD BEHAVIORS IN MICE: c-Fos EXPRESSION AND ABLATION OF NK1-EXPRESSING NEURONS.

C.A.Gadd1; P.Murtra1,2; C.N.Hall1; M.Gana1; M.J.Webber1; C.De Felipe2; S.P.Hunt1

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Poster)

243.2 CENTRAL ORIGIN OF ATAXIC BREATHING AFTER LESION OF PREB&OumlTZINGER COMPLEX (PREB&OumlTC) NEUROKININ 1 RECEPTOR EXPRESSING (NK1R+) NEURONS.

W.A.Janczewski*; P.A.Gray; J.L.Feldman

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Slide)

254.1 LONG-TERM PLASTIC CHANGES IN GALANIN INNERVATION IN RAT BASAL FOREBRAIN.

I.Hartonian; S.de Lacalle*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

281.11 DOSE-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL SUBSTANCE P-SAPORIN AND SSP-SAPORIN.

R.G.Wiley*1,2,3; R.H.Kline, IV1; D.A.Lappi4

featuring IT-11 SSP-SAP (Poster)

309.10 A NOVEL METHOD FOR LOCALIZED SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DENERVATION OF PERIPHERAL TISSUE USING GUANETHIDINE.

T.J.Bartness*; G.E.Demas

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

312.12 ESTROGEN ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING REQUIRES INTACT BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC NEURONS.

R.B.Gibbs*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.13 CHOLINERGIC LESIONS OF THE THALAMIC RETICULAR NUCLEUS USING 192-IGG-SAPORIN.

D.S.Tait; M.Latimer; W.Woodson; V.J.Brown; BNASFN

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.14 ENRICHED HOUSING, RETICULAR THALAMIC NUCLEUS AND NUCLEUS BASALIS: MEDIATORS OF ATTENTION AND LEARNING?

K.M.Sauro; M.Sweeney; M.J.Saari*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.2 VISUAL ORIENTING RESPONSE AND THE NUCLEUS BASALIS OF MEYNERT.

M.Isaac*; J.M.Pearce; J.L.Muir

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.3 THE EFFECTS OF CORTICAL CHOLINERGIC DEPLETION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ADULT RATS IN AN APPETITIVE-TO-AVERSIVE TRANSFER TASK.

J.A.Schultz*1; A.E.Butt2; C.L.George1; P.E.Garraghty1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.4 EFFECT OF CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE INFUSIONS INTO THE BASAL FOREBRAIN ON MEDIAL PREFRONTAL NEURAL ACTIVITY OF RATS DURING SUSTAINED VISUAL ATTENTION.

M.M.Yurrita1,2; B.Givens*1,2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

313.7 BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC AND GABAergic NEURONS MEDIATE DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF SUSTAINED ATTENTION PERFORMANCE IN RATS.

M.Sarter*; J.A.Burk; A.Graf; J.Russell; J.P.Bruno

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

314.14 CHOLINERGIC AND NONCHOLINERGIC SEPTAL NEURONS MODULATE STRATEGY SELECTION IN PLACE LEARNING.

J.F.Cahill; M.G.Baxter*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

314.15 ENVIRONMENT-SPATIAL CONDITIONAL LEARNING: CONTRIBUTION OF MEDIAL SEPTAL CHOLINERGIC NEURONS.

O.Jackson*; E.F.Firoz; A.M.Janisiewicz; M.G.Baxter

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

314.16 EFFECTS OF BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC LESIONS ON SPATIAL LEARNING IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS.

J.S.Rodefer*; Z.Jonasson; J.F.Cahill; R.E.Tobey; M.G.Baxter

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

314.17 192 IGG SAPORIN LESIONS OF THE NUCLEUS BASALIS MAGNOCELLULARIS IMPAIR WORKING BUT NOT REFERENCE MEMORY IN A DELAYED NON-MATCH-TO-POSITION Y-MAZE TASK.

A.E.Butt*; M.M.Noble; H.Barrett; S.Brinegar; A.Hixon; B.Kester; D.Levey; T.Rea; M.Ryan; S.Schulze; L.Vogel

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

314.18 THE ROLE OF THE CHOLINERGIC BASAL FOREBRAIN IN LEARNING, MEMORY AND REWARD EXPECTANCIES.

L.M.Savage*1; R.Buzzette1; D.Ramirez1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

376.5 NICOTINE ENHANCES N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPTOR RESPONSES AND FACILITATES LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS FROM RATS WITH CHOLINERGIC LESIONS.

N.Hamaue*; Y.Yamazaki; H.Ohmori; K.Sumikawa

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

409.6 NORADRENERGIC INPUTS TO THE PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS (PVN) IS INVOLVED IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR a EXPRESSION IN THE PVN OF 48-H FASTED AND 2DG-INJECTED FEMALE RATS.

