Abstracts from Society for Neuroscience (SFN) Chicago, IL • October 17-21, 2009

36 entries found for : sfn2009

Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate.

Bukowski RK, Duffy TE, Ryu V, Covasa M, Czaja K, Ritter RC (2009) Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 870.5/DD2. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK) and other GI satiation signals. However, abdominal vagotomy also is associated with mild to moderate reductions of food intake and body weight gain. These sequels of vagotomy may be due to surgical trauma, gastroesphageal dysmotility or, perhaps, hypersensitivity of residual or regenerating afferent vagal fibers and terminals. In an attempt to selectively destroy the abdominal vagal afferents and their cell bodies, we injected the abdominal vagal trunks with OX7-saporin (OX7), a conjugate of the ribosomal toxin, saporin, and a monoclonal antibody against Thy1. This conjugate has been shown to destroy vagal afferent cell bodies in the ipsilateral nodose ganglion following unilateral injection into a cervical vagal trunk. In our study rats received an IP injection of fast blue (FB) which retrogradely labeled cell bodies of abdominal vagal afferents, enabling us to verify their destruction. OX7 was injected into both dorsal and ventral abdominal vagal trunks using a picospritzer and capillary pipettes. Beginning two weeks after OX7, the rats were tested for reduction of food intake by IP injection of CCK-8 (4ug/kg). Subsequently, nodose ganglia from the treated rats and their controls were examined to determine the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons remaining in the ganglia. Successful destruction of nodose neurons varied between animals. However, in OX7-treated rats the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons was reduced by approximately 60%, compared to vehicle injected controls. While CCK injection significantly reduced food intake in control rats, CCK-induced reduction of intake by the OX7 treated group was significantly attenuated. Interestingly, the OX7-treated rats did not exhibit the chronically reduced body weight that is typical of surgically vagotomized rats. In fact OX7 rats actually gained more weight than control rats over the 30 period following vagal injections. Our data indicate that immunotoxic destruction of the abdominal vagal innervation mimics surgical vagotomy in its attenuation of CCK-induced satiation, but does not cause sustained reduction of body weight.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Using visual search to examine cholinergic contributions to feature binding in the rat.

Botly LC, De Rosa E (2009) Using visual search to examine cholinergic contributions to feature binding in the rat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 873.26/EE13. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: According to the feature integration theory of attention, feature binding is an attention-dependent process whereby the different features of an object are simultaneously integrated to form a unified whole. Using a rat digging paradigm that was faithful to this theory of attention, we have previously demonstrated that acetylcholine is critical to the attention-dependent processes required for both crossmodal and intramodal feature binding. Moreover, we demonstrated that cholinergic cells in brain regions that have been implicated in human feature binding, specifically frontal and parietal cortices, supported feature binding in rats. We have now translated the gold-standard test of human feature binding, visual search (VS), for rats. In the present study, sixteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform VS using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers and black-and-white shapes. Testing sessions comprised Feature-Search (no feature binding required) and Conjunctive-Search (feature binding required) trials using set sizes of four, six, and eight stimuli. Following acquisition of the VS task, eight rats received bilateral 192 IgG-Saporin immunotoxic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of the basal forebrain to reduce cholinergic afferentation of the neocortex. Importantly, there was no significant effect of lesion on accuracy for selecting the target stimulus. As expected, relative to sham-lesioned rats, NBM-lesioned rats took significantly longer to locate the target stimulus on Conjunctive-Search but not Feature-Search trials; thus reflecting a less efficient VS. These data confirm that cholinergic contributions from the NBM support feature binding using a rat analog of the VS paradigm.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Effect of aging and prefrontal cholinergic deafferentation on working memory for familiar and novel odors.

Carter ES, Newman LA, Mcgaughy J (2009) Effect of aging and prefrontal cholinergic deafferentation on working memory for familiar and novel odors. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 879.14/EE124. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Aging is associated with cholinergic fiber loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) in this region mediates memory for novel information (Schon et al., 2005), and cholinergic lesions of the EC in young rats impair memory for novel, but not familiar, stimuli at an odor delayed non-match to sample task (DNMS; McGaughy et al., 2005). Currently, we tested whether age-related cholinergic fiber loss in the medial EC of male rats would be sufficient to produce impairments in memory for novel information during the DNMS task. Half of the aged animals were subjected to cholinergic depletion of medial, prefrontal cortex (pACh-lx) including both prelimbic and anterior cingulate cortex prior to the onset of testing. We hypothesized that this previous damage would result in impairments in memory for familiar items and would prevent improvements in memory shown after repeated exposure to novel items. Additionally the effects of increasing the delay between sample and choice portions of the test and memory for list of items were assessed. The pACh-lx animals were not impaired relative to sham-lx animals at memory for familiar information when there was a minimal delay between the sample and choice. However if a 15 minute delay was introduced between the sample and choice phase, pACh-lx rats performed more poorly than sham-lx rats. This suggests that ACh in the medial, prefrontal cortex is necessary for maintaining representations of familiar stimuli over a delay period. Aged rats showed accuracy impairments during sessions that required encoding of novel samples relative to their own performance at sessions requiring encoding of familiar samples. This impairment was greater on trials that required rats to discriminate the novel sample from a familiar non-match than on trials where all stimuli were novel. Though the extent of cholinergic fiber loss in EC due to aging was highly similar to that produced by infusion of the 192 IgG saporin to the EC of young rats, the severity of the cognitive impairments due to aging was not as great as that produced by lesioning. These data suggest that impact of damage to the cholinergic fibers of EC may vary based on whether the deterioration is gradual or has an acute onset.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Damage to nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) cholinergic target areas produce different effects on the acquisition of learning set.

Bailey AM, Enos J, Medley V (2009) Damage to nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) cholinergic target areas produce different effects on the acquisition of learning set. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 879.15/EE125. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) using either quisqualic acid or 192 IgG-saporin produce differing effects on the acquisition of learning set. Specifically, quisqualic acid lesions produce severe and long lasting impairments but 192 IgG-saporin lesions produce transient effects on learning set acquisition. One possible explanation for acquisition differences involves altered neuronal activity in the cholinergic target areas of the nBM. We examined two main cholinergic targets of the nBM, namely the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats with either NMDA (20 µg/µl) lesions to the basolateral amygdala (n=10) or NMDA (20 µg/µl) lesions to the anterior cingulate PFC (n=6) were tested on an olfactory learning set formation task as well as operant delayed non-matching to-position (DNMTP) and open field activity. The rats with amygdala lesions were additionally tested on a fear conditioning task. Lesions to the PFC significantly impaired acquisition of learning set as measured by chance performance on Trial 2 (M = 56.17%, SD = 7.47). Rats with PFC lesions did not differ from sham animals on the DNMTP task (p > .05) or in activity counts in an open field (p > .05). However, rats with NMDA lesions to the amygdala were significantly higher than chance (50% correct) on Trial 2 (p .05) or percentage correct on the DNMTP task (p > .05). NMDA lesions to the amygdala did, however, significantly decrease time spent freezing to an aversive CS+ in the fear conditioning task (p < .05). In total, the results imply that learning set acquisition differences following either quisqualic acid or 192 IgG-saporin lesions to the nBM are not likely due to damage to the cholinergic projection to the amygdala but may be associated with altered PFC activity.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Effects of combined neonatal cholinergic lesion and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on CA1 cytoarchitecture.

Rennie KE, Ward C, Fréchette M, Pappas BA (2009) Effects of combined neonatal cholinergic lesion and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on CA1 cytoarchitecture. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 736.23/M38. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Neonatal lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) system alters cytoarchitecture of pyramidal cells in both the hippocampus and neocortex of the adult rat, indicating a role for the BFC in forebrain development. In addition to altering forebrain development, neonatal cholinergic lesion may also exacerbate the brain’s response to pathological factors that emerge as the brain ages. One factor that might interact with BFC lesion is reduced cerebral blood flow (hypoperfusion). Examining this interaction is especially interesting because both BFC degeneration and reduced cerebral blood flow are characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. In the rat, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency by itself reportedly causes the degeneration of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, alters amyloid processing and produces spatial memory impairments. We hypothesized that neonatal cholinergic lesion using the cholinotoxin 192-IgG-saporin would render the hippocampus more vulnerable to the neuropathological effects of chronic forebrain hypoperfusion induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries (2VO). We previously reported that combined BFC lesion and 2VO impaired working memory in the Morris water maze and increased anxiety-like behaviours on the elevated plus apparatus, whereas neither of these treatments alone caused any of these effects. Here we report the effects of neonatal BFC lesion, 2VO, or their combined application on hippocampal CA1 cytoarchitecture using quantitative Golgi analysis. Rats subjected to 2VO showed increased apical branch length and spines, and increased basal spines. Neonatal BFC lesion on its own had only restricted effects on apical branch length at certain branch orders and no effect on spines. However, at a number of branch orders the stimulating effect of 2VO on apical spines occurred only in animals subjected to neonatal BFC lesion, indicating that this lesion modulated the response to 2VO. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the effects of 2VO on CA1 neuron cytoarchitecture. Surprisingly, it increased rather than decreased dendritic length and spines. Furthermore, while the BFC lesion had minimal effects on its own, it was permissive to some of the effects of 2VO on dendritic spines. Taken together with our previous data, this study suggests that pre-existing cholinergic dysfunction alters aspects of both the behavioural and neural consequences of chronic hypoperfusion. These results may have implications for Alzheimer’s disease where cholinergic dysfunction and hypoperfusion are co-expressed

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Dendritic atrophy following partial motoneuron depletion: Time course of recovery and protection with androgens and estrogens.

