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2002 Targeting Trends Review

39 entries

Grafts of fetal septal cells after cholinergic immunotoxic denervation of the hippocampus: a functional dissociation between dorsal and ventral implantation sites.

Cassel J, Gaurivaud M, Lazarus C, Bertrand F, Galani R, Jeltsch H (2002) Grafts of fetal septal cells after cholinergic immunotoxic denervation of the hippocampus: a functional dissociation between dorsal and ventral implantation sites. Neuroscience 113(4):871-882. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4522(02)00226-9

Summary: The authors lesioned rats with intraseptal infusions of 0.8 µg 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01), then implanted fetal cells in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Only grafts into the dorsal hippocampus counteracted the effect of cholinergic lesions on spatial working memory performance.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord.

Truitt WA, Coolen LM (2002) Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science 297(5586):1566-1569. doi: 10.1126/science.1073885

Summary: The authors lesioned a specific population of rat spinothalamic neurons using 6-8 injections of 4 ng SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11). Whereas the treated rats exhibited no change in sexual behavior such as mounts and intromissions, ejaculatory behavior was completely abolished. The data suggest that this population of neurons may function as an ejaculation generator in the spinal cord.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

Reduced aversion to oral capsaicin following neurotoxic destruction of superficial medullary neurons expressing NK-1 receptors.

Simons CT, Gogineni AG, Iodi Carstens M, Carstens E (2002) Reduced aversion to oral capsaicin following neurotoxic destruction of superficial medullary neurons expressing NK-1 receptors. Brain Res 945:139-143. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02913-x

Summary: Capsaicin-induced irritation of the dorsal anterior tongue is mediated by nociceptors expressing VR-1 receptors. The role of NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons during the ingestion of capsaicin was examined by injecting 20 µl of 2.27 µM SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07) into the cisterna magna of rats. Lesioned rats consumed significantly more water containing high concentrations of capsaicin than control animals.

Related Products: SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

Selective lesion of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum by 192 IgG-saporin impairs learning in a delayed matching to position T-maze paradigm.

Johnson DA, Zambon NJ, Gibbs RB (2002) Selective lesion of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum by 192 IgG-saporin impairs learning in a delayed matching to position T-maze paradigm. Brain Res 943(1):132-141. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02623-9

Summary: The authors investigated the effects of selective cholinergic depletion in the medial septum on a spatial memory (DMP) task. Direct infusion of 0.22 or 1.0 µg 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) produced a near complete depletion of cholinesterase-positive neurons for either dose. The DMP task provides a sensitive behavioral assay for deficits in cholinergic projections.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Combined 192 IgG-saporin and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions in the male rat brain: A neurochemical and behavioral study.

Lehmann O, Jeltsch H, Lazarus C, Tritschler L, Bertrand F, Cassel JC (2002) Combined 192 IgG-saporin and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions in the male rat brain: A neurochemical and behavioral study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72(4):899-912. doi: 10.1016/s0091-3057(02)00752-9

Summary: Female rats treated with both 192-Saporin (Cat #IT-01) and 5,7-DHT exhibited working memory impairments that were not seen with either treatment alone. For this paper, male rats were treated with 5,7-DHT and 1 µg per ventricle of 192-Saporin. While each compound produced a unique combination of effects, cognitive performance was only affected by treatment with both agents. These data indicate that interaction between the cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms plays a role in cognitive functions for both sexes.

Usage: Injections of 1 µg per ventricle of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

Unilateral lesions of the cholinergic Basal forebrain and fornix in one hemisphere and inferior temporal cortex in the opposite hemisphere produce severe learning impairments in rhesus monkeys.

Easton A, Ridley RM, Baker HF, Gaffan D (2002) Unilateral lesions of the cholinergic Basal forebrain and fornix in one hemisphere and inferior temporal cortex in the opposite hemisphere produce severe learning impairments in rhesus monkeys. Cereb Cortex 12(7):729-736. doi: 10.1093/cercor/12.7.729

Summary: The authors used a combination of basal forebrain lesioning using ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15) and surgery to isolate the inferior temporal cortex and medial temporal cortex from cholinergic afferents in rhesus monkeys. Testing of the treated animals demonstrated severe impairments in learning visual scenes and object-reward associations.

Related Products: ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15)

Time-dependent descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains, but does not initiate, neuropathic pain.

Burgess SE, Gardell LR, Ossipov MH, Malan Jr TP, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Porreca F (2002) Time-dependent descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains, but does not initiate, neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 22(12):5129-5136. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-12-05129.2002

Summary: Various indications, such as declining afferent discharge over time, suggest that the mechanisms involved in persistent neuropathic pain are different than those that initiate the pain. The authors have previously shown that cells expressing the mu-opioid receptor are involved in the descending pain pathway. In this work, the authors lesioned the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in rats using 1.5 pmol in 0.5 µl of dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12) administered to each side of the RVM. Measurements of pain-related behavior show that mu-opioid receptor-expressing cells in the RVM are involved in the maintenance of heightened sensitivity to stimuli seen in neuropathic pain.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Immunotoxic catecholamine lesions attenuate 2DG-induced increase of AGRP mRNA.