M.A.Estacio; H.Tsukamura; B.A.Reyes; K.I.Maeda*

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

410.7 HYPOCRETIN-SAPORIN (HCRT-SAP) As A TOOL TO EXAMINE HYPOCRETIN FUNCTION.

D.Gerashchenko1; M.D.Kohls2; M.A.Greco1; N.S.Waleh3; R.Salin-Pascual4; T.S.Kilduff3; D.A.Lappi2; P.J.Shiromani*1

featuring IT-20 Orexin-SAP (Poster)

410.8 LIGHT- AND FOOD-ENTRAINED CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN RATS WITH NEUROTOXIC LESIONS OF HYPOCRETIN CELLS.

R.E.Mistlberger*1; M.C.Antle1; M.Jones1; T.S.Kilduff2

featuring IT-20 Orexin-SAP (Poster)

410.9 HYPOCRETIN B-SAPORIN LESIONS OF THE BRAINSTEM INCREASE REM SLEEP AT NIGHT.

C.A.Blanco-Centurion*1; R.J.Salin-Pascual2; D.Gerashchenko1; M.A.Greco1; P.J.Shiromani1

featuring IT-20 Orexin-SAP (Poster)

418.7 MAZE STRATEGY IN RATS WITH GABAergic OR CHOLINERGIC LESIONS OF MEDIAL SEPTUM.

R.M.Yoder*1; S.A.Reuss1; K.C.Pang1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

426.8 SELECTIVE NEONATAL NEUROCHEMICAL LESIONS PERSIST INTO OLD AGE AND CAUSE ALZHEIMER-LIKE PATHOLOGY.

M.de Butte; T.Fortin; N.Sherren; B.A.Pappas*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

466.7 IMMUNOLESIONING OF BRAINSTEM DBH NEURONS ON THE MATING-INDUCED LH AND PROLACTIN SURGE IN THE RABBIT.

K.Pau*

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Slide)

508.10 DERMORPHIN-SAPORIN CONJUGATE RELIEVES INFLAMMATORY PAIN AFTER PERIPHERAL APPLICATION.

J.Palecek*; V.Paleckova; W.D.Willis

featuring IT-12 Dermorphin-SAP (Poster)

522.21 LOSS OF HISTAMINERGIC NEURONS DOES NOT PRODUCE HYPERSOMNOLENCE.

T.C.Chou*1; D.Gerashchenko2; C.B.Saper1,3; P.J.Shiromani2

featuring IT-20 Orexin-SAP (Poster)

523.12 EFFECTS OF 192-SAPORIN LESION OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN ON SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS AND ADENOSINE RECEPTOR (A1) mRNA LEVELS.

M.A.Greco*1; R.Salin-Pascual2; D.Gerashchenko1; C.Blanco-Centurion1; P.J.Shiromani1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

533.16 BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM: CORTICAL ACTIVATION, SLEEP/WAKING EEG AND EVOKED POTENTIALS.

R.Shafi; G.G.Berntson*; M.Sarter; T.Saurer; M.Spino

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

534.13 LOW DOSE 192 IGG-SAPORIN SELECTIVELY DESTROYS BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC NEURONS AND IMPAIRS ACQUISITION OF A SPATIAL MEMORY TASK.

N.J.Zambon1; R.Nagle1; V.Pokala1; R.B.Gibbs2; D.A.Johnson*1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

539.5 BEHAVIOURAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH SINGLE AND COMBINED ACETYLCHOLINE AND DOPAMINE LESIONS IN NEONATAL RATS.

N.Sherren*; B.A.Pappas

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

541.14 NEONATAL CHOLINERGIC LESIONS ALTER REACTIVITY TO A GABAergic AGONIST IN 18-DAY-OLD RATS.

L.Ricceri1; M.L.Scattoni1; G.Calamandrei1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

549.16 a-1 ADRENERGIC AGONIST EFFECT ON CHOLINERGIC MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS.

L.E.Harrell*1,2; K.Kolasa1; D.S.Parsons1; K.Conger2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

549.17 a-1 ADRENERGIC ANTAGONIST EFFECT ON CHOLINERGIC MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS.

K.Kolasa*1,2; L.E.Harrell1,2; D.S.Parsons1,2; K.Conger2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

573.1 DESTRUCTION BY SP-SAP OF RAT RETROTRAPEZOID NUCLEUS (RTN) NEURONS EXPRESSING THE NEUROKININ 1 RECEPTOR (NK1R) DECREASES BREATHING AT REST AND IN RESPONSE TO HYPERCAPNIA.

E.E.Nattie*; A.Li

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Slide)

599.7 SELECTIVE CHOLINERGIC DENERVATION INHIBITS EXPRESSION OF LONG-TERM POTENTIATION IN THE ADULT BUT NOT INFANT RAT HIPPOCAMPUS.

Y.Motooka1; T.Kondoh*1; T.Nomura2; N.Tamaki1; T.Nishizaki2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

621.2 SOUND SEQUENCE DISCRIMINATION REQUIRES CHOLINERGIC INPUTS AND SUPPRESSION OF M-CURRENTS IN THE RAT AUDITORY CORTEX.

M.Kudoh*; K.Seki; S.Watanabe; K.Shibuki

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

626.14 IMMUNOLESIONING OF IDENTIFIED MOTONEURON POOLS FOLLOWING INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION OF THE IMMUNOTOXIN, 192-IGG-SAPORIN, IN NEONATAL RATS.