Coons KD, Munoz F, Osborne MC, Sengelaub DR (2009) Dendritic atrophy following partial motoneuron depletion: Time course of recovery and protection with androgens and estrogens. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 743.2/R17. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: We have previously demonstrated that partial depletion of motoneurons innervating the quadriceps muscles induces dendritic atrophy and loss of function in remaining motoneurons. Furthermore, treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, and dendritic atrophy and loss of function following partial motoneuron depletion are attenuated in a dose-dependent fashion, and in both male and female rats. In the present study, we assessed dendritic atrophy after partial motoneuron depletion at a variety of time points to determine its time course and pattern with and without testosterone treatment. We also examined the potential neuroprotective effects of the androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscle were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, saporin-injected males were given implants containing either testosterone (45mm), dihydrotestosterone (30mm), estradiol (10%, 10mm), or left untreated. At 2, 4, 6, or 10 weeks after partial motoneuron depletion, motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral vastus lateralis muscle were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated HRP, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in 3 dimensions. Animals treated with dihydrotestosterone or estradiol were assessed only at 4 weeks post depletion. Dendritic arbors were also assessed in a group of untreated normal males. Quadriceps motoneuron dendrites underwent a rapid atrophy and protracted recovery following partial motoneuron depletion. Dendritic atrophy in remaining quadriceps motoneurons was apparent at 2 weeks after motoneuron depletion, with a decrease of over 50% in dendritic length, and this atrophy remained through 6 weeks post-depletion; dendritic length recovered by 10 weeks post-depletion. Treatment with testosterone attenuated induced dendritic atrophy at all time points, and recovery to normal lengths was present at 6 weeks post-depletion. Treatment with dihydrotestosterone or estradiol was as effective as testosterone in attenuating dendritic atrophy in remaining quadriceps motoneurons. These results suggest that treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, both attenuating induced dendritic atrophy and accelerating recovery. Furthermore, this effect can be achieved with both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites, further supporting a role for hormones as neurotherapeutic agents in the injured nervous system.

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems following cortical cholinergic denervation.

Savage ST, Lundströmer K, Olson L, Mattsson A (2009) Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems following cortical cholinergic denervation. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 839.14/M21. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Alterations in cholinergic signaling in the brain have been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We have previously shown that cholinergic denervation of cortex cerebri by stereotaxic infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm) in adult rats leads to an enhanced sensitivity to both amphetamine and the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). The enhanced sensitivity to amphetamine shown as a potentiated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens, along with a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to both amphetamine and PCP, suggested that the disruption of cortical cholinergic activity can lead to disturbances of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. To further evaluate the consequences of cortical cholinergic denervation on the dopamine and glutamate systems, we are conducting an in depth in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analysis of nbm 192 IgG-saporin lesioned rats. Preliminary data from these investigations show an enhancement of expression levels of TH and DAT mRNA in the VTA and substantia nigra of the cholinergically denervated rats. The data suggests that cortical levels of NMDAR1 mRNA are not altered in the lesioned animals. However, preliminary data indicate that the induction of c-fos mRNA expression in cortex following PCP administration is reduced in denervated animals as compared to sham lesioned controls. These data may suggest hypofunction of NMDA receptors as a consequence of loss of cholinergic innervations. To evaluate the behavioral consequences of cortical cholinergic denervation, we are employing three behavioral paradigms (Locomotor and Rearing behavior, Social Interaction, and the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) task) under normal and drug challenged conditions. Preliminary social interaction studies have found that the saporin lesioned rats spend a significantly less amount of time interacting with each other as compared to control sham operated rats. We are currently investigating how this impairment is effected under drug challenge. Furthermore, we have found that the degree of lesion affects the performance to the novel object recognition task under saline and drug challenged conditions. Our results from the in situ hybridization and behavioral studies indicate that the loss of cortical acetylcholine can lead to alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling. These observations are compatible with a possible role of cholinergic deficits in schizophrenia, and provide a possible link between different hypotheses of the disorder.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Role of brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of operant nocifensive responses to heat: Pharmacology and hyperalgesia.

Chatterjee K, Kline IV RH, Wiley RG (2009) Role of brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of operant nocifensive responses to heat: Pharmacology and hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 855.10/X15. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Many spinal dorsal horn neurons are under direct modulation from various brainstem nuclei which act to modulate nociceptive activity. Nocifensive reflex response modulation by spinally projecting noradrenergic brainstem nuclei has been extensively categorized. Strong evidence supports a role for these neurons in the modulation of reflex nocifensive responses but the role of noradrenergic neurons in the cerebral component of nociception remains to be defined in rats. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of selectively destroying noradrenergic rostral brainstem neurons (A5,A6,A7) on operant escape from 44°C floor heat under several conditions: 1-baseline (after i.c.v. toxin/vehicle injection), 2- after s.c. injection of morphine, clonidine or yohimbine, 3- three hours after bilateral dorsal hindpaw application of mustard oil (secondary hyperalgesia), and 3- three hours after bilateral plantar application of 0.9% capsaicin cream (primary hyperalgesia). Rats were tested daily until steady operant escape responding (~1 month), then injected i.c.v. with 10µl of PBS (vehicle control, n=8) or antiDBH-saporin (10µg, n=8). After recovery from toxin injection, escape responses decreased in the antiDBH-sap rats. Morphine (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg s.c.) 20 min prior to testing, dose dependently attenuated escape from the noxious thermal plate at 44oC for all treatment groups. antiDBH-sap treated rats, however, showed an enhanced morphine effect (more prolonged occupancy of the noxious thermal plate). Three hours after plantar capsaicin, or mustard oil to the dorsal surface of both hindpaws, PBS but not antiDBH-sap rats showed enhanced escape. Systemic clonidine (0.125mg/kg) decreased escape for both PBS and antiDBH-sap treated rats, but the anti-nociceptive effect was greater in antiDBH-sap rats. Systemic yohimbine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0mg/kg) had no effect on escape in antiDBH-sap rats but enhanced escape in PBS rats. In direct contrast to effects on escape responding, antiDBH-sap did not affect hotplate lick/guard initial latencies to nociceptive heat at 44° or 47oC. Escape responses to aversively bright light were also decreased in antiDBH-sap rats suggesting generally decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli. These results support a significant role for rostral brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of pain and highlight important differences between reflex nocifensive responses (hotplate) and operant (escape) responses.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Behavioral and histological characteristics of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats depending on injection site and dose.

Jeong D, Hwang Y, Lee D, Chang J (2009) Behavioral and histological characteristics of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats depending on injection site and dose. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 526.23/H8. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Cholinergic neuronal deficits are evident in both Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Forebrain Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) project primarily to the neocortex, and those in the medial septum project to the hippocampus and they make an important role in memory function. We used 192 IgG-saporin to mimic deficits of cholinergic neurons at AD and VaD. 192 IgG-saporin is composed with monoclonal antibody had a low affinity to the rat nerve growth factor receptor p75 and ribosomal inactivating protein, called saporin. When injected intracerebroventricularly or directly into the basal forebrain cholinergic complex, 192 IgG-saporin selectively destroys cholinergic neurons. Many experimenters had used 192 IgG-saporin to investigate cholinergic function but it had been used in different doses and sites of lesion. This makes it difficult to compare the degrees of impairment produced by different lesions. Consequently, our aim is observation of behavioral and histological changes depending on injection site and dose of 192 IgG-saporin. We injected 192 IgG-saporin (0.63ug/ul) in medial septum (dose: 0.05ul, 0.1ul, 0.2ul) or lateral ventricle (dose: 6ul, 8ul, 10ul). 192 IgG-saporin injected rats were compared with Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline injected rats. Neurological deficit and functional outcome were determined by immuohistochemistry using anti-cholineacetyltransferase antibody and behavioral test, called water maze. In immunohistological study, the extent of the cholinergic lesion was showed in the basal forebrain complex region of 8ul and 10ul of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats. In behavioral study, sham and lesion groups were able to learn the reference aspect of the water maze within 5day of training. In probe test, we observed significant decrease in time in target quadrant, platform and platform crossings, and increase in latency to first crossing at 8ul and 10ul of 192 IgG-sapoin injected rats (p<0.05). Therefore, our study evaluated that 8ul 192 IgG-saporin injections were sufficient to make an AD mimic dementia model.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin can produce memory deficits without impairing motor deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.