Fraley GS, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2002) Immunotoxic catecholamine lesions attenuate 2DG-induced increase of AGRP mRNA. Peptides 23(6):1093-1099. doi: 10.1016/s0196-9781(02)00044-x

Summary: The authors investigated mRNA levels of both agouti gene-related protein (AGRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rats after lesioning the PVH with anti-DBH-SAP (42 ng in 200 nl, Cat. #IT-03). The results show that the increase in AGRP mRNA levels due to 2DG administration was completely blocked.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Effects of 192 IgG-saporin on acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in male and female rats.

Galani R, Jeltsch H, Lehmann O, Bertrand F, Cassel JC (2002) Effects of 192 IgG-saporin on acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in male and female rats. Brain Res Bull 58(2):179-186. doi: 10.1016/s0361-9230(02)00775-x

Summary: Male rats were treated with estradiol, and 2-µg i.c.v. injections of 192-Saporin (Cat #IT-01).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor expression by two distinct cell types in the dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus of rat.

Bitner RS, Nikkel AL (2002) Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor expression by two distinct cell types in the dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus of rat. Brain Res 938:45-54. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02485-x

Summary: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are suspected to play a role in neurophysiological disorders such as schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, and epilepsy. Whereas the molecular and cellular properties of these receptors have been well characterized, the role of nAChRs in the nervous system is as yet unclear. The authors injected rats intracerebroventricularly with 5 µg/5 µl of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03) to eliminate the noradrenergic nuclei. Using these data along with data acquired by elimination of serotonergic nuclei with 5,7-DHT, the authors showed that both noradrenergic nuclei in the locus coeruleus and serotonergic nuclei in the dorsal raphe nucleus express the alpha-7 nAChR subunit.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Cholinergic depletion by IgG 192-saporin retards development of rat barrel cortex.

Zhu XO, de Permentier PJ, Waite PM (2002) Cholinergic depletion by IgG 192-saporin retards development of rat barrel cortex. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 136:1-16. doi: 10.1016/s0165-3806(02)00301-2

Summary: It has been shown that cholinergic afferents from the basal forebrain are necessary for normal cortical morphogenesis. However, the role of these projections in the development of the thalamocortical topographical map has not been investigated. Using the facial whisker barrel field in the rat somatosensory cortex as a development model, the authors administered 192-Saporin to newborn pups (0.1 µg, Cat. #IT-01). The data show a transient delay in the development of the barrel pattern over the first postnatal week.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Septal grafts and evoked acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus after 192 IgG-saporin lesions.

Birthelmer A, Dommes E, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Jackisch R (2002) Septal grafts and evoked acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus after 192 IgG-saporin lesions. Neuroreport 13(7):973-976. doi: 10.1097/00001756-200205240-00015

Summary: The authors investigate the structural and behavioral effects of intrahippocampal grafts containing cholinergic neurons into a lesioned region of the brain. Previous studies in rats were complicated by the lack of a specific cholinergic lesioning agent. 0.4 µg 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) in 0.4 µl was injected into the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca in rats, then 6 to 10 months later the animals received intrahippocampal grafts of septal cells containing cholinergic neurons. Measurement of noradrenaline and serotonin uptake indicate that the grafts were able to produce only modest cholinergic effects. The authors conclude that this may be a result of performing the graft too soon following administration of the immunotoxin.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Interactions between aging and cortical cholinergic deafferentation on attention.

Burk JA, Herzog CD, Porter MC, Sarter M (2002) Interactions between aging and cortical cholinergic deafferentation on attention. Neurobiol Aging 23:467-477. doi: 10.1016/s0197-4580(01)00315-3

Summary: Trauma to forebrain cholinergic neurons is suspected to make these neurons more susceptible to future age-related loss of function. The authors tested this theory by making incomplete lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system using bilateral infusions of 192-Saporin (0.5 µl of 0.15 µg/µl, Cat. #IT-01) in rats trained prior to surgery. The attentional performance of the treated rats did not differ from control animals until the age of 31 months. The data indicate that pre-existing damage to the cholinergic basal forebrain region yields age-related attentional impairments.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Spinal noradrenergic activation mediates allodynia reduction from an allosteric adenosine modulator in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

Li X, Conklin D, Ma W, Zhu X, Eisenach JC (2002) Spinal noradrenergic activation mediates allodynia reduction from an allosteric adenosine modulator in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Pain 97:117-125. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3959(02)00011-8

Summary: T62 is a thiobene compound that enhances adenosine agonist binding to the A1 receptor. Activation of the adenosine receptor has been effective in several different pain models. The authors used a spinal nerve ligation model for mechanical allodynia to assess T62 efficacy and mode of action. Rats treated with anti-DBH-SAP (4 µg in 5 µl, Cat. #IT-03) experienced no anti-allodynia effects from T62 administration, indicating that modulation of mechanical allodynia by T62 utilizes the spinal noradrenergic system.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Selective immunolesions of CH4 cholinergic neurons do not disrupt spatial memory in rats.