W.E.Peterson1; L.M.Jordan*1; R.M.Brownstone2

featuring FL-01 CY3-labeled 192-IgG (Poster)

633.4 DL-HOMOCYSTEIC (DLH)-INDUCED TACHYPNEA IS ELIMINATED BY ABLATION OF NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTOR IMMUNOREACTIVE (NK1R-Ir) NEURONS OF THE PREB&OumlTZINGER COMPLEX (PREB&OumlTC).

H.Wang*; P.G.Guyenet

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Poster)

635.21 SELECTIVE IMMUNOTOXIN LESIONS OF HINDBRAIN NOREPINEPHRINE/EPINEPHRINE (Ne/E) NEURONS IMPAIR FEEDING AND CORTICOSTERONE RESPONSES AND FOS-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN HYPOTHALAMIC SITES DURING INSULIN-INDUCED HYPOGLYCEMIA (IIH).

N.M.Sanders*; T.T.Dinh; C.Pedrow; S.Ritter

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

771.3 MONOAMINE MODULATION OF SPINAL REFLEX EXCITABILITY OF THE LOWER LIMB IN THE RAT: INTRATHECAL INFUSION (I.T.) OF ANTI-DBH SAPORIN TOXIN – TIME COURSE FOR BEHAVIOR.

P.Bose*1; D.C.Wang1; R.Parmer1; R.G.Wiley2; F.J.Thompson1

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

771.5 MONOAMINE MODULATION OF SPINAL REFLEX EXCITABILITY OF THE LOWER LIMB IN THE RAT: INTRATHECAL (I.T.) INFUSION OF ANTI-DBH SAPORIN TOXIN – TIME COURSE FOR NEUROPHYSIOLOGY.

D.C.Wang*1; P.Bose1; R.Parmer1; R.G.Wiley2; F.J.Thompson1

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

803.6 BCL-2 IMPROVES SURVIVAL OF LESIONED CHOLINERGIC NEURONS.

K.Y.Lee; R.Leos; T.B.Borowski*; S.de Lacalle

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

814.9 A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY TO AN EXTRACELLULAR DOMAIN OF THE SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER: CHARACTERIZATION AND TARGETING PROPERTIES.

M.D.Kohls1; K.A.Majer1; B.J.Russell1; Q.Han2; R.D.Blakely2; D.A.Lappi*1

featuring AB-N09 Antibody to SERT (Poster)

947.1 SELECTIVE IMMUNOTOXIN LESION OF SPINALLY PROJECTING NOREPINEPRHINE AND EPINEPHRINE (Ne/E) NEURONS IMPAIRS THE GLUCAGON RESPONSE TO 2-DEOXY-D-GLUCOSE (2DG).

T.T.Dinh*; N.M.Sanders; C.Pedrow; S.Ritter

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

947.2 IMMUNOTOXIN LESION OF CATECHOLAMINERGIC NEURONS INNERVATING THE MEDIAL HYPOTHALAMUS ELEVATES BASAL EXPRESSION OF AND ATTENUATES GLUCOPRIVAATION-INDUCED INCREASES IN AGOUTI GENE RELATED PROTEIN (AGRP) mRNA.

G.S.Fraley*; T.T.Dinh; S.Ritter

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

947.3 SELECTIVE IMMUNOTOXIN LESION OF HYPOTHALAMICALLY-PROJECTING NOREPINEPHRINE/EPINEPHRINE (Ne/E) NEURONS IMPAIRS THE GLUCOCORTICOID RESPONSE TO GLUCOPRIVATION.

S.Ritter*; T.T.Dinh; N.M.Sanders; C.Pedrow

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

948.2 HYPERPHAGIA AND OBESITY RESULTS FROM THE INJECTION OF THE IMMUNOTOXIN NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY)-SAPORIN (NPY-SAP) INTO THE PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMUS (PVH) OF RATS.

K.Bugarith*; S.Ritter; T.Dinh

featuring NPY-SAP (Poster)

958.18 TARGETED LESIONS OF SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR CELLS IN L3-4 LUMBAR SPINAL CORD SEVERELY IMPAIR MALE EJACULATORY BEHAVIOR.

W.A.Truitt*; L.A.Stanton; L.M.Coolen

featuring IT-11 SSP-SAP (Poster)

SFN Poster of the Year 2000

Awarded by ATS at Society for Neuroscience (SFN) New Orleans, LA • November 4-9, 2000

389.13 Focal Hippocampal Hyperexcitability After Focal Interneuron Ablation In The Rat By Substance P-Saporin.
J.L. Martin; R.S. Sloviter*, U. Arizona Col. of Med., Tucson, AZ, USA
featuring IT-11 SSP-SAP (Poster)

