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2004 Targeting Trends Review

53 entries

Hindbrain catecholamine neurons mediate consummatory responses to glucoprivation.

Hudson B, Ritter S (2004) Hindbrain catecholamine neurons mediate consummatory responses to glucoprivation. Physiol Behav 82(2-3):241-250. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.03.032

Summary: Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) neurons appear to potently stimulate feeding behavior when administered to the hypothalamus. Previous work has indicated that these neurons play important roles in feeding responses due to glucoprivation. Bilateral 42 ng-injections of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03) were administered to rats to investigate the roles of NE and E neurons in the consummatory phase of the glucoprivic response. The results indicate that catecholaminergic neurons are involved in both appetitive and consummatory responses to glucoprivation.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Cognitive and neurological deficits induced by early and prolonged basal forebrain cholinergic hypofunction in rats.

Ricceri L, Minghetti L, Moles A, Popoli P, Confaloni A, De Simone R, Piscopo P, Scattoni ML, di Luca M, Calamandrei G (2004) Cognitive and neurological deficits induced by early and prolonged basal forebrain cholinergic hypofunction in rats. Exp Neurol 189(1):162-172. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2004.05.025

Summary: A distinctive feature of Alzheimer’s disease is the loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain (BF). The authors investigated long-term effects of BF cholinergic lesions on several parameters. Administration of 0.21 µg of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) to the third ventricle of 7 day-old rats was followed by an evaluation of protein levels and cortical EEG patterns at 6 months of age. The findings indicate that permanent neonatal BF cholinergic damage may provide a model for abnormal adult cholinergic function.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Sound sequence discrimination learning is dependent on cholinergic inputs to the rat auditory cortex.

Kudoh M, Seki K, Shibuki K (2004) Sound sequence discrimination learning is dependent on cholinergic inputs to the rat auditory cortex. Neurosci Res 50(1):113-123. doi: 10.1016/j.neures.2004.06.007

Summary: The auditory cortex (AC) is thought to play a role in the discrimination of sound sequences. The authors investigated the role of cholinergic inputs to the AC in processing these sequences by injecting 5 µg of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into either the lateral ventricle or bilateral AC of rats. Treated animals displayed suppressed sound discrimination learning, but discrimination between two sound components was unaffected. The results suggest that cholinergic neurons in the AC are highly involved in sound sequence learning.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Cortical cholinergic function and deficits in visual attentional performance in rats following 192 IgG-Saporin-induced lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex.

Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Bouger P, Chudasama Y, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004) Cortical cholinergic function and deficits in visual attentional performance in rats following 192 IgG-Saporin-induced lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 14(8):922-932. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhh052

Summary: Prior work has demonstrated that lesions of the cortical cholinergic system of the basal forebrain impair performance in attentional tasks. The authors examined the effects of selective depletion of acetylcholine from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) on these same attentional tasks. 50 or 100 ng of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) was infused into the PFC of rats. Treated animals displayed deficits in specific aspects of the attentional tasks, indicating a modulatory role in PFC function by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Age-dependent effect of cholinergic lesion on dendritic morphology in rat frontal cortex.

Works SJ, Wilson RE, Wellman CL (2004) Age-dependent effect of cholinergic lesion on dendritic morphology in rat frontal cortex. Neurobiol Aging 25(7):963-974. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2003.08.003

Summary: Aged rats display more dramatic and longer lasting effects due to brain injury than young animals. The authors examined the role cholinergic neurons may play in brain plasticity after injury in rats of varying ages. 0.15 µg of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) was injected into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis of young, middle-aged, and aged rats. Some types of injury were only seen in middle-aged and aged rats, and changes in dendritic morphology were least marked in the young animals.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by combined treatment of ondansetron with flumazenil after cortical cholinergic deafferentation.

Gil-Bea FJ, Dominguez J, Garcia-Alloza M, Marcos B, Lasheras B, Ramirez MJ (2004) Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by combined treatment of ondansetron with flumazenil after cortical cholinergic deafferentation. Neuropharmacology 47(2):225-232. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2004.03.014

Summary: Previous studies from this group demonstrated that 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists potentiated by GABA(A) antagonists increased acetylcholine (ACh) release in the rat cerebral cortex. This series of experiments investigated the effects of these antagonists on rats with 0.067 µg-bilateral infusions of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Even after lesioning with 192-Saporin, rats treated with the 5-HT(3) and GABA(A) receptor antagonists displayed increased ACh release, indicating that these antagonists may have use as treatments for cognitive disorders.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Effects of isolectin B4-conjugated saporin, a targeting cytotoxin, on bladder overactivity induced by bladder irritation.

Nishiguchi J, Sasaki K, Seki S, Chancellor MB, Erickson KA, de Groat WC, Kumon H, Yoshimura N (2004) Effects of isolectin B4-conjugated saporin, a targeting cytotoxin, on bladder overactivity induced by bladder irritation. Eur J Neurosci 20(2):474-482. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03508.x

Summary: It has been demonstrated that IB4-binding non-peptidergic C-fiber neuronal populations are present in afferent pathways to the bladder. The authors used intrathecal administration of 8 µl of 2.5 µM IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10) to investigate what roles these neurons play in bladder function. Treated animals displayed a reduction of IB4 afferent nerve terminal staining, as well as a suppression of bladder overactivity due to bladder irritation, without a change in normal bladder function.

Related Products: IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10)

Read the featured article in Targeting Trends.

Minocycline protects basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from mu p75-saporin immunotoxic lesioning.

Hunter CL, Quintero EM, Gilstrap L, Bhat NR, Granholm AC (2004) Minocycline protects basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from mu p75-saporin immunotoxic lesioning. Eur J Neurosci 19(12):3305-3316. doi: 10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03439.x

Summary: In Alzheimer’s disease basal cholinergic degeneration is accompanied by glial activation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To investigate whether neural events other than degeneration can cause effects of Alzheimer’s disease, the authors treated mice with minocycline after lesioning the basal forebrain with 3.6 µg of mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16). Administration of minocycline reduced the loss of cholinergic neurons, reduced glial response to the lesion, and lessened the cognitive impairment due to mu p75-SAP lesions.

Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

NADPH oxidase contributes to angiotensin II signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius.

Wang G, Anrather J, Huang J, Speth RC, Pickel VM, Iadecola C (2004) NADPH oxidase contributes to angiotensin II signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius. J Neurosci 24(24):5516-5524. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1176-04.2004 PMID: 15201324

Objective: To investigated whether NADPH oxidase is involved in angiotensin II signaling in central autonomic neurons.

Summary: Angiotensin II (AngII), acting through angiotensin type 1 (AT1 ) receptors, exerts powerful effects on central autonomic networks regulating cardiovascular homeostasis and fluid balanceColocalization of AT-1r’s and a NADPH oxidase subunit provides evidence that NADPH oxidase is involved in the effects of angiotensin II on autonomic neurons.

Usage: Immunolabeling (1:200)

Related Products: Angiotensin II receptor (AT-1AR) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N25AP), Angiotensin II receptor (AT-1R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N27AP), Angiotensin II receptor (AT-2R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N28AP)

Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat.

Cooper-Kuhn CM, Winkler J, Kuhn HG (2004) Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat. J Neurosci Res 77(2):155-165. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20116

Summary: Adult mammalian brains can produce new neurons, mainly in two areas: the interconnected system of the lateral ventricle and the olfactory bulb, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The authors used a 3.5 µg-injection of 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into the right ventricle of rats to determine whether cholinergic input is necessary for adult neurogenesis. The results suggest that acetylcholine, a product of cholinergic neurons, is necessary for the survival of newly-formed neurons.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

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