Galani R, Lehmann O, Bolmont T, Aloy E, Bertrand F, Lazarus C, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC (2002) Selective immunolesions of CH4 cholinergic neurons do not disrupt spatial memory in rats. Physiol Behav 76:75-90. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9384(02)00674-1

Summary: Lesioning of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) with 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) has produced varied cognitive effects in numerous studies. The authors of this work suggest that several factors such as lesion procedure and the type of behavioral test used may cause these variations. Thirty-one rats were lesioned using 0.2 or 0.4 µg of 192-Saporin infused into the NBM, and locomotor activity, learning, and memory capabilities were tested using several test methods. Spatial memory appeared to remain intact, but evidence suggests that attentional processing is affected by NBM lesioning with 192-Saporin.

Usage: Rat NBM was lesioned using 0.2 or 0.4 µg of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

Depressor and tachypneic responses to chemical stimulation of the ventral respiratory group are reduced by ablation of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons.

Wang H, Germanson TP, Guyenet PG (2002) Depressor and tachypneic responses to chemical stimulation of the ventral respiratory group are reduced by ablation of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons. J Neurosci 22(9):3755-3764. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.22-09-03755.2002

Summary: The pre-Bötzinger complex is a region of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) in the brain. Injection of excitatory amino acids into this region can cause a variety of responses such as rapid breathing, hypotension, and elevated arterial pressure. The authors used SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11) to eliminate the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1r) positive neurons in the VRG to determine their role in control of respiration and arterial pressure. Intraparenchymal injection of 0.313 ng/50 nl SSP-SAP produced several abnormal respiratory effects in rats treated with excitatory amino acids. The results indicate that NK-1r positive neurons in the ventrolateral medulla play an important role in respiratory rhythm and blood pressure.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum.

Berchtold NC, Kesslak JP, Cotman CW (2002) Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum. J Neurosci Res 68(5):511-521. doi: 10.1002/jnr.10256

Summary: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances neuron function and plasticity. The authors lesioned rats with medial septal injections of 192-Saporin (Cat #IT-01, 375 ng in 0.5 µl PBS) or OX7-SAP (Cat #IT-02, 12.5 or 25 ng in 0.5 µl PBS). 192-Saporin affected the sedentary, but not exercise-induced levels of BDNF. OX7-SAP reduced levels in both groups in a dose-dependent manner.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Impairments in negative patterning, but not simple discrimination learning, in rats with 192 IgG-Saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis.

Butt AE, Noble MM, Rogers JL, Rea TE (2002) Impairments in negative patterning, but not simple discrimination learning, in rats with 192 IgG-Saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Behav Neurosci 116(2):241-255. doi: 10.1037//0735-7044.116.2.241

Summary: 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) administration to the basal forebrain has frequently been used in rats to create a model for Alzheimer’s disease. The authors used 0.2 µl bilateral injections of 0.4 µg/µl 192-SAP into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). Previous studies using non-specific excitotoxic agents have suggested the involvement of the NBM in learning and memory. The authors confirm more recent findings that indicate some of the deficits produced by these excitotoxins are due to the non-specific lesioning caused by these agents. The highly selective cholinergic lesioning produced by 192-Saporin left simple association learning intact but impaired more complicated configural association processes.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Transverse patterning reveals a dissociation of simple and configural association learning abilities in rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis.

Butt AE, Bowman TD (2002) Transverse patterning reveals a dissociation of simple and configural association learning abilities in rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Neurobiol Learn Mem 77:211-233. doi: 10.1006/nlme.2001.4013

Summary: Using 80 ng bilateral infusions of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into each of the medial and lateral target sites of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats, the authors demonstrate that lesioning the cholinergic systems of the NBM impairs a more complicated learning technique, while leaving simple association learning intact. The results also show that the transition between these two learning strategies is impaired in lesioned animals.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Facilitation of dopamine-mediated locomotor activity in adult rats following cholinergic denervation.

Mattsson A, Ögren SO, Olson L (2002) Facilitation of dopamine-mediated locomotor activity in adult rats following cholinergic denervation. Exp Neurol 174:96-108. doi: 10.1006/exnr.2001.7850

Summary: Using 80 ng bilateral infusions of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into each of the medial and lateral target sites of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats, the authors demonstrate that lesioning the cholinergic systems of the NBM impairs a more complicated learning technique, while leaving simple association learning intact. The results also show that the transition between these two learning strategies is impaired in lesioned animals.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

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