Hyperexcitability after prolonged seizures or head trauma may result from interneuron malfunction or loss; but a causal relationship is in doubt because global insults produce widespread brain damage and other effects. We have therefore sought to destroy interneurons selectively using stable Substance P-saporin (SSPsap; ATS); a neurotoxin internalized by SP receptor (SPR)-expressing neurons. Improved immunofluorescent methods revealed that most GABA-; parvalbumin (PV)-; and somatostatin (SS)-positive (+) cells of all hippocampal regions (dentate gyrus and areas CA1-CA3) are SPR+; but that granule cells; mossy cells; and CA1-3 pyramidal cells are not. Intrahippocampal injections of SSPsap or vehicle were made under urethane anesthesia in 3 sites (20nl/site) of the dorsal hippocampus of 6 male Sprague-Dawley rats/group. After 5-90 days; rats were blindly evaluated in two sites for CA1 pyramidal cell and dentate granule cell responses to perforant path stimulation (PPS). SSPsap-treated rats exhibited relatively normal responses in some sites; but pathophysiology at other sites that was virtually identical to that seen after prolonged PPS or kainate (multiple population spikes and paired-pulse disinhibition in response to 0.1-2.0Hz perforant path (PP) stimuli). Abnormal responses were observed at the earliest time tested (5 days); and at 90 days. Anatomical analysis revealed selective loss of SPR+; PV+; SS+; and GABA+ neurons; and survival of principal cells and extrinsic afferents. Importantly; "epileptic" pathophysiology was observed exclusively in areas of interneuron loss. These data indicate that the pathophysiology produced by status epilepticus or head trauma can be replicated focally by selective interneuron loss alone; and provide the first direct evidence that highly focal interneuron loss per se is capable of replicating "epileptic" disinhibition and hyperexcitability. In addition; the pathophysiology is restricted to the region of the affected interneuron somata; suggesting a highly localized influence of inhibitory interneurons. Supported by: NIH grant NS18201.

Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN) – New Orleans, LA | November 4-9, 2000

41.7 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF ALPHA-7 NICOTINIC RECEPTOR EXPRESSION BY TWO DISTINCT CELL TYPES IN THE DORSAL RAPHE AND LOCUS COERULEUS OF RAT.

R.S. Bitner*; A.L. Nikkel; M.W. Decker

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

51.22 SENSORY TRAINING IMPROVES THE ABILITY TO PROCESS STIMULI IN BARREL CORTEX AFTER BASAL FOREBRAIN LESION.

O. Rahimi*; D. Tatham; S.L. Juliano

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

77.13 LOCAL IMMUNOTOXIN TREATMENT PREVENTS TRANSNEURONAL LABELING OF THE INTERMEDIOLATERAL COLUMN; BUT NOT THE VENTRAL HORN; OF THE SPINAL CORD AFTER TRACER INJECTION INTO LUMBAR EPAXIAL MUSCLE.

D. Daniels1*; R.R. Miselis2;3; L.M. Flanagan-Cato1;3

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

119.3 DEPLETION OF CHOLINERGIC AMACRINE CELLS DOES NOT PERTURB THE SEGREGATION OF ON AND OFF CONE BIPOLAR CELL PROJECTIONS.

E. Gunhan-Agar; P. Choudary; T.-E. Landerholm; L.-M.- Chalupa*

featuring CUSTOM (Poster)

205.8 CROSSED UNILATERAL LESIONS OF THE CHOLINERGIC BASAL FOREBRAIN (BY ME20.4IGG-SAPORIN) AND FORNIX FROM INFERIOR TEMPORAL CORTEX PRODUCE SEVERE LEARNING IMPAIRMENTS IN RHESUS MONKEYS.

A. Easton1*; R.M. Ridley2; H.F. Baker2; D. Gaffan1

featuring IT-15 ME20.4-SAP (Slide)

212.7 ROLE OF IB4-BINDING SENSORY NEURONS IN THE EFFECTS OF INTRADERMAL CAPSAICIN INJECTION.

L. Vulchanova1*; T.H. Olson1;2; R. Elde1;2; C.N. Honda1;2

featuring IT-10 IB4-SAP (Slide)

212.8 INTRATHECAL DERMORPHIN-SAPORIN DECREASES MORPHINE EFFECT IN HOTPLATE ALGESIA TESTING.

S.A. Miller1;2; D.A. Lappi3; R.G. Wiley1;2*

featuring IT-12 Dermorphin-SAP (Slide)

238.1 DISTRIBUTION OF MU-OPIOID RECEPTORS AND ACTIVATED G-PROTEINS IN RAT CINGULATE CORTEX AND ALTERATIONS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF NORADRENERGIC AFFERENTS.

L.J. Vogt1;2*; L.J. Sim-Selley3; S.R. Childers2; R.G. Wiley4; B.A. Vogt1;2

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

243.6 DERMORPHIN-SAPORIN TARGETS TONIC DESCENDING FACILITATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA TO BLOCK AND REVERSE NEUROPATHIC PAIN.

