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2011 Targeting Trends Review

52 entries

Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation.

Savage S, Kehr J, Olson L, Mattsson A (2011) Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation. Neuroscience 195:60-69. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.08.027

Summary: Forebrain cholinergic dysfunction is thought to be part of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The authors lesioned the cholinergic corticopetal projection of rats by infusing 0.081 µg of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. The lesioned animals displayed a reduction in the duration of social interaction. When the lesioned animals were then given PCP, they were no longer able to recognize a novel object. The data suggest a role of cholinergic hypofunction in the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

The sympathetic nervous system stimulates anti-inflammatory B cells in collagen-type II-induced arthritis.

Pongratz G, Melzer M, Straub R (2012) The sympathetic nervous system stimulates anti-inflammatory B cells in collagen-type II-induced arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 71(3):432-9. doi: 10.1136/ard.2011.153056

Summary: The sympathetic nervous system exerts anti-inflammatory effects on collagen-induced arthritis. To examine whether these effects are mediated by B-cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10) the authors treated mice with 5 µg intraperitoneal injections of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03). The sympathectomy efficacy was assessed by analyzing norepinephrine levels in the spleen. The data suggest that increasing the number of IL-10 producing B cells can slow down arthritis progression.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Effect of orexin-B-saporin-induced lesions of the lateral hypothalamus on performance on a progressive ratio schedule.

Olarte-Sánchez CM, Valencia Torres L, Body S, Cassaday HJ, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (2012) Effect of orexin-B-saporin-induced lesions of the lateral hypothalamus on performance on a progressive ratio schedule. J Psychopharmacol 26(6):871-886. doi: 10.1177/0269881111409607

Summary: It has been suggested that orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamus consist of two anatomically distinct groups. The lateral hypothalamic area group (LHA), which modulates reinforcement mechanisms; and the dorsomedial hypothalamus and perifornical area group involved in regulation of stress and arousal. Rats received bilateral 15 ng injections of orexin-SAP (Cat. #IT-20) into the LHA. Results from a progressive ratio model indicate that the lesioned neurons control the motor component of food-reinforced responding.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

Circadian integration of sleep-wake and feeding requires NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

Wiater MF, Mukherjee S, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Rooney EM, Simasko SM, Ritter S (2011) Circadian integration of sleep-wake and feeding requires NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(5):R1569-R1583. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00168.2011

Summary: Feeding and sleep/wake states interact rhythmically across the circadian cycle. It is suspected that the mediobasal hypothalamic area (MBH) is the site where these rhythms are integrated. The authors administered bilateral 24-ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the arcuate nucleus in order to eliminate NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the MBH of rats. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The results indicate that these neurons are required for the interaction of feeding and sleep/wake timing.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception

Lemons LL, Wiley RG (2011) Galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception. Neuropeptides 45(6):377-383. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2011.08.002

Summary: This work examines the mociceptive role of galanin receptor-1-expressing neurons found in the superficial dorsal horn. 500 ng of galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34) was injected into the lumbar intrathecal space of rats; blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The rats were then tested in a series of thermal nociception models. Lesioned animals were less sensitive to heat, suggesting that loss of the gal1r-expressing excitatory interneurons disrupted the pain transmission pathway.

Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Participation of brainstem monoaminergic nuclei in behavioral depression.

Lin Y, Sarfraz Y, Jensen A, Dunn AJ, Stone EA (2011) Participation of brainstem monoaminergic nuclei in behavioral depression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 100(2):330-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2011.08.021

Summary: While the classical model states reductions in central noradrenergic activity produces depression, more recent work has indicated that higher activity in this brain region directly correlates with depression. Using a dopamine-ß-hydroxlase targeted toxin to lesion the locus coeruleus of mice, along with goat-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-19) as a control, the authors found that treated animals showed increased resistance to depressive behavior in several tests. The results suggest that monoaminergic lesions are greatly affected by mouse strain, lesion size, and involvement of other neuronal systems.

Related Products: Goat IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-19)

Decrease of GABAergic Markers and Arc Protein Expression in the Frontal Cortex by Intraventricular 192 IgG-Saporin.

