Isolectin B4 (IB4) is one of a family of five alpha-D-galactose-binding lectins from Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia. Recombinant IB4* was expressed in E. coli and purified using affinity chromatography. In one important application rIB4-SAP specifically eliminates the IB4-positive c-fiber nociceptor neurons, while sparing the peptidergic neurons. Upon binding the alpha-D-galactopyranoside residues expressed on the cell surface, rIB4-SAP becomes internalized and saporin inhibits protein synthesis, resulting in elimination of the neurons. The cytotoxin is extremely potent, with an ED50 in the low picomolar range for some alpha-D-galactopyranoside-expressing cells in vitro. rIB4-SAP is an excellent tool for the study of pain transmission and the biological roles of IB4+ cells in vivo.
IB4-SAP is a chemical conjugate of recombinant IB4 expressed in E. coli and the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin. IB4-SAP eliminates α-D-galactosyl-positive cells.
IB4-SAP is available individually (Cat. #IT-10) or as a kit (Cat. #KIT-10) which includes IB4-SAP and Saporin (Cat. #PR-01).
keywords: pain, pain transmission, IB4, alpha-D-galactose, α-D-galactose, Griffonia (Bandeiraea) simplicifolia, recombinant isolectin B4, rIB4, c-fiber nociceptor neurons
A spinal microglia population involved in remitting and relapsing neuropathic pain
Kohno K, Shirasaka R, Yoshihara K, Mikuriya S, Tanaka K, Takanami K, Inoue K, Sakamoto H, Ohkawa Y, Masuda T, Tsuda M (2022) A spinal microglia population involved in remitting and relapsing neuropathic pain. Science 376(6588):86-90. doi: 10.1126/science.abf6805
Objective: To investigate pain recovery mechanisms.
Summary: The authors reveal a mechanism for the remission and recurrence ofneuropathic pain, providing potential targets for therapeutic strategies.
Usage: The dose of CTB-SAP and IB4-SAP was 8 ug/10 uL, diluted in PBS.
Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14), IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10)
Contribution of small diameter non-peptidergic primary afferent neurons to central neuropathic pain in a new, more clinically relevant mouse model of multiple sclerosis
Nguyen KL, Lamerand SR, Deshpande RP, Taylor BK (2021) Contribution of small diameter non-peptidergic primary afferent neurons to central neuropathic pain in a new, more clinically relevant mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Neuroscience 2021 Abstracts P377/07. Society for Neuroscience, Virtual.
Summary: Over 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffer from neuropathic pain (MSNP). Current treatments give inadequate relief due to incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms. Recent electrophysiological recordings of primary afferent neurons (PAN) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, revealed increased afterhyperpolarization in small-diameter fibers. These data form the premise of our goal to understand the contribution of small-diameter (peptidergic or non-peptidergic) PANs to MSNP. Arguably the most common method to induce EAE is administration of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to generate an autoimmune response targeting the myelin sheath. A MOG fragment is typically given with two adjuvants: complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) to boost immunogenicity and pertussis toxin (PTX) to breakdown the blood-brain barrier and facilitate CNS immune cell infiltration. However, PTX can disrupt G-protein coupled receptors, cause pain, and alter autoimmune response gene expression. In 10-week-old C57BL/6 mice, we conducted the first rigorous comparison of a classic PTX EAE model with the novel non-PTX (nPTX) EAE model. We found that both PTX and nPTX EAE mouse models showed the same degree of: 1) motor deficits; 2) plantar hindpaw mechanical and cold hypersensitivity (except cold hypersensitivity resolved more quickly after PTX EAE than nPTX EAE); and 3) lumbar spinal cord demyelination. Unlike most rodent models of MS including PTX EAE, the nPTX EAE group exhibited somatosensory cortex demyelination, a core feature of MS in human patients and cold hypersensitivity. We suggest nPTX EAE to be the most clinically relevant rodent model available to study not only MSNP, but MS in general. To evaluate the contribution of peptidergic and non-peptidergic neurons to MSNP, we induced nPTX EAE. After 12 days we administered capsaicin (10µg/mouse, i.t.) or IB4-saporin (1.5µg/mouse, i.t.) to primarily ablate peptidergic or nonpeptidergic C-fibers, respectively. Ablation efficacy was successfully confirmed with dramatic loss in DRG of TRPV1/CGRP immunoreactivity (peptidergic C-fibers) following capsaicin, and IB4 immunoreactivity (nonpeptidergic C-fibers) following IB4-saporin. IB4-saporin, but not capsaicin, partially reduced mechanical hypersensitivity and reversed cold hypersensitivity within 9 days. These data suggest nonpeptidergic but not peptidergic C-fibers contribute to MSNP. Our next studies will use genetic knockout, chemogenetic, and optogenetic strategies using MrgprdCreER mice to modulate the activity of nonpeptidergic C-fibers.
Related Products: IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10)
Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.
Role of nociceptive afferent input on forelimb reaching and grasping behaviors in the spinal cord injured rat
Walker JR, Ong A, Detloff MR (2019) Role of nociceptive afferent input on forelimb reaching and grasping behaviors in the spinal cord injured rat. Neuroscience 2019 Abstracts 572.09. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer a loss of motor and sensory function. The current standard of care to recover fine motor control is rehabilitation focused on a combination of range of motion, aerobic, and strength training (ST). However, limited research has been conducted to determine the role of nociceptive afferent inputs from muscle on spinal plasticity and/or recovery of function. Using a rodent model of SCI strength training rehabilitation, we determined that motor training not only improves forelimb strength and fine motor function but also can modulate the development of neuropathic pain, suggesting that improvements in reaching and grasping may be due, in part, to plasticity of nociceptive afferents. To further explore this, Sprague-Dawley rats received injections of rIB4-conjugated saporin, mu p75-conjugated saporin or unconjugated (vehicle) into the cervical dorsal root ganglia unilaterally to eliminate non-peptidergic and peptidergic nociceptors. There is an uninjured cohort and a group with unilateral C5 SCI. Von Frey and Hargreaves’ tests were performed at baseline and several time points post-injection to assess the effcacy of the nociceptive elimination. Several measures of forelimb strength were recorded over time including the isometric pull task, a single pellet retrieval task and the Montoya staircase test. To confirm the depletion of peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors following saporin injection and/or SCI, cervical DRGs and spinal cords were stained with antibodies against CGRP and isolectin-B4. An understanding of the role of nociceptors in spinal plasticity and functional motor and sensory recovery of SCI patients will guide future research and refine rehabilitation strategies to further improve their quality of life.
Related Products: IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10), mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)
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