S.E. Burgess1; T.W. Vanderah1; P.W. Mantyh2; T.P. Malan; Jr.1; M.H. Ossipov1; D. Lappi3; J. Lai1*; F. Porreca1

featuring IT-12 Dermorphin-SAP (Poster)

243.7 CHRONIC NORADRENERGIC SPINAL DENERVATION IN RATS DOES NOT PRODUCE LONG-TERM HYPERALGESIA.

L. Jasmin1*; P. Arsenault3; P.T. Ohara2; S. Marchand3

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

247.10 ALTERED OPERANT AND REFLEX RESPONSES TO NOXIOUS HEAT IN RATS WITH CENTRAL NORADRENERGIC LESIONS USING ANTIDbH-SAPORIN.

C.J. Vierck1*; P.M. Belford3; M.A. Iqbal3; C. Camara3; R.H. Kline3; D.A. Lappi2; R.G. Wiley3

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

310.2 INTRATHECAL INJECTIONS OF SAPORIN CONJUGATED SUBSTANCE-P ALTER THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENAL HYPERTENSION.

J. Ciriello*; M.P. Rosas-Arellano; L.P. Solano-Flores

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Slide)

310.7 REGULATION OF SYMPATHETIC VASOMOTOR TONE AND ARTERIAL PRESSURE BY THE ROSTRAL VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA AFTER ELIMINATION OF C1 NEURONS IN RAT.

A.M. Schreihofer*; R.L. Stornetta; P.G. Guyenet

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Slide)

354.7 DIFFERENTIAL INPUT TO A NOCICEPTIVE SPECIFIC REFLEX BY TRKA-POSITIVE AND TRKA-NEGATIVE SMALL DIAMETER DRG AFFERENTS.

J.C. Petruska1*; R.D. Johnson1;2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

388.16 FEEDBACK HPA AXIS TO STRESS IS IMPAIRED IN RATS WITH SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF HIPPOCAMPAL CHOLINERGIC INPUT.

J.S. Han*; J.L. Bizon; H.J. Chun; C.E. Maus; M. Gallagher

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

389.13 FOCAL HIPPOCAMPAL HYPEREXCITABILITY AFTER FOCAL INTERNEURON ABLATION IN THE RAT BY SUBSTANCE P-SAPORIN.

J.L. Martin; R.S. Sloviter*

featuring IT-11 SSP-SAP (Poster)

502.8 ANTI-DbH-SAPORIN INJECTION INTO THE PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS SELECTIVELY ABOLISHES 2DG-INDUCED FEEDING WITHOUT CAUSING NONSPECIFIC TISSUE DESTRUCTION.

S. Ritter*; T.T. Dinh; K. Bugarith

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Slide)

507.2 ELIMINATION OF MICROGLIA SUGGESTS THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN NEURONAL PLASTICITY.

M.M. Siddiq1,2; S.E. Tsirka2,3*

featuring IT-06 MAC-1-SAP (Poster)

516.8 SCHWANN CELLS ARE REMOVED FROM THE RAT SPINAL CORD AFTER EFFECTING RECOVERY FROM PARAPLEGIA.

G. Janni1*; T. Moallem1; D.A. Lappi3; P.T. Ohara1; L. Jasmin2

featuring IT-14 CTB-SAP (Poster)

563.1 THE BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND INCREMENTAL CHOLINERGIC LESIONS ON VISUAL ATTENTION DURING A 5-CHOICE SERIAL REACTION TIME TASK.

J.A. McGaughy*; J.W. Dalley; T.W. Robbins; B.J. Everitt

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.13 A SPECIFIC CHOLINERGIC IMMUNOTOXIN IN MICE.

J.E. Berger-Sweeney1; S.L. Murg2; M.G. Baxter2; N.A. Stearns1; D.A. Lappi3*

featuring IT-16 mu p75-Saporin (Poster)

563.2 COMBINED CHOLINERGIC DENERVATION OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS AND POSTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX FAILS TO IMPAIR WORKING MEMORY PERFORMANCE BUT MAY PRODUCE DEFICITS IN BEHAVIOURAL FLEXIBILITY IN THE RAT.

B.D. Winters1;2*; S.B. Dunnett1;2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.3 SELECTIVE DESTRUCTION OF BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC NEURONS IMPAIRS ACQUISITION OF A SPATIAL MEMORY TASK.

D.A. Johnson1*; N.J. Zambon1; R.B. Gibbs2

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.4 PRESERVATION OF REACTIVITY TO SPATIAL NOVELTY IN ADULT RATS AFTER SPECIFIC BASAL FOREBRAIN 192 IGG-SAPORIN LESIONS.

L. Ricceri1; M.G. Baxter2; K.M. Frick3; J. Berger-Sweeney3

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.5 A TEST OF NEGATIVE PATTERNING REVEALS SELECTIVE IMPAIRMENT IN CONFIGURAL ASSOCIATION LEARNING IN RATS WITH 192 IGG-SAPORIN LESIONS OF THE NUCLEUS BASALIS MAGNOCELLULARIS.

A.E. Butt*; K. Allen; K. Arthur; C. Cole; S. Cook; A. Gerth; M. Hoichi; C. Long; M. Noble; T. Rea; J. Rogers

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.6 THE ROLE OF MEDIAL SEPTAL CHOLINERGIC AND GABAERGIC NEURONS IN SOCIAL MEMORY.