Jeong DU, Chang WS, Hwang YS, Lee D, Chang JW (2011) Decrease of GABAergic Markers and Arc Protein Expression in the Frontal Cortex by Intraventricular 192 IgG-Saporin. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 32(1):70-78. doi: 10.1159/000330741

Summary: The authors examined the use of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) to establish a standardized model for dementia. Rats received several different doses of toxin in bilateral intraventricular injections. This injection method resulted in reliable memory impairment in a behavioral test, decreased GABAergic activity in the frontal cortex affecting spatial memory, and no change in the hippocampus. Using this technique, 8 µg of 192-IgG-SAP produced the optimal memory impairment.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Acetylcholine and attention.

Klinkenberg I, Sambeth A, Blokland A (2011) Acetylcholine and attention. Behav Brain Res 221(2):430-442. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2010.11.033

Summary: This review article summarizes studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in attention and cognition. The roles of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) and mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16) in these experiments is discussed. Acetylcholine is thought to play a top-down role in the prefrontal, parietal, and somatosensory regions; playing an important role in the control of attentional orienting and stimulus discrimination.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

Itch signaling in the nervous system.

Jeffry J, Kim S, Chen ZF (2011) Itch signaling in the nervous system. Physiology (Bethesda) 26(4):286-92. doi: 10.1152/physiol.00007.2011

Summary: This review examines recent work done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the sensation of itch. The progress of mouse genetics has allowed the field to move beyond clinical and physiological studies, toward a better understanding of the signaling involved in nonhistaminergic itch. One study discussed used bombesin-SAP (Cat. #IT-40) in mice to ablate GRPR-positive neurons in the dorsal horn. This lesion reduced scratching in response to pruritogens, but did not affect pain behavior‚ indicating that pain and itch use entirely different pathways.

Related Products: Bombesin-SAP (Cat. #IT-40)

Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes reveals nonuniform organization of presympathetic drive from C1 and non-C1 RVLM neurons.

Burke PG, Neale J, Korim WS, McMullan S, Goodchild AK (2011) Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes reveals nonuniform organization of presympathetic drive from C1 and non-C1 RVLM neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(4):R1112-R1122. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00131.2011

Summary: Some neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla are part of the circuitry that helps maintain blood pressure. This control is exerted through both feed-forward and reflex adjustment mechanisms. The authors used bilateral injections of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03, 24 ng per side) into the spinal cord of rats between T1 and T2 to better understand the organization of this circuitry. Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18) was used as a control. The results suggest that myelinated neurons may control baseline tone, while stressor response uses unmyelinated neurons.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18)

Selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

Reynolds J, Bilsky EJ, Meng ID (2011) Selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Life Sci 89(9-10):313-9. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.06.024

Summary: Animals have been shown to develop hyperalgesia in response to chronic stress. Recent data has implicated the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM) in this process. In order to clarify what role mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons in the RVM play in rat, the authors injected 1.8 pmol of dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12) into the RVM. The rats were then subjected to a model designed to produce hypersensitivity in the hind paw. Stress-induced behavior did not change in the lesioned animals, but mechanical hypersensitivity was reduced.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Involvement of tuberomamillary histaminergic neurons in isoflurane anesthesia.

Luo T, Leung LS (2011) Involvement of tuberomamillary histaminergic neurons in isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 115(1):36-43. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182207655

Summary: Although previous studies indicate that histaminergic neurotransmission may mediate reaction to general anesthesia, it is not clear whether the histominergic tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN) is involved. Rats received 250-ng infusions of orexin-SAP (Cat. #IT-20) into the TMN after which the righting reflex was assessed for several anesthetics. Loss of histaminergic neurons in the TMN only altered the effect of isoflurane – suggesting that the neural circuits involved in isoflurane anesthesia are different than circuits affected by propofol, pentobarbital, and ketamine.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)

SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas.

Mitra N, Banda K, Altheide TK, Schaffer L, Johnson-Pais TL, Beuten J, Leach RJ, Angata T, Varki N, Varki A (2011) SIGLEC12, a human-specific segregating (pseudo)gene, encodes a signaling molecule expressed in prostate carcinomas. J Biol Chem 286(26):23003-23011. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.244152

Summary: Siglec 12 (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 12) is a sugar molecule that has mutated in humans to be inactive, but is active in other primates. The human version is found on some macrophages, various epithelial cell surfaces, and some human carcinoma cell lines. Using Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04) and monoclonal antibodies against Siglec 12, the researchers demonstrated binding and internalization in a prostate cancer cell line, indicating that Siglec 12 may be a target for some cancer therapies.