Matchynski JJ, Lowrance S, Rossignol J, Puckett N, Derkorver N, Radwan J, Trainor K, Sandstrom M, Dunbar G (2009) Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin can produce memory deficits without impairing motor deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 528.1/H34. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin (Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA) effectively and efficiently destroys cholinergic neurons and creates memory deficits in mice, mimicking some of the key symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Early attempts to use mu-P-75 saporin in mice required a relatively high mean effective dose (ED50) of 3.6 µg in order to create behavioral deficits (Berger-Sweeney et al., 2001, The Journal of Neuroscience, 21: 8164-8173; Hunter et al, 2004, European Journal of Neuroscience, 19: 3305-3316). Recent advances in producing the saporin have lowered the ED50 to doses to 0.4 µg, although the resulting memory deficits are transient, and doses above 0.8 µg can cause motor deficits (Moreau et al., 2008, Hippocampus, 18: 610-622). In an effort to elucidate the behavioral effects of a higher (0.8 µg) dose, we gave bilateral intracerbroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin (n=6) or sterile phosphate buffered saline (n=3) into C57/BL6 mice and assessed their cognitive abilities on both a Morris water maze (MWM) and an object-recognition task, while monitoring their motor abilities using a rotarod task. Mice receiving the mu-P-75 saporin performed significantly worse than sham animals on an object recognition task and tended to have longer latencies and swim paths during the seven days of MWM testing. Importantly, no between-group differences were observed for latency to fall on the rotarod task. Collectively, these results suggest that the 0.8 µg dose of saporin is both safe and effective for mimicking AD-like memory deficits, without causing significant motor deficits.

Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

Evaluation of the effect of molsidomine on nitregic system in an experimental model of cognitive impairment.

Hernandez MA, Pineda JB, Del Valle-Mondragón L, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Ríos C, Pérez-Severiano F (2009) Evaluation of the effect of molsidomine on nitregic system in an experimental model of cognitive impairment. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 529.24/J10. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and cholinergic system in brain has been evidenced by using inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that blocked cognition, while NO donors can facilitate it. Nevertheless, the participation of NO in the recovery of cholinergic deficit due to the administration of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, 192 IgG saporin (SAP) has not been studied. The aim in this work was to evaluate the modulation of the nitrergic system after the damage induced by SAP and to measure the response to the administration of a NO donor, molsidomine (MOL). We used adult male Wistar rats allocated into either one of 4 groups: 1) vehicle PBS, 0.1M pH 7.4, 2) intraseptal administration of SAP (0.22 µg), 3) MOL ip 4 mg/kg, 4) SAP+MOL. Striatum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were dissected out at different times after treatment and quantification of nitrites, NOS activity and expression were performed. Our results show that SAP induces a reduction on the constitutive NOS activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum (54%, 64% respectively compared with control p<0.05); while hippocampal cNOS tended to decrease. MOL alone improved NOS activity in those regions. Neuronal and endothelial NOS expression (nNOS, eNOS) in the same regions did not change significantly. When the nitrites levels were analyzed, changes were region-specific. We conclude that administration of the NO donor promotes the recovery of cNOS activity in the model of cholinergic denervation associated to 192 IgG SAP. Further cognitive studies are being carried out in order to demonstrate the cholinergic recovery by MOL.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Spinal µ-opiate receptor (MOR)-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in modulating pain and opiate analgesia.

Kline IV RH, Wiley RG (2009) Spinal µ-opiate receptor (MOR)-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in modulating pain and opiate analgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 560.13/CC72. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Selective destruction of MOR-expressing interneurons in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord increases reflex nocifensive responses to formalin and decreases the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine on the hotplate and in the formalin test. The interpretation of these studies is limited because reflex-based assays may not accurately reflect the cerebral component of nociception. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of selectively destroying MOR-expressing dorsal horn neurons on baseline operant responses to aversive thermal and mechanical stimuli in a shuttle box task and effects of systemic morphine and naloxone in the same task. The preference apparatus consisted of a 15 X 15 X 30 cm smoked Plexiglas vented chamber placed upon two adjoining temperature-controlled smooth aluminum floor plates (thermal preference task) or one smooth temperature-controlled floor plate adjoined to a room temperature surface covered with 40 grit sandpaper (mechanical preference task). For both preference tasks, response functions were obtained by pairing a 44°C plate or the sandpaper surface with either 11°, 16°, 25°, 38° or 46°C. Rats were intrathecally injected over the lumbar cord with either 625ng of derm-sap (n=7) or blank-sap (n=6) followed by daily thermal or mechanical preference testing on a randomized schedule. Derm-sap treated rats showed enhanced avoidance of aversive thermal stimuli and the aversive mechanical stimulus. Morphine and naloxone significantly altered responses of control rats (blank-sap), but not derm-sap rats, in both thermal and mechanical preference tasks. We interpret these results as showing that the derm-sap lesion produces hyperalgesia/allodynia, impairs the anti-nociceptive and analgesic effects of morphine and therefore indicating that postsynaptic dorsal horn MOR-expressing neurons play a key role in modulating nociception, pain and opiate analgesia. Dysfunction of these neurons may also play a role in pathological pain states.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Facilitation of dentate gyrus population spike may involve septohippocampal GABAergic input.

Tai S, Leung L (2009) Facilitation of dentate gyrus population spike may involve septohippocampal GABAergic input. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 566.18/EE33. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The medial septum (MS) is known to modulate the neural circuitry in the hippocampus. It have been demonstrated that, in anaesthetized rats, MS stimulation prior to perforant path stimulation facilitated the population spike in the dentate gyrus and such facilitation was unaffected by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that this facilitation may be mediated by septohippocampal GABAergic neurons. To study the effects of septohippocampal neurons in modulating neural circuitry in the dentate gyrus, selective lesion of septohippocampal GABAergic cells was made by infusion of orexin-saporin in the MS. Evoked field potentials were recorded in the dentate gyrus following stimulation of the medial perforant path in urethane-anesthetized rats using multichannel silicon probes and analyzed as current source density. High-frequency stimulation of the pontis oralis (PnO) activated a hippocampal theta rhythm. Theta peak power was attenuated in lesion rats as compared to control (sham lesion) rats. PnO stimulation resulted in a larger average increase in dentate population spike (pSpike) in control rats compared to lesion rats (26.4 ± 8.8 % vs 5.1 ± 8.7 %) but the difference was not significant (P = 0.1082; control n = 9, lesion n = 8). The number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive (cholinergic) cells in the MS was not significantly different (P = 0.88, unpaired t-test) between lesion and control rats, while a significant decrease (about 50%) of the number of parvalbumin-immunopositive GABAergic cells in the MS was observed in lesion as compared to control rats (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The effect of PnO stimulation on the paired-pulse pSpike response versus interpulse interval (30 - 400 ms) was not different between control and lesion rats. No difference between control and lesion rats was detected in the pSpike enhancement after PnO stimulation following scopolamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Additional studies were needed to demonstrate the facilitation of dentate gyrus population spike by septohippocampal GABAergic neurons.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

Poster: Expression of cell fate determinants and plastic changes after neurotoxic lesion of adult mice spinal cord by cholera toxin-B saporin.

Gulino R, Gulisano M (2009) Poster: Expression of cell fate determinants and plastic changes after neurotoxic lesion of adult mice spinal cord by cholera toxin-B saporin. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 563.15/DD51. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Recent studies have attempted to achieve recovery after spinal cord (SC) injury or disease by either increase neurogenesis or stimulate neuroplasticity. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) Notch-1 and Numb are involved in the regulation of stem cell function. Additionally, Notch-1 has a role as modulator of synaptic plasticity. Little is known about the role of these proteins in the adult SC after selective removal of motoneurons. We injected Cholera toxin-B saporin into the gastrocnemius muscle to induce a selective depletion of motoneurons within lumbar mice SC and analysed the expression levels of Shh, Notch-1, Numb, Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and Synapsin-I proteins. The functional outcome of the lesion was monitored by grid walk test and rotarod. The neurotoxin lesion determined a motoneuron depletion and a decrease of ChAT and Synapsin-I protein levels in the lumbar SC. ChAT and Synapsin-I appeared correlated each other and with the motor performance, suggesting that the recovery of locomotion could depend from synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we observed a number of proliferating cells within the depleted SC, which were identified as active astrocytes. Shh and Notch-1 appeared reduced in the lesioned tissue and correlated with ChAT and Synapsin-I levels, suggesting a role in modulating synaptic plasticity. Numb expression was also reduced after lesion and appeared correlated with motor performance Therefore, given the role of these proteins in adult neurogenesis, we presume their involvement also in the observed glial reaction. The in vivo manipulation of Shh, Notch-1 and Numb signalling after lesion could be a way to reduce glial reaction and improve functional recovery.