A.J. Secor1;2; J. Bishop1;2; K.C.H. Pang1;2*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.7 192 IGG-SAPORIN IMMUNOLESIONING CAUSES MARKED FACILITATION OF DOPAMINE-MEDIATED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADULT RATS.

A. Mattsson; S.O. Ögren; L. Olson*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

563.8 CONTRIBUTION OF THE CHOLINERGIC BASAL FOREBRAIN TO PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE BETWEEN STORED ODOR MEMORIES DURING ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING IN RATS: 192 IGG-SAPORIN IMMUNOTOXIC LESIONS.

E. De Rosa1*; M.E. Hasselmo2; M.G. Baxter1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

566.17 DBH-SAPORIN LESIONS THE LOCUS COERULEUS; BUT DOES NOT PRODUCE CATAPLEXY OR ABNORMAL REM SLEEP TRIGGERING.

C.A. Blanco-Centurion1*; R. Salin-Pascual1; D. Gerashchenko1; M.A. Greco1; D.A. Lappi2; T.S. Kilduff3; P.J. Shiromani1

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

566.27 OREXIN-B CONJUGATED TO SAPORIN LESIONS LH AND TMN NEURONS AND PRODUCES NARCOLEPTIC-LIKE SLEEP IN RATS.

D. Gerashchenko1; M.-A. Greco1; R. Salin-Pascual1; T.S. Kilduff2; D.A. Lappi3; P.J. Shiromani1*

featuring IT-20 Orexin-SAP (Poster)

571.2 REDUCED ANXIETY RELATED BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING ABLATION OF AMYGDALA NEURONS EXPRESSING SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR.

S.D. Rogers1; J.L. Salak-Johnson1;2*; M.J. Schwei1; J.D. Pomonis1; P.W. Mantyh1

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Poster)

633.18 CONTRIBUTION OF IB4-POSITIVE SENSORY NEURONS TO NGF-INDUCED HYPERALGESIA IN THE RAT.

J.W. Tarpley; W.J. Martin*; B.S. Baldwin; M.J. Forrest; D.E. MacIntyre

featuring IT-10 IB4-SAP (Poster)

635.13 RESPONSES OF SPINAL DORSAL HORN NEURONS TO CAPSAICIN FOLLOWING INTRATHECAL PRETREATMENT WITH SUBSTANCE P-SAPORIN TOXIN.

S.G. Khasabov1; S.D. Rogers1; P.W. Mantyh1;3; D.A. Simone1;2*

featuring IT-07 SP-SAP (Poster)

639.8 INTRACORTICAL INJECTION OF DBH-SAPORIN TARGETS NORADRENERGIC AXONS IN THE MEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX OF THE RAT.

M.S. Mazei1; R.G. Wiley2; A.Y. Deutch1*

featuring IT-03 Anti-DBH-SAP (Poster)

722.6 NGF-INDUCED RAPID FUNCTIONAL PLASTICITY IN THE ADULT RAT SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX IS MEDIATED BY FIBERS ORIGINATING IN THE BASAL FOREBRAIN CHOLINERGIC SYSTEM.

N. Prakash1;2*; S.C. Cohen-Cory3; R.D. Frostig1

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

733.4 ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE FOR GLIAL ACTIVATION AFTER INTRATHECAL LUMBOSACRAL HIV-1 GLYCOPROTEIN; GP120-INDUCED ALLODYNIA.

A. Holguin1*; C.B. Armstrong1; C.M. Twining1; E.D. Milligan1; M.K. Hansen1; M. McGorry1; K.A. O’Connor1; N. Quan2; D. Martin3; D.A. Lappi4; S.F. Maier1; L.R. Watkins1

featuring IT-06 MAC-1-SAP (Poster)

733.9 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF A SPONTANEOUS PAIN-LIKE BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING EXCITOTOXIC SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) BY ABLATION OF NEURONS EXPRESSING THE SUBSTANCE P RECEPTOR.

R.P. Yezierski1*; C.G. Yu1; R.G. Wiley2

featuring IT-11 SSP-SAP (Poster)

837.10 EFFECTS OF INTRA-BASALIS INFUSION OF D-CYCLOSERINE UPON SUSTAINED ATTENTION PERFORMANCE IN RATS.

M. Sarter*; J. Turchi

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

837.3 NUCLEUS BASALIS MAGNOCELLULARIS AND ENRICHED HOUSING: PARTNERS IN NEURAL PATTERNS OF ATTENTION?

C. Westhead; R.K. Saari; P. Morrison; P.T. Williams; M.J. Saari*

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

837.6 ATTENTIONAL DEMAND-RELATED ALTERATIONS IN MEDIAL PREFRONTAL NEURAL ACTIVITY OF AGED RATS DURING SUSTAINED VISUAL ATTENTION.

