ATS Animal Models
ATS offers many different Animal Model products and full kits for various disease and behavioral research applications.
Learn more about our Saporin-produced Animal Models. Choose the product links below for the Animal Model of your interest. Most Animal Models are ready in 2 weeks using our Saporin conjugate system to “knock out” specific cell types to create a model of disease or behavior.
Contact us now to get started discussing the strategy that best meets your needs.
Alzheimer’s Disease models
A review of the tools for creating animal models of Alzheimer’s Disease
“192 IgG-Saporin binds selectively and irreversibly to low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor interrupting cholinergic neuronal protein synthesis.”
“Anti-DBH-SAP allows a selective and gradual lesioning of noradrenergic neurons in the brain stem nucleus locus coeruleus, the primary site of noradrenaline production in the CNS.”
Narcolepsy and Insomnia
Orexin-SAP (50 ng/0.5 μl) delivered to the lateral hypothalamus kills the orexin/hypocretin receptor-positive neurons. The asterisk marks the site of injection. VMH=ventromedial hypothalamus; F=fornix; 3v=third ventricle
Explore these useful articles and publications
for more information:
Loss of histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) after unilateral injection of orexin-SAP (50 ng/0.5 μl). The TMN neurons contain the orexin/hypocretin receptor and are heavily innervated by hypocretin fibers.3 HCRT2-SAP (hypocretin 2-Saporin) = orexin-SAP
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Fig. 1. Hippocampal pathology ~1 year after SSP-SAP injection. Nissl-stained hippocampi from treated rats (panels 2-4) showing variable hippocampal sclerosis pathology compared to a PBS vehicle-injected control animal (panel 1). Note the loss of neurons in the hilus (h) of the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1.
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Animal Model
In this study, we determined whether selective hippocampal GABA inhibitory interneuron loss produced a chronic epileptic state and assessed cognitive function in chronically epileptic SSP-SAP-treated rats and vehicle-injected controls to identify behavioral co-morbidities associated with GABA neuron ablation. Male Sprague Dawley rats (350-450 g) were injected bilaterally with SSP-SAP (0.4 ng/10 nL) or PBS (vehicle control) into 4 sites along the longitudinal axis of each hippocampus. Receptor-mediated lesioning with SSP-SAP is highly selective because the neurotoxin Saporin enters GABA neurons via the NK-1 receptor, which all hippocampal GABA neurons constitutively and selectively express. Cognitive function was assessed in chronically epileptic SSP-SAP-treated rats and their vehicle-injected controls ~8 months post-injection, when treated rats were observed to exhibit spontaneous clinical focal motor seizures.
Parkinson’s Disease Models
Representative sections taken 2 weeks after intrastriatal injection of anti-DAT-saporin (0.28 µg). Panels A and B are stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. Panels C–F are Nissl stained with cresyl violet. Panels A, C, and E are ipsilateral to the striatal injection. Panels B, D and F are from the contralateral side of the same sections. Magnification bars indicate 100µm; the bar in panel B applies to panels A and B while the bar in panel F applies to panels C–F. Note loss of cells from substantia nigra, pars compacta in panels C and E (arrowheads). Also, panel A shows obvious local tissue damage around the injection site.
Wiley R.G., Harrison M.B., Levey A.I., Lappi D.A. Destruction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by using immunotoxin to dopamine transporter. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 2003;23:839–850. doi: 10.1023/A:1025065306264.
Lou Gehrig’s Disease
(Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS)
This model of spinal cord (SC) motoneuron degeneration, induced by CTB-SAP, represents a useful tool for future studies attempting to investigate neurogenesis and/or other compensatory changes within the SC, in the presence of only neurodegenerative processes, without other microenvironmental cues such as inflammation, tissue damage, disruption of SC white matter and blood circulation.
Lou Gehrig’s Disease Models
Effect of CTB-SAP on the number of surviving motoneurons in the lumbar SC, one week after lesion, as observed in cresyl violet-stained SC sections obtained from unilaterally injected animals (n=5). The same results were found one month after lesion. The original picture has been adjusted in brightness and contrast.