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

Immunotoxic lesion of hypothalamic noradrenergic/adrenergic input ameliorates the effects of peripheral LPS challenge on sickness behavior and associated brain c-Fos expression

Gaykema RP, Thacker GC, Shapiro NJ, Goehler LE (2009) Immunotoxic lesion of hypothalamic noradrenergic/adrenergic input ameliorates the effects of peripheral LPS challenge on sickness behavior and associated brain c-Fos expression. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 570.11/EE120. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Caudal medullary catecholamine neurons that innervate the hypothalamus play a major role in the activation of paraventricular neurons that drive pituitary adrenocorticotropin and adrenal corticosteroid release in response to peripheral pro-inflammatory challenges with interleukin-1 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pro-inflammatory challenges also lead to marked behavioral changes, including fatigue, loss of social interest, anorexia, somnolence, but the precise neuronal mechanisms that underlie sickness behavior remain elusive. We reasoned that the medulla-hypothalamic catecholaminergic pathway may also contribute to the behavioral manifestations in illness. To investigate such possible role, we applied a targeted lesion approach in rats to determine whether or not caudal brainstem catecholaminergic neurons that innervate the hypothalamus are also necessary for the expression of sickness behavior. Anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase antibodies conjugated to saporin (DSAP), when injected into a target region, selectively poisons and destroy noradrenergic/adrenergic neurons that innervate the target. DSAP was micro-injected bilaterally into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), whereas control rats received unconjugated saporin (SAP controls). Fourteen days later the animals were injected intraperitoneally with either LPS or saline, and 2h later were submitted to the open field to record their exploratory behavior, 1h after which the rats were sacrificed for brain immunohistochemical analyses. LPS-treated SAP control rats showed drastic reduction in exploratory behavior (reduced locomotion distance and velocity). Prior DSAP microinjections largely reversed the LPS-induced reduction in locomotor behavior. The brains of these DSAP rats showed a dramatic loss of noradrenergic innervation of the PVN but also in other parts of the medial, tuberal and tuberomammilary regions of the hypothalamus. The behavioral resilience to LPS coincided with diminished LPS-related c-Fos staining in the PVN, and increased c-Fos staining in the lateral and tuberomammillary regions related to behavior and/or arousal. In summary, our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic catecholaminergic projections originating in the lower brainstem play a critical role in the expression of sickness behavior in the context of novelty-induced exploratory activity, but we cannot determine with precision in which part of the hypothalamus the noradrenergic/adrenergic input contributes to the expression of sickness behavior due to extensive collateralization of the ascending projections throughout the hypothalamus.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance.

Huang T-Y, Lin L-S, Chen H-I, Jen C (2009) Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 660.18/CC34. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The effects of exercise on cerebellar functions were studied. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into exercise and sedentary groups. For exercise groups, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise at moderate intensity. In some groups, rats were administered with OX7-saporin, a cerebellar Purkinje cell toxin, into the lateral ventricle during the 5th week of training. At the end of training period, they were tested for rotarod performance. Brain tissues were obtained for measurement of mitochondria-related protein, including Mfn2, OPA1, Drp1 and CcOx-IV. The morphology of Purkinje cells was also examined by two photon microscopy. Our results showed that exercise training improve rotarod performance, and increased cerebellar protein levels of Mfn2 and OPA1 (mitochondrial fusion proteins) but not Drp1 (mitochondrial fission protein) or CcOx-IV (a mitochondrial complex IV marker). The dendritic field of Purkinje cells was significant modified in exercise groups. OX7-saporin application impaired the rotarod performance and decreased cerebellar Purkinje cell number only in sedentary rats. In summary, chronic exercise enlarged dendritic field of Purkinje cells and improved cerebellar function, including the rotarod performance, the mitochondrial fusion protein expression, and the resistance to toxin insult.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Poster: Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain.

Thomsen MS, Hay-Schmidt A, Hansen HH, Mikkelsen JD (2009) Poster: Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 646.2/V14. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are novel drugs candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which have shown pro-cognitive effects in clinical trials. Selective α7 nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and shell of the nucleus accumbens (ACCshell) in rats, regions which are important for cognitive function. However, the neural substrates involved in these effects remain elusive. Using retrograde tracing from the mPFC with Cholera Toxin B and immunoreactivity of the immediate-early gene c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, we identify the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain as an important site of α7 nAChR activation. Approximately 26% of the cortically projecting neurons in the HDB are activated by acute administration of SSR180711 (10 mg/kg), and the neurons activated by SSR180711 in the HDB are cholinergic. Selective depletion of these cholinergic neurons with 192 IgG-Saporin abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the mPFC, but not the ACCshell, demonstrating their critical importance for α7 nAChR-dependent activation of the mPFC. Contrarily, selective depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) with 6-OHDA abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the ACCshell, but not the mPFC or HDB. These results indicate that two distinct neural pathways are activated by SSR180711, involving HDB-to-mPFC and VTA-to-ACCshell projections, respectively. The basal forebrain and mPFC are important for attentional function, and may subserve the pro-cognitive effects of α7 nAChR agonists, whereas activation of the ACCshell is implicated in beneficial effects on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens impairs dopamine function in the prefrontal cortex in the rat.

Laplante FP, Dufresne M, Lappi DA, Sullivan RM (2009) Depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens impairs dopamine function in the prefrontal cortex in the rat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 341.7/O16. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Studies of post mortem schizophrenic brains have revealed a selective loss of cholinergic interneurons, most pronounced in the ventral striatal region. We have previously shown in the rat, that a novel saporin immunotoxin coupled with an antibody targeting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and microinjected (0.5 _g/_l; 0.5 _l) into the nucleus accumbens (N. Acc) of adult rats, reduces the number of cholinergic neurons in N. Acc. by 40-50 %. Such lesions result in a markedly heightened response to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine and impair prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. We proposed that this local cholinergic deficit leads to a hyperresponsiveness in subcortical dopamine (DA) systems of relevance to schizophrenic symptomatology. Presently, we hypothesize that the same local cholinergic defect may trigger broader changes in cortical/subcortical networks, specifically prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits in DA-mediated functions, also proposed in schizophrenia. Young adult male Srpague-Dawley rats were injected bilaterally in the N. Acc. as described above with either the cholinergic immunotoxin or vehicle. Two weeks later, they were trained in a working memory task dependent on PFC function, using the delayed alternation paradigm in the T-maze. Lesioned rats took significantly longer to reach criterion performance during training than controls. During testing, lesioned rats were significantly impaired in the percentage of correct arm choices across delay intervals, but especially with longer (40 sec) delays. The same animals were then implanted with voltammetric recording electrodes in the ventromedial PFC to examine the increases in in vivo extracellular DA release in response to a brief tail pinch stress. Lesioned rats showed a significantly reduced activation of the mesocortical DA system compared to controls. Taken together, the data suggest that reduction in the density of cholinergic neurons in the N. Acc also triggers deficits in prefontally-mediated function known to be under mesocortical DAergic regulation. This raises the possibility that ventral striatal cholinergic deficits may be causally linked to cortical/subcortical functional imbalances proposed to exist in schizophrenia.

Related Products: Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42)

Ablation of NK-1 expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia.

Brink TS, Khasabov SG, Fliss PM, Simone DA (2009) Ablation of NK-1 expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 361.5/BB31. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide synthesized by many nociceptive primary sensory neurons and is released into the spinal cord following noxious stimulation where it binds to neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, mostly located on ascending spinal neurons. Spinal NK-1 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia and central sensitization. NK-1 expressing neurons are also present in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a brainstem area involved in descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. ON cells in the RVM are involved in facilitation of nociceptive transmission and their activity may be modulated by SP. SP injected into the RVM excites ON cells through NK-1 receptors, and NK-1 receptor antagonists into the RVM attenuate hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin. Here, we studied the role of RVM NK-1 positive neurons in modulating hyperalgesia following acute (intraplantar capsaicin injection) or sustained (complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw) inflammation. We used the ribosomal toxin saporin (SAP) conjugated to a stable agonist of SP (SSP) to selectively ablate RVM cells that possess NK-1 receptors. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, withdrawal responses to noxious heat and mechanical stimuli were obtained using the Hargreaves method and a 15 g von Frey monofilament applied to the plantar hindpaw, respectively. Rats were treated with either the SSP-SAP toxin (0.5 µg/0.5 µl) or blank-SAP, and were tested 10-24 days after injection, when NK-1 expressing RVM neurons are ablated. In control rats, injection of capsaicin (10 µl of 0.1%) produced a 63% decrease in withdrawal latency to heat and an increase in withdrawal response frequency evoked by the monofilament from 16% up to 87%. However, SSP-SAP attenuated capsaicin-evoked hyperalgesia to heat (15% decrease in withdrawal latency) and mechanical (increase to 44% withdrawal frequency) stimuli. Elimination of NK-1 positive neurons in the RVM also attenuated the development of hyperalgesia following CFA. Whereas control rats exhibited a 60% decrease in withdrawal latency to heat and an increase in withdrawal frequency the monofilament from 10% up to 78%, withdrawal latency decreased 27% and withdrawal frequency increased to only 46% in rats treated with SSP-SAP. We conclude that neurons in the RVM that contain NK-1 receptors are pronociceptive and contribute to the hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin or CFA.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