T.M. Gill*; M.M. Yurrita; B. Givens

featuring IT-01 192-IgG-SAP (Poster)

Society for Neuroscience (SFN) Symposium October 23-28, 1999 – Miami, Florida

Symposium:  “Exciting New Advances in Pain Research and Treatment Using Receptor Internalization Technologies”

D.A. Thomas, NIDA-NIH (co-chair); R.G. Wiley, Vanderbilt University; W.J. Martin, UCSF; M.J. Iadorola, NIDCR-NIH; P. Mantyh, University of Minnesota; R.M. Caudle, University of Florida (co-chair) 

A press conference was held prior to the Thursday, Oct. 28 symposium. Carl Hall, journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle, covered the issues well.

(You can view/print this article at: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/chronicle/archive/1999/10/28/MN105769.DTL&type=printable)

The theme of the symposium centered on the Advanced Targeting Systems’ technology: targeting specific cell types using receptor internalization. For further details on this technology, check out the ATS tutorial.

Three of the four speakers, Dr. Ron Wiley, Dr. William Martin, and Dr. Pat Mantyh, presented stunning data utilizing products developed by Advanced Targeting Systems. The products covered were: anti-DBH-Saporin, 192-IgG-SAP, OX7-Saporin, Substance P-Saporin, and a conjugate using a more stable analog of Substance P, SSP-Saporin. All of these targeted toxins are currently available from ATS (see targeted toxins, for more information).

SFN Poster of the Year 1999

Awarded by ATS at Society for Neuroscience (SFN) Miami, Florida • October 23-28, 1999

474.6 Abolition of cyanide-induced sympathoexcitation by selective lesion of bulbospinal catecholaminergic neurons.
A.M. SCHREIHOFER* and P.G. GUYENET Univ. of Virginia.
Cardiovascular regulation: central control III (POSTER)

The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contains BS C1 adrenergic cells and non-CA neurons whose relative importance for the production of sympathetic vasomotor tone and cardiovascular reflexes remains unknown. In the present study we evaluate 2 sympathetic reflexes after selective lesions of BS CA neurons with the neurotoxin saporin-anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase (SAP-DBH). Rats received bilateral microinjections of SAP-DBH (42 ng/200nl/site) into the spinal cord centered at the intermediolateral cell column at T2 & T4 & T6 and were allowed to recover for 3-5 weeks. Arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and splanchnic nerve activity (SNA) were measured while the rats were chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated, and paralyzed. Baseline AP and HR were comparable between control rats (n-7, 113 +/- 7 mmHg, 426 +/- 12 bpm) and lesioned rats (n=7, 123 +/- 4 mmHg, 448 +/- 7 bpm). In control rats stimulation of the carotid chemoreflex (100 micrograms/kg sodium cyanide, iv) produced a burst in SNA (266 +/- 26%) followed by inhibition (to 18 +/- 3% of base). In contrast, in the SAP-DBH-treated animals cyanide produced only an inhibition of SNA (to 33 +/- 7% of base). Mean AP responses mirrored the SNA responses. In contrast, the Bezold-Jarisch reflex was not diminished in the SAP-DBH-treated rats. Phenyl biguanide (5 micrograms/kg, iv) decreased AP (22 +/- 3 vs. 42 +/- 5 mmHg), SNA (85 +/- 4 vs. 67 +/- 6%), and HR (28 +/- 6 vs. 56 +/- 7 bpm) in control rats and lesioned rats respectively. Histological examination revealed that SAP-DBH depleted the vast majority of BS C1 cells (>70% of the rostral third of the C1 cell group), and >80% of the A5 cell group. These results indicate that sympathetic vasomotor tone persists and rats have a normal mean AP in the absence of most of BS C1 and A5 cells. Although the BS C1 cells may not be required for the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, BS CA cells are essential for the sympathoexcitatory response to cyanide. Work supported by NIH 28785.

Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN) Symposium October 23-28, 1999 – Miami, Florida

271.1 Inhibition of mustard oil-induced thermal hyperalgesia in an operant escape task by substance P-saporin.

R.G. WILEY*, D.A. LAPPI and C.J. VIERCK Univ. of Florida Brain Inst. and Adv. Targeting Systems, San Diego.

Pain modulation: anatomy and physiology–substance P and NK-1 (POSTER)

272.8 Depletion of IB4-binding sensory neurons results in elevated nociceptive thresholds.

L. VULCHANOVA*, L.S. STONE, T. OLSON, M.S. RIEDL, R. ELDE and C.N. HONDA Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Pain modulation: anatomy and physiology–nociceptors (POSTER)

300.15 NGF-mediated alteration of NF-kappa B binding activity after partial immuno-lesions to rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons.

Z. GU*, T. TOLIVER-KINSKY, J. GLASGOW, L. CHIN and J.R. PEREZ-POLO Univ. of Texas Med. Br., Galveston.

Neurotrophic factors: receptors and cellular mechanisms III (POSTER)

358.5 Lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons eliminate the modulatory effects of benzodiazepine receptor ligands on behavioral and cardiovascular reactions in an anxiogenic paradigm.

J.R. STOWELL*, G.G. BERNTSON and M. SARTER Ohio State Univ.