Related Products: Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04)

A common substrate for prefrontal and hippocampal inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response.

Radley JJ, Sawchenko PE (2011) A common substrate for prefrontal and hippocampal inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response. J Neurosci 31(26):9683-95. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6040-10.2011

Summary: In order to better understand how response to emotional stress is regulated, the authors injected 114 ng of GAT-1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32) into each side of the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18) was used as a control. The results suggest that medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal formation influences on stress regulation use the same access to modulate emotional stress rather than having parallel networks.

Related Products: GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32), Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18)

Enhanced control of attention by stimulating mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry.

St Peters M, Demeter E, Lustig C, Bruno JP, Sarter M (2011) Enhanced control of attention by stimulating mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry. J Neurosci 31(26):9760-9771. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1902-11.2011

Summary: Motivation and attention interact to preserve cognitive performance under challenging conditions. In order to better define the circuitry connecting these two processes, the authors lesioned the prefrontal cortex (200 ng of 192-IgG-SAP, Cat. #IT-01) and the posterior parietal cortex (280 ng of 192-IgG-SAP). Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18) was used as a control. The data indicate that cholinergic projections to the cortex modulate detection of clues and filtering of distractors during attentional tasks, accentuating cognitive control.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18)

Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding.

Bartness TJ, Keen-Rhinehart E, Dailey MJ, Teubner BJ (2011) Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(3):R641-R655. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00137.2011

Summary: Hoarding of food is a commonly found behavior in humans and animals. This review discusses the neuronal and hormonal processes involved in the control of food hoarding. Several aspects of food hoarding are examined, including the role of food deprivation, environment, levels of hormones like leptin, ghrelin, and levels of peptides such as cholecystokinin. One experiment discussed injected NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the arcuate nucleus of rats, which changed food hoarding responses to deprivation.

Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)

BDNF concentrations are decreased in serum and parietal cortex in immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin rat model of cholinergic degeneration.

Angelucci F, Gelfo F, De Bartolo P, Caltagirone C, Petrosini L (2011) BDNF concentrations are decreased in serum and parietal cortex in immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin rat model of cholinergic degeneration. Neurochem Int 59(1):1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2011.04.010

Summary: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in neuronal function during the degeneration of neurons caused by pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In order to investigate the relationship between brain and serum BDNF levels the authors administered 2 µg of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) into each lateral ventricle of rats and measured brain and serum BDNF levels by ELISA. It was found that BDNF levels dropped in lesioned animals, but not until 15 days post surgery.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Brain stem catecholamines circuitry: Activation by alcohol and role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to this drug.

Lee S, Craddock Z, Rivier C (2011) Brain stem catecholamines circuitry: Activation by alcohol and role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to this drug. J Neuroendocrinol 23(6):531-541. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02131.x

Summary: In this work the authors investigated mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effect of alcohol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). One method used was 33-ng injections of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03) into the A2/C2/C3 and A1/C1 regions. The data generated show that catecholamines, especially in the brainstem, regulate the HPA response to alcohol. This regulation utilizes α1-adrenergic receptors. Administration of anti-DBH-SAP to the A1-A2/C1-C3 regions disrupted the catecholaminergic input to the paraventricular nucleus.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters.

I’anson H, Jethwa PH, Warner A, Ebling FJ (2011) Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters. Physiol Behav 103(3-4):268-278. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.02.035

Summary: The role of central histaminergic mechanisms on seasonal catabolic state was investigated in hamsters. Siberian hamsters received bilateral 3.8-ng injections of orexin-SAP (Cat. #IT-20) into the tuberomammillary posterior hypothalamic region. Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) was used as a control. During long days, lesioned animals displayed higher locomotor activity, greater oxygen intake, and no net weight gain. During shorter days (hibernation) with less activity, lesioned animals did not lose weight. The data indicate that histaminergic neurons are involved in body weight regulation.

Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20), Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)

Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity.

King T, Qu C, Okun A, Mercado R, Ren J, Brion T, Lai J, Porreca F (2011) Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Pain 152(9):1997-2005. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.04.020

Summary: Whether exaggerated pain response to a normally innocuous tactile stimulus should be defined as allodynia has been debated. Through the use of several techniques, one of which was intrathecal injection of SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11, 16.5 pg), the authors examined which pathways were utilized in this type of pain. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The data indicate that tactile stimulation may reflect a different pain state than allodynia.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

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