Leptin-saporin injection into the arcuate nucleus lesions NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons and produces hyperphagia, obesity and changes in diurnal feeding patterns in rats

Li A-J, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2009) Leptin-saporin injection into the arcuate nucleus lesions NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons and produces hyperphagia, obesity and changes in diurnal feeding patterns in rats. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 374.5/EE116. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Leptin-saporin (Lep-SAP), a conjugate of leptin with a ribosomal inactivating toxin, saporin (Advanced Targeting Systems), is a novel toxin designed to destroy leptin receptor-expressing cells selectively in vitro. However, its lesioning properties in vivo are currently unknown. Here, we injected Lep-SAP into the arcuate nucleus (Arc), to examine its effects on feeding behavior and on leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in this area. Immunohistochemical studies showed unilateral injection of Lep-SAP into the Arc dramatically reduced numbers of NPY-Y1- and α-MSH- positive neurons compared to the contralateral side injected with SAP control. Real-time PCR revealed only 11-21% of Agrp and Pomc expression remaining in the Arc after Lep-SAP injection into this region. Rats injected bilaterally with Lep-SAP were unresponsive to central leptin administration and showed dramatic increases in feeding, body weight and light-phase feeding, compared pre-injection baseline. Two weeks after injection, total daily feeding was increased by 75%, light phase feeding by 359% and dark phase feeding by 33%. Control SAP injections did not produce these changes. Clock gene expression in homogenates of whole hypothalamus and liver were quantified at ZT 5-7. Bmal1 expression in hypothalamus and liver of Lep-SAP rats was decreased, while hepatic Per1 expression was increased compared to control. Results demonstrate that Lep-SAP effectively lesions Arc leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in vivo, and that rats with this lesion are hyperphagic and obese, possibly due to enhanced hunger drive, lack of responsiveness to leptin and/or changes in circadian control of feeding behavior.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28), Leptin-SAP (Cat. #IT-47)

ATS Poster of the Year Winner. Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

The role of limbic norepinephrine in cannabinoid-induced aversion.

Carvalho AF, Reyes AS, Van Bockstaele EJ (2009) The role of limbic norepinephrine in cannabinoid-induced aversion. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 449.3/V29. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in diverse physiological mechanisms including modulation of pain and analgesia, learning and memory and feeding, among others. Thus, targeting the cannabinoid system has risen to the forefront in the development of novel treatments for a number of pathophysiological processes. Consistent with this, agonists of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) have been successfully used in the treatment of severe anorexia in patients with AIDS and in alleviating nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, significant side effects have been observed in clinical trials raising concerns regarding the potential clinical utility of cannabinoid-based agents. Disturbances in mood and affect, including paranoia, anxiety and nervousness, have been reported in patients. Understanding the neural circuits and neurochemical substrates impacted by cannabinoids will provide a better means of gauging their actions within the central nervous system that contribute to the expression of unwanted side effects. We have previously shown an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in rats receiving repeated administration of cannabinoid agonists. This increase in anxiety was accompanied by increases in indices of noradrenergic activity. In the present study, we investigated whether norepinephrine in the limbic forebrain of rats is required for cannabinoid-induced aversion using an immunotoxin lesion approach combined with behavioral analysis using a place conditioning paradigm. Male Sprague Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a ribosomal toxin, saporin (SAP) conjugated to an antibody that specifically recognizes the enzyme dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DSAP), into the limbic forebrain. Control rats received saporin alone. As previously reported, administration of the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2 (3.0mg/kg), induced aversion in a place conditioning paradigm in SAP-only treated rats. The rats’ spatial memory was also evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Depletion of norepinephrine using DSAP in specific limbic regions impaired cannabinoid-induced aversion to WIN 55,212-2 without affecting learning and memory processes. Taken together, noradrenergic projections to the limbic forebrain may be critical in the manifestation of aversive behaviors associated with cannabinoid agonist exposure.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Role of A2 noradrenergic neurons and angiotensinergic mechanisms on hypotension induced by hemorrhage.

Freiria-Oliveira AH, Blanch GT, De Paula PM, Colombari E, Menani JV, Colombari DS (2009) Role of A2 noradrenergic neurons and angiotensinergic mechanisms on hypotension induced by hemorrhage. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 467.18/DD70. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The A2 catecholaminergic neurons in the commissural subdivision of the nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) are activated by hemorrhage. However, the role of these neurons on the cardiovascular adjustments to hemorrhage is not fully understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of A2 noradrenergic neuron lesion alone or combined with the blockade of angiotensinergic mechanisms on the recovery of blood pressure after hemorrhage. Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) anesthetized with ketamine combined with xylazine were submitted to lesions of dopamine-beta-hydroxilase (DβH)-containing neurons in the cNTS achieved with injections of anti-DβH-saporin (12.6 ng/60 nl, n=6-8) or sham lesions (injection of immunoglobulin-G-saporin, 12.6 ng/60 nl, n=6). Changes in blood pressure to hemorrhage were tested 30 days after lesions. Immunohistochemistry for tyrosine-hydroxilase was performed to confirm the efficacy of DβH neuron lesion in the cNTS. Two days before tests, femoral artery and vein were cannulated under ketamine and xylazine anesthesia. Hemorrhage consisted in four blood withdrawals (2 ml/300 g body weight, every 10 min) in conscious rats. Immediately after the 4th blood withdrawal, the hypotension was similar in A2-lesioned and sham-lesioned rats (-62 ± 7 mmHg and -73±7 mmHg, respectively). However, A2-lesioned rats rapidly (20 min) recovered from hypotension (-7±2 mmHg), while sham rats did not completely recover from hypotension until the end of experiment (60 min after the 4th blood withdrawn, -20±3 mmHg). The pre-treatment with losartan (angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg of body weight, iv) impaired the recovery of blood pressure by A2-lesioned rats (-29 ± 4 mmHg and -28 ± 3 mmHg, 20 and 60 min after the 4th blood withdrawal). In sham rats, the treatment with losartan also reduced the partial recovery of blood pressure at the end of the test (-39±6 mmHg, vs. sham control: -20±3mmHg), however, losartan did not affect the hypotension 20 min after the 4th blood withdrawal (-30± 6 mmHg vs. sham control: -35 ± 9 mmHg). The results suggest that A2 noradrenergic neuron lesion in the cNTS facilitates the recovery of hypotension after hemorrhage, probably increasing the action of angiotensinergic mechanisms.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Contributions of the medial prefrontal cortex to negative occasion setting

Macleod JE, Ackerman CM, Bucci DJ (2009) Contributions of the medial prefrontal cortex to negative occasion setting. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 477.2/FF61. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The medial prefrontal cortex of rats has a role in many aspects of cognitive function, and especially forms of inhibitory learning. Recent research has revealed heterogeneous functions of the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in modulating response inhibition. In a recent study, we tested the effects of separate neurotoxic lesions of the PL or IL in a serial feature negative discrimination paradigm (negative occasion setting). Rats received daily training sessions consisting of 16 trials: on 4 trials in each session, a tone was presented and followed by food reward; on the remaining trials, the tone was preceded by a visual stimulus and not reinforced. Our results indicate that PL but not IL is necessary for learning the discrimination. A second study was conducted to investigate the effects of these lesions on rats that were first extensively trained in this task. We found that rats that had been trained for 30 days prior to receiving PL or IL lesions were still able to perform the task as well as controls. Therefore, PL lesions disrupt acquisition but not performance of a serial feature negative discrimination. This same task has been used in our laboratory to investigate the effects of nicotine on learning. We have shown that nicotine-treated rats exhibit greater discrimination between the two trial types as evidenced by less frequent responding during non-reinforced trials, and learn the discrimination in fewer sessions than control rats. In addition, rats receiving nicotine showed an increase in rearing behavior during the presentation of the light, suggesting nicotine enhanced attention to the visual stimulus. One possible critical site of action for nicotine’s effects is the medial prefrontal cortex. Research in other laboratories utilizing other training procedures suggest that cholinergic activity in the medial prefrontal cortex is critical for attending to behaviorally relevant stimuli, and have implicated the rat PL in visual attention as well as inhibiting prepotent, goal oriented responses. We investigated the contribution of the cholinergic PL to learning the serial feature negative discrimination task by training rats that had received infusions of 192-IgG-saporin into PL to remove cholinergic input from the basal forebrain. No differences between control and lesion rats were observed. Taken together, the results suggest that PL is necessary for acquisition of a serial feature negative discrimination, although the basal forebrain cholinergic input into this region is not required to sufficiently learn the task.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Saporin lesions that target suprachiasmatic cells bearing NPY receptors eliminate or greatly impair circadian rhythm generation and entrainment.