Cognition: higher functions–lesion/patient studies (POSTER)

474.6 Abolition of cyanide-induced sympathoexcitation by selective lesion of bulbospinal catecholaminergic neurons.

A.M. SCHREIHOFER* and P.G. GUYENET Univ. of Virginia.

Cardiovascular regulation: central control III (POSTER)

554.6 Effects of cortical cholinergic deafferentation upon processing capacity as assessed by an olfactory span task in rats.

M. SARTER*, J. TURCHI and K. GONZALEZ Ohio State Univ.

Learning and memory: pharmacology–acetylcholine I (POSTER)

559.2 Selective cholinergic lesions of the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca affect odor perception in rats.

P. GARCIA, C. LINSTER, M.E. HASSELMO and M.G. BAXTER* Boston Univ. and Harvard Univ.

Learning and memory: systems and functions–cholinergic modulation (POSTER)

559.4 Selective lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats do not affect simple association learning.

A.E. BUTT, T.D. BOWMAN, J.S. NOVOTNEY, J.L. ROGERS, and A. TANABI Department of Psychology, Indiana State University, Terre Haute IN 47809

Learning and memory: systems and functions–cholinergic modulation (POSTER)

559.5 Lack of effect of intraventricular OX7-saporin on working memory in the rat.

C.C. WRENN*, D.A. LAPPI and R.G. WILEY Vanderbilt Univ. and Adv. Targeting Systems, Carlsbad, CA.

Learning and memory: systems and functions–cholinergic modulation (POSTER)

559.6 A developmental role of the cholinergic basal forebrain: behavioural and neurochemical effects of neonatal 192 IgG-saporin lesions.

L. RICCERI*, G. CALAMANDREI and J. BERGER-SWEENEY (SPON: Intl. Behavioural and Neural Genetics Soc.). Inst. Superiore di Sanit‡, Rome and Wellesley Col.

Learning and memory: systems and functions–cholinergic modulation (POSTER)

559.9 GABAergic septohippocampal neurons are not necessary for spatial memory.

A. SECOR, R. NOCERA and K.C.H. PANG* Bowling Green State Univ.

Learning and memory: systems and functions–cholinergic modulation (POSTER)

561.15 Selective immunolesion of substance P receptor expressing interneurons in the hippocampus.

Z. BORHEGYI, R.G. WILEY, D.A. LAPPI, J. MORRELL* and G. BUZSAKI Rutgers Univ., Newark, VA Med. Ctr., Nashville and Adv. Targeting Systems, San Diego.

Limbic system and hypothalamus: electrophysiology II (POSTER)

643.7 Increased susceptibility to flurothyl-induced generalized seizures after immunolesions to cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain.

D.C. SILVEIRA*, G.L. HOLMES, S.C. SCHACHTER, C. GEULA and D.L. SCHOMER Children’s Hosp. and Beth Israel Deaconess Med. Ctr., Harvard Med. Sch.

Epilepsy: basic mechanisms V (POSTER)

731.2 CTB-saporin induced demyelinating myelopathy in the rat.

G. JANNI*, D.A. LAPPI, P.T. OHARA and L. JASMIN Georgetown Univ., Adv. Targeting Systems, San Diego and UCSF.

Neurotoxicity: exogenous toxins II (POSTER)

754.4 Cholinergic deafferentation of the hippocampus or cortex produces differential modulation of attentional processing.

J.J. WAITE* UCSD and VA Med. Ctr., San Diego.

Neural basis of behavior: cognition–attention: rodent models of attention (POSTER)

803.6 Hippocampal Trk-A receptors are compartmentalized within axonal transport vesicle sites and present in select astrocytes.

M.L. BARKER-GIBB*, S. EINHEBER and T.A. MILNER Weill Med. Col. of Cornell Univ. and NYU Med. Ctr.

Neurotrophic factors: receptors and cellular mechanisms VII (POSTER)

814.2 Molecular Neurosurgery: The Use of Targeted Cytotoxins in Neuroscience.

R. G. WILEY Vanderbilt Univ

Exciting New Advances in Pain Research and Treatment Using Receptor Internalization (SYMPOSIUM)

814.3 Selective Targeting of Pain Regulatory Pathways.

W. J. MARTIN Univ. of California, San Francisco

Exciting New Advances in Pain Research and Treatment Using Receptor Internalization (SYMPOSIUM)

814.5 Receptor Internalization as a Selective Portal of Entry Into Cells.

P. MANTYH Univ. of Minnesota

Exciting New Advances in Pain Research and Treatment Using Receptor Internalization (SYMPOSIUM)

847.3 Cholinergic basal forebrain lesion results in reduced activity of neuronal NO synthase in hippocampal and neocortical areas of the rat brain.

M. HARTLAGE-RUEBSAMEN, W.R. LIPPE* and R. SCHLIEBS Paul Flechsig Inst. for Brain Res., Leipzig, Germany and V. Merrill Bloedel Hearing Res. Ctr., Seattle.

Degenerative disease: Alzheimer’s–neuropharmacology and neurotransmitters I (POSTER)