Morin LP, Studholme KM (2009) Saporin lesions that target suprachiasmatic cells bearing NPY receptors eliminate or greatly impair circadian rhythm generation and entrainment. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 278.7/EE49. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: General destruction of the SCN caused by electrical lesions produce loss of circadian rhythmicity and entrainment. More specific, cell-directed lesion methods, such as the use of NMDA as a neurotoxin, have not been successful. Here, we describe the use of the ribotoxin, Saporin (SAP), to kill specific types of SCN neurons and show the effects of such selective lesions on the hamster circadian locomotor rhythm. Adult male golden hamsters were injected bilaterally with 200 nL of a SAP/neuropeptide conjugate into the SCN bilaterally. The neuropeptides were neuropeptide Y (NPY), cholecystokinin (CCK) or substance P (SP). NPY terminals are distributed throughout the SCN; CCK and SP cells are present in the SCN and there have been NPY and SP receptors described in the hamster SCN. SAP/NPY (N=10) treatment caused arrhythmicity in 4 animals under LD conditions and 4 others became arrhythmic when transferred to DD. Arrhythmicity occurred in 1/9, 0/8 and 0/10 animals treated with SAP/CCK, SAP/SP or vehicle. There was also a significant effect of treatment on the level of variability of the activity records as indicated by precision of activity onset (p<.008) and approximate entropy analysis of disorder within the running record (p<.004). The SAP/NPY group accounted for nearly all the between-group variability. The histology showed a large decrease in the number of SCN cells, but there were many cells remaining after SAP/NPY treatment. Care was taken to determine that the remaining cells were, in fact, neurons. Also, the brains of lesioned animals retained reasonably intact RHT, GHT and 5HT input pathways. Normal histology evaluated for NeuN, a neuronal antigen, showed that an unexpected pattern of NeuN-IR cells in the SCN of normal animals, with the majority of such neurons found in an area that includes the SCNce and the region dorsolateral. NeuN was heavily co-localized with calbindin-IR in cells of the SCNce, but not with VP- or VIP-IR. This distribution of SCN cells containing NeuN-IR was approximately the same in both mice and hamsters. Conclusions: (1) SAP/NPY lesions many, but not all SCN neurons; (2) Such lesions result in massive degradation of circadian rhythmicity; (3) The three main SCN input pathways remain essentially intact after SAP treatment; (4) NeuN-IR neurons are distributed in a novel pattern in the SCN of both mouse and hamster; (5) Presently unidentified SCN cells bearing NPY receptors are likely to be critical to the generation of cohesive circadian rhythms, whereas those bearing SP or CCK receptors are minimally, if at all involved.

Related Products: CCK-SAP (Cat. #IT-31), SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11), NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)

Role of the medial septum on navigational strategy and shifting between strategies: Effects of selective cholinergic and GABAergic lesions.

Janke KL, Fazelinik S, Roland JJ, Servatius RJ, Servatius RJ, Servatius RJ, Pang K (2009) Role of the medial septum on navigational strategy and shifting between strategies: Effects of selective cholinergic and GABAergic lesions. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 283.5/EE134. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Cholinergic and GABAergic neurons are major components of the septohippocampal pathway, and comparisons between the two neuronal populations are important for understanding the function of medial septum-vertical limb of the diagonal band (MSDB). Recently, we have been investigating the importance of MSDB neurons in cognitive flexibility. Cognitive flexibility is commonly examined in reversal of stimulus-reward associations and attention set shifting. The present studies examine whether selective lesions of cholinergic or GABAergic MSDB neurons impair shifting between egocentric and allocentric navigation strategies. Sprague Dawley rats were administered saline, GAT1-saporin or 192-IgG saporin into the MSDB to produce no damage, selective GABAergic damage or selective cholinergic damage, respectively. Lesion verification will be performed using immunocytochemistry at the end of the studies. In a plus maze, rats started in one of two arms opposite each other (i.e., north and south arms) randomized across trials. On any single trial, the arm opposite the starting arm was blocked forming a T-maze. Rats have a choice of entering one of the remaining 2 arms (east or west arms) for food reinforcement. During the acquisition phase of the first study, rats were reinforced to enter a particular arm (east or west: allocentric response) regardless of their starting location. After they reached criteria (10 consecutive correct choices), the goal location was either reversed (east to west) or shifted to an egocentric response strategy (left or right turn). Animals that received either GAT-1-saporin (.26 ug/ul) or 192-IgG saporin (.217ug/ul) lesion reached criteria faster than saline treated rats. No significant effects of either lesion were observed on spatial reversal or strategy shifts. However, qualitative assessment of the damage suggests that GAT1-saporin may have produced an incomplete lesion. Therefore, a second study using GAT1-saporin at .325 ug/ul was conducted. For this study, half of the rats were trained on an egocentric strategy and the other rats are reinforced for an allocentric response. When rats reached criteria, half of each group was trained in a reversal learning or strategy shift. Preliminary data show that rats treated with GAT1-saporin or saline learned the initial egocentric or allocentric strategy at a similar rate. However, animals were faster to reach criteria in the allocentric condition than the egocentric condition. Reversal learning and strategy shifting in the second study is currently being assessed. The results of this study will provide important insight into the role of the MSDB in learning and cognitive flexibility.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

Selective cholinergic and GABAergic lesions of the medial septum slows acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response in rats.

Roland JJ, Janke KL, Gluck MA, Beck KD, Pang KCH, Servatius RJ (2009) Selective cholinergic and GABAergic lesions of the medial septum slows acquisition of the classically conditioned eyeblink response in rats. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 283.6/EE135. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Both human and animal studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus is not essential for the acquisition of delay eyeblink conditioning. However, nonselective medial septal damage, in both rabbits and humans, impaired acquisition of delayed eyeblink conditioning, as well as latent inhibition of eyeblink conditioning. The medial septum provides a major cholinergic and GABAergic afferent projection to the hippocampus, and the effects of medial septal damage is widely believed to occur through its connections to the hippocampus. Cholinergic muscarinic antagonists impaired delay eyeblink conditioning when administered systemically or directly into the hippocampus. Computational models also predicted the lack of effects on delay conditioning or latent inhibition of eyeblink conditioning caused by interference of the cholinergic septohippocampal system Recent studies have suggested that the GABAergic septohippocampal system may be a major site of action for scopolamine. Therefore, the current study examined the effect of selective cholinergic or GABAergic medial septal lesions on the classically conditioned eyeblink response. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a sham, cholinergic (192-IgG saporin) or GABAergic (GAT1-saporin) lesion in the MS/DB. Two weeks later, all animals were implanted with stimulating and recording electrodes in the periorbital muscle. Following recovery, all animals received three consecutive days of delay eyeblink conditioning. Each daily session consisted of 100 paired CS-US (conditional stimulus - unconditioned stimulus) trials with an average intertrial interval (ITI) of 30 seconds. The CS was a 500ms tone which co-terminated with the US, a 10ms, 10V periorbital stimulation. Our preliminary results shows that both cholinergic and GABAergic lesions impaired acquisition of delayed eyeblink conditioning, as compared to the sham-lesioned group. However, after three days of training all three treatment groups reached the same asymptotic performance. Future studies will assess the effects of combined cholinergic and GABAergic lesions and the effects of these septal lesions on latent inhibition of the conditioned eyeblink response.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

The influence of cholinergic degeneration on the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its action in determining the outcome of lithium treatment.

Lima T-Z, Blanco MM, Bueno MA, Dos Santos Junior JG, Bargieri DY, Mello LE (2009) The influence of cholinergic degeneration on the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its action in determining the outcome of lithium treatment. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 139.26/D36. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: A substantial loss of cholinergic innervation in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex is universally accepted as a typical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cholinergic deafferentation is an often, but not a constant phenomenon in AD and its contribution to the progression of disease is not completely understood. The present work was aimed to evaluate the effect of cholinergic deafferentation on cognitive decline and on Amyloid-b (A_) metabolism and how this outcome is modulated by lithium. To this end rats were subjected to neonatal intracerebroventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin (an immunotoxin selective to cholinergic neurons). Three months after surgery animals were evaluated in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and then entered a three months long lithium (LiCl) or control treatment. At the end of treatment, animals were once again tested in MWM and their cerebral cortical A_ levels were measured. We found that working memory impairment arises earlier and it is also more severe than reference memory related deficits. The cognitive performance was only slightly influenced by LiCl treatment. Furthermore we found that the cholinergic denervation produced by neonatal IgG-sap infusion did not modify A_ levels or its aggregation state. Moreover lithium increased the levels of A_1-42 despite decreasing the amount of A_1-40, an effect that is dependent of cholinergic integrity. These data suggest that the contribution of cholinergic deafferentation, which occurs over the progression of disease, to the amyloigenesis is likely to be modest in AD brain. In addition the effects of lithium treatment presented here imply in avoiding its use as prophylactic propose for AD and in AD cases without marked cholinergic degeneration.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in nocifensive reflex responses to heat.

Wiley RG, Kline IV RH, Lemons LL (2009) Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in nocifensive reflex responses to heat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 170.17/X19. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Spinal intrathecal (i.t.) galanin has been reported to be antinociceptive in some situations. Using lumbar i.t injections of galanin, coupled to the ribosomal inactivating peptide, saporin, to selectively destroy spinal dorsal horn cells that express galanin receptors, we sought to determine the role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in reflex nocifensive hotplate behavior. Rats were injected into lumbar CSF with either 500 ng or 750 ng Gal-sap or saline, then tested over several weeks on the hotplate at 44o, 47o and 52oC. Gal-sap increased hindpaw withdrawal latencies only to 44oC and decreased the amount of responding on both 44o and 47oC hotplates. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) twenty minutes before 44°C hotplate testing slightly increased initial response latency and significantly decreased responding of the control rats. The antinociceptive effect of morphine in the Gal-sap rats was approximately additive with the antinociceptive effect of Gal-sap. Mustard oil applied to the dorsal hindpaws significantly increased responding on the 44°C hotplate in control rats, but produced less of an increase in Gal-sap rats. Topical capsaicin to hindpaw plantar skin reduced control, but not Gal-sap, responses on the 44°C hotplate. These results suggest a role for galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in modulation of nociception that is unique, different from several other types of dorsal horn neurons and suggests a strategy for augmenting opiate drug effect.

Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)

Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in operant nocifensive responses.

Lemons LL, Wiley RG (2009) Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in operant nocifensive responses. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 170.18/X20. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Selective destruction of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons using the targeted cytotoxin, galanin-saporin (gal-sap), reduced reflex nocifensive hotplate responses, particularly at 44° C (see adjacent poster). The antinociceptive effect of gal-sap was additive with morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) in reducing hotplate responses. While these findings are provocative, inferences about analgesia also require information on cerebral processing of nociceptive information, such as obtained from operant nocifensive responses. We therefore sought to determine the effects of lumbar intrathecal gal-sap on nocifensive operant responses. Thirteen Long Evans female rats were injected with either 500 ng gal-sap or 500 ng blank-sap and tested on the escape test at several temperatures. The escape task consists of a two-chambered box; one side is dark with a thermal floor while the other side is brightly lit with a room temperature shelf. Gal-sap treated rats escaped from the thermal plate to the escape shelf less than controls. The difference was particularly striking at 25°, 38°, 44°, 45°, and 47°C. Morphine effects on escape responses was tested at 44°C. Thirty minutes before testing, rats were injected subcutaneously with either 0, 0.5, 1.5 or 4.5 mg/kg morphine. The testing was done over four days such that every rat was tested at each dosage in a counterbalanced fashion. 1.5mg/kg of morphine significantly reduced the escape duration of the blank-sap control rats, but not the gal-sap rats. The 4.5mg/kg dosage completely eliminated escape responding in both control and gal-sap rats. In summary, Gal-sap rats showed reduced nocifensive reflex responding on the hotplate tests, which was further reduced in essentially additive fashion by 5mg/kg of morphine. The Gal-sap treated rats also showed reduced escape behaviors at 44°C in the operant escape test, but were less sensitive to 1.5 mg/kg of morphine than the control rats. These results differ from the effects of NPY-saporin and dermorphin-saporin, cytotoxins also targeted at dorsal horn interneurons, suggesting that selective destruction of galanin receptor-expressing superficial dorsal horn neurons is analgesic and that galanin-receptor-expressing dorsal horn interneurons play a unique role in nociceptive processing.

Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)

Immunolesions of medial septal GABAergic neurons

Jaime S, Perez Cordova MG, Hernandez S, Colom L (2009) Immunolesions of medial septal GABAergic neurons. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 241.8/I15. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Epilepsy is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures that are triggered by excessive electrical activity due to changes in neurological functions. One of the most common forms of epilepsy is Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) in which seizures originate in limbic structures as hippocampal and/or para-hippocampal areas. Principal cell (i.e. pyramidal cells) activity is indirectly regulated by rhythmic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the septal region of the basal forebrain which selectively innervate inhibitory hippocampal interneurons. In previous studies, using the pilocarpine model of TLE, we have demonstrated that the septum plays an antiepileptic role and that medial septum GABAergic neurons degenerate in the epilepsy process. Thus, damage of medial septum GABAergic neurons may contribute to epileptogenesis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of medial septum GABAergic neurons in excitability control and epileptic activity generation. For this purpose, anti-GAT1-SAP (3µL at 325ng/µL) was stereotaxically injected in the medial septum of Sprague Dawley male rats to selectively destroy this neuronal population and investigate the subsequent functional changes. Analysis was performed using stereological approaches which revealed a significant reduction in cell count between treated (anti-GAT1-SAP) and saline-injected control rats (8591.38±941.65 and 25609.87±407.73 respectively; (Student's t-test; p<0.05). In conclusion, our preliminary results show that the single injections of anti-GAT1-SAP selectively lesions most of the medial septum GABAergic neurons, providing a powerful tool to study the role of these neurons in the control of hyperexcitability states. Studies underway involve the investigation of the functional alterations produced by the selective destruction of MS GABAergic neurons.

Related Products: GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

CCK receptor- expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in pain and morphine analgesia.

Datta S, Chatterjee K, Kline IV RH, Wiley RG (2009) CCK receptor- expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in pain and morphine analgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 265.13/Z37. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Spinal intrathecal cholecystokinin (CCK) has anti-opiate activity, and the CCK antagonist, proglumide potentiates opiate analgesia. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of selectively destroying CCK receptor-expressing lumbar dorsal horn neurons using the targeted cytotoxin, CCK-saporin on reflex and operant nocifensive responses to heat, and on the actions of systemic morphine and naloxone. Exp. 1: Adult, female rats were injected into the lumbar CSF with either 1500 ng of CCK-sap (n=7) or blank (control nonsense peptide)-saporin (n=6). Exp. 2: rats were pre-injected intrathecally with 1 ug of proglumide (CCK antagonist) followed by 1500 ng CCK-sap (n=4) or only CCK-sap (1500 ng; n=4). Rats were then tested on the hotplate at 44°C and 47°C and on an operant thermal preference task (TPT) using a shuttle box where the floor on one side was 15°C and the other 45°C. Morphine was tested in the TPT using 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg s.c. 4-8 weeks post-toxin. Naloxone (0 vs 0.8 mg/kg s.c) was also tested in the TPT. In Exp. 1, the CCK- sap group showed decreased hotplate reflex responses, but decreased time on the 45°C side in the TPT. In Exp. 2, CCK-sap only rats also showed greater heat aversion in the TPT. In both Exps, CCK-sap groups demonstrated greater heat aversion (less analgesia) than either control group after morphine in the TPT. After naloxone, both control groups, but not the CCK-sap rats, showed increased heat aversion (hyperalgesia). We interpret these results as showing that selective destruction of CCK receptor- expressing superficial dorsal horn neurons increases nocifensive reflex responses to aversive heat and produces thermal hyperalgesia while decreasing the effects of both morphine and naloxone suggesting a complex role for CCK receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in modulation of nociception and opiate drug action.

Related Products: CCK-SAP (Cat. #IT-31)

Comparison of sleep-wake changes after lesions of two sleep-promoting cell groups in the preoptic region in rats.

Vetrivelan R, Anaclet C, Fuller PM, Yoshida K, Lu J, Saper CB (2009) Comparison of sleep-wake changes after lesions of two sleep-promoting cell groups in the preoptic region in rats. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 277.2/EE14. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Previous studies have shown that two cell groups within the preoptic region viz., median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) and ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) show c-Fos expression during spontaneous sleep. However, while lesions of the VLPO have been shown to cause sleep loss, the effects of MnPO lesions on sleep have not been available to date. We therefore performed cell-body specific lesions of these two nuclei using the toxin orexin-saporin and studied the spontaneous sleep-wake behavior in rats. We found that the animals with more than 70% cell loss in the VLPO (n=15) showed a 31% increase in wakefulness (61.03±1.15% in VLPO-lesioned animals vs 46.53±0.55% in controls, P <0.001) and a concomitant reduction in non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and REM sleep. There was also a significant reduction in the average NREM sleep episode duration (120±6.57 Sec Vs 143.04 ± 4.53 sec in control animals, P < 0.01) in rats with VLPO lesions. On the other hand, lesions involving 80-90% cell loss in the MnPO (n=6) produced a moderate 15% increase in wakefulness (53.8±1.09% vs 46.53±0.55% in controls. P<0.001). Although the NREM sleep episode duration was reduced in these animals (126 ± 6.61 Sec vs 143.04 ± 4.53 sec in control animals, P = 0.06), it did not reach statistical significance. The extent of the lesions in the present study was estimated by an individual blind to the experimental conditions and the sleep results. Although specific cell groups (MnPO or VLPO) were carefully targeted, partial damage (10-20%) to the other cell group was often encountered. Nevertheless, our results clearly demonstrate that while the MnPO plays an important role in the regulation of sleep, the VLPO plays a substantially greater role.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

Caudal hindbrain catecholaminergic projection to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vlBNST): Assessment of role in glucoprivic and CCK feeding responses and corticosterone secretion.

Dinh TT, Huston NJ, Ritter S (2009) Caudal hindbrain catecholaminergic projection to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vlBNST): Assessment of role in glucoprivic and CCK feeding responses and corticosterone secretion. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 87.16/CC80. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Catecholamine neurons in the caudal hindbrain provide a significant innervation of the vlBNST and some of these neurons co-innervate the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). We previously found that PVH injections of the retrogradely-transported immunotoxin, anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) saporin (anti-DBH-sap), profoundly reduced feeding and corticosterone responses to glucoprivation, but did not alter CCK-induced satiety, which has been linked to catecholamine neurons in the A2 cell group. In this experiment, we examined the origin of the vlBNST/PVH catecholamine projection and assessed its role in responses to glucoprivation and CCK. Retrograde tracing from vlBNST and PVH revealed dually-projecting DBH-ir (norepinephrine or epinephrine) neurons primarily in A2, A1 and caudal C1, with a few cells also present in C2. Dually-projecting PNMT-ir (epinephrine) were also present in C1 and in small numbers in C2. Overall, the relative numbers of DBH- and PMNT-ir neurons with projections to both vlBNST and PVH and the locations of these triply-labeled neurons indicate that the dually-projecting neurons are predominantly noradrenergic. Injections of anti-DBH-sap into the vlBNST produced cell losses in the hindbrain that were anatomically consistent in distribution and number with the tracing results. This immunotoxin caused a loss of DBH neurons in the dorsal hindbrain that was concentrated in the A2 cell group (14.6 - 13.68 mm caudal to bregma), where a maximum of 50% of DBH neurons were lesioned: 50% loss at 14.6 mm caudal to bregma, 25% at 13.24 mm and 0% at 11.96 mm. In ventral hindbrain, loss of DBH cell bodies was predominantly in the A1 cell group (14.6 - 12.8 mm caudal to bregma), where a maximum of 60% of DBH-ir neurons were lesioned: 60% loss at 14.6 and 13.68 mm, 22% at 13.24 and and 0% at 12.8 mm. In the dorsal hindbrain nearly all cells retrogradely labeled from the vlBNST were ipsilateral and DBH-ir. In ventral hindbrain there was a significant contralateral projection to vlBNST that was not DBH-ir. Anti-DBH-sap lesions did not impair the feeding, blood glucose or corticosterone responses to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (250 mg/kg) and did not impair the suppression of feeding by CCK-8 (4 ug/kg), indicating that the catecholamine projection to the vlBNST, including the dually-projecting neurons that innervate both the vlBNST and the PVH, is not required for these responses.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

The role of microglia and neuropeptides in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis.

Sivasathiaseelan H, Nunan R, Zaben M, Shtaya A, Gray WP (2009) The role of microglia and neuropeptides in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 31.26/B52. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Adult mammalian neurogenesis is evident in the hippocampal dentate gyrus where it plays a role in learning and memory and is implicated in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders. Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, have recently emerged as an important component of the neurogenic niche, however their role in the regulation of neurogenesis under physiological and pathophysiological conditions is a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of microglia on hippocampal neurogenesis and to look at how vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a potent immunomodulatory neuropeptide found in dentate gyrus interneurons, modulates the effects microglia have on neurogenesis. In this study, we have investigated the effect of microglial depletion (using MAC-SAP), microglial co-culture and addition of microglia-conditioned-medium on primary hippocampal cell cultures derived from post-natal rats. We have also looked at how pre-treatment of microglia with VIP alters their effect on hippocampal cultures. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as a marker of cell proliferation. Quantification of cell death was achieved using the nuclear stain 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and Propidium Iodide. Immunohistochemistry was used to phenotype cells for nestin, GFAP and Tuj1. We have shown that microglial depletion results in a reduction in the numbers of nestin, GFAP and Tuj1 expressing cells. This reduction has been shown to be attributable to a decrease in cell survival and proliferation. Conversely, co-culture of microglia with hippocampal neurons or addition of their conditioned medium results in increased cell survival and proliferation. Pre-treatment of microglia with VIP was shown to increase both their proliferative and trophic effect on hippocampal cultures. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that microglia induce proliferative and trophic effects on neural stem cells and immature neurons through the release of soluble factors. Furthermore, we provide evidence that VIP regulates the release of these soluble factors, thus identifying a novel neuro-immuno-neurogenic link.

Related Products: Mac-1-SAP rat (Cat. #IT-33)

Role of cholinergic NBM neurons in timing and divided attention.

Mcauley J, Stewart AL, Pang KCH (2009) Role of cholinergic NBM neurons in timing and divided attention. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 95.12/EE81. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) provides cholinergic and GABAergic innervation to the neocortex. In previous studies, non-selective lesions of the NBM using ibotenic acid impaired interval timing and divided attention. Rats with NBM damage produced rightward shifts in peak times, demonstrating overproduction (underestimation) of time. Additionally, NBM damage impaired the ability to divide attention when timing two intervals simultaneously. Damage of the frontal cortex produced similar impairments in timing and divided attention as NBM damage, suggesting the NBM projections to frontal cortex were critical. Currently, the NBM neurons responsible for modulating timing and attention are unknown. The present study will determine the importance of cholinergic NBM neurons in timing and attention using the selective immunotoxin 192-IgG saporin (192-SAP). Sixteen Sprague Dawley rats were first trained on a peak-interval (PI) procedure using fixed-intervals of 12 s and 24 s paired with light and tone stimuli, respectively. During this phase, only one stimulus was presented during a trial (focused attention). Following the initial phase of training, rats were trained on a divided attention version of the peak-interval procedure, in which 2 stimuli were presented simultaneously in a trial and rats timed both intervals in parallel. Rats were administered 192-SAP into the NBM (n = 10) or given SHAM surgeries (n = 6). Following surgery, 192-SAP rats produced a leftward shift in timing with increased variability compared to SHAM rats. These changes in timing were observed in both focused and divided attention conditions, but the effects were larger in divided attention conditions than in focused attention conditions. Results implicate the cholinergic NBM neurons in the modulation of interval timing and divided attention. Current work is verifying the selectivity and efficacy of the 192-SAP administration. Additional studies will examine the role of GABAergic NBM neurons in interval timing and divided attention.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Multiple neuromodulator depletion interacts with fornix transection to impair episodic memory in monkeys.

Croxson PL, Baxter MG (2009) Multiple neuromodulator depletion interacts with fornix transection to impair episodic memory in monkeys. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 98.4/EE128. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Acetylcholine may play an important role in some aspects of cognitive function, and in particular in episodic memory. However, the role of other neuromodulatory (NM) substances, such as noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin, in episodic memory is less well-defined. We tested monkeys on a model of episodic memory in monkeys and carried out specific depletions of different neuromodulators within inferotemporal cortex (IT). Six rhesus macaque monkeys (five male) were trained on an object-in-place scene learning task that models key features of human episodic memory, because learning occurs rapidly (often in a single trial) in the contaxt of unique background scenes. After preoperative testing three monkeys were given injections into IT of the immunotoxin ME20.4-saporin interleaved with injections of 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. This resulted in depletion of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin throughout IT (group NM+ACh). Three monkeys received the same treatment but omitting the ME20.4-saporin, thus depleting dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin, but sparing acetylcholine (group NM). Neither group of monkeys (NM+ACh or NM) were impaired in postoperative scene learning. We found previously that addition of fornix transection to depletion of ACh from IT severely impaired scene learning relative to fornix transection alone (Browning et al. 2009, Cerebral Cortex). Therefore we gave each monkey in groups NM and NM+ACh a bilateral fornix transection and performed a further postoperative performance test. As expected, monkeys in group NM+ACh were severely impaired in scene learning following fornix transection. However, monkeys in group NM were also severely impaired in scene learning following fornix transection, despite having no visible damage to cholinergic innervation. Depletion of cholinergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotoninergic innervation of inferotemporal cortex, therefore, is not sufficient to impair monkeys' performance on an episodic memory task. Furthermore, there is a synergistic interaction between the NM depletion and fornix transection in this task, like that between ACh depletion and fornix transection. This may be due to a general reduction in cortical function after NM depletion, albeit not sufficient to cause episodic memory impairment on its own, which exacerbates the effect of fornix transection. It may point to one or more of these neuromodulators having a role in post-lesion plasticity, a role that is also played by ACh. Importantly, these data suggest that intact cholinergic innervation is not sufficient for post-lesion plasticity.

Related Products: ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15)