Dendritic atrophy following partial motoneuron depletion: Time course of recovery and protection with androgens and estrogens.
Coons KD, Munoz F, Osborne MC, Sengelaub DR (2009) Dendritic atrophy following partial motoneuron depletion: Time course of recovery and protection with androgens and estrogens. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 743.2/R17. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: We have previously demonstrated that partial depletion of motoneurons innervating the quadriceps muscles induces dendritic atrophy and loss of function in remaining motoneurons. Furthermore, treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, and dendritic atrophy and loss of function following partial motoneuron depletion are attenuated in a dose-dependent fashion, and in both male and female rats. In the present study, we assessed dendritic atrophy after partial motoneuron depletion at a variety of time points to determine its time course and pattern with and without testosterone treatment. We also examined the potential neuroprotective effects of the androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscle were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, saporin-injected males were given implants containing either testosterone (45mm), dihydrotestosterone (30mm), estradiol (10%, 10mm), or left untreated. At 2, 4, 6, or 10 weeks after partial motoneuron depletion, motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral vastus lateralis muscle were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated HRP, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in 3 dimensions. Animals treated with dihydrotestosterone or estradiol were assessed only at 4 weeks post depletion. Dendritic arbors were also assessed in a group of untreated normal males. Quadriceps motoneuron dendrites underwent a rapid atrophy and protracted recovery following partial motoneuron depletion. Dendritic atrophy in remaining quadriceps motoneurons was apparent at 2 weeks after motoneuron depletion, with a decrease of over 50% in dendritic length, and this atrophy remained through 6 weeks post-depletion; dendritic length recovered by 10 weeks post-depletion. Treatment with testosterone attenuated induced dendritic atrophy at all time points, and recovery to normal lengths was present at 6 weeks post-depletion. Treatment with dihydrotestosterone or estradiol was as effective as testosterone in attenuating dendritic atrophy in remaining quadriceps motoneurons. These results suggest that treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, both attenuating induced dendritic atrophy and accelerating recovery. Furthermore, this effect can be achieved with both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites, further supporting a role for hormones as neurotherapeutic agents in the injured nervous system.
Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)
Savage ST, Lundströmer K, Olson L, Mattsson A (2009) Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems following cortical cholinergic denervation. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 839.14/M21. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Alterations in cholinergic signaling in the brain have been implicated as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We have previously shown that cholinergic denervation of cortex cerebri by stereotaxic infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm) in adult rats leads to an enhanced sensitivity to both amphetamine and the NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). The enhanced sensitivity to amphetamine shown as a potentiated dopamine release in nucleus accumbens, along with a marked increase in locomotor activity in response to both amphetamine and PCP, suggested that the disruption of cortical cholinergic activity can lead to disturbances of glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. To further evaluate the consequences of cortical cholinergic denervation on the dopamine and glutamate systems, we are conducting an in depth in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analysis of nbm 192 IgG-saporin lesioned rats. Preliminary data from these investigations show an enhancement of expression levels of TH and DAT mRNA in the VTA and substantia nigra of the cholinergically denervated rats. The data suggests that cortical levels of NMDAR1 mRNA are not altered in the lesioned animals. However, preliminary data indicate that the induction of c-fos mRNA expression in cortex following PCP administration is reduced in denervated animals as compared to sham lesioned controls. These data may suggest hypofunction of NMDA receptors as a consequence of loss of cholinergic innervations. To evaluate the behavioral consequences of cortical cholinergic denervation, we are employing three behavioral paradigms (Locomotor and Rearing behavior, Social Interaction, and the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) task) under normal and drug challenged conditions. Preliminary social interaction studies have found that the saporin lesioned rats spend a significantly less amount of time interacting with each other as compared to control sham operated rats. We are currently investigating how this impairment is effected under drug challenge. Furthermore, we have found that the degree of lesion affects the performance to the novel object recognition task under saline and drug challenged conditions. Our results from the in situ hybridization and behavioral studies indicate that the loss of cortical acetylcholine can lead to alterations in glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling. These observations are compatible with a possible role of cholinergic deficits in schizophrenia, and provide a possible link between different hypotheses of the disorder.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Role of brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of operant nocifensive responses to heat: Pharmacology and hyperalgesia.
Chatterjee K, Kline IV RH, Wiley RG (2009) Role of brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of operant nocifensive responses to heat: Pharmacology and hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 855.10/X15. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Many spinal dorsal horn neurons are under direct modulation from various brainstem nuclei which act to modulate nociceptive activity. Nocifensive reflex response modulation by spinally projecting noradrenergic brainstem nuclei has been extensively categorized. Strong evidence supports a role for these neurons in the modulation of reflex nocifensive responses but the role of noradrenergic neurons in the cerebral component of nociception remains to be defined in rats. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of selectively destroying noradrenergic rostral brainstem neurons (A5,A6,A7) on operant escape from 44°C floor heat under several conditions: 1-baseline (after i.c.v. toxin/vehicle injection), 2- after s.c. injection of morphine, clonidine or yohimbine, 3- three hours after bilateral dorsal hindpaw application of mustard oil (secondary hyperalgesia), and 3- three hours after bilateral plantar application of 0.9% capsaicin cream (primary hyperalgesia). Rats were tested daily until steady operant escape responding (~1 month), then injected i.c.v. with 10µl of PBS (vehicle control, n=8) or antiDBH-saporin (10µg, n=8). After recovery from toxin injection, escape responses decreased in the antiDBH-sap rats. Morphine (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg s.c.) 20 min prior to testing, dose dependently attenuated escape from the noxious thermal plate at 44oC for all treatment groups. antiDBH-sap treated rats, however, showed an enhanced morphine effect (more prolonged occupancy of the noxious thermal plate). Three hours after plantar capsaicin, or mustard oil to the dorsal surface of both hindpaws, PBS but not antiDBH-sap rats showed enhanced escape. Systemic clonidine (0.125mg/kg) decreased escape for both PBS and antiDBH-sap treated rats, but the anti-nociceptive effect was greater in antiDBH-sap rats. Systemic yohimbine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0mg/kg) had no effect on escape in antiDBH-sap rats but enhanced escape in PBS rats. In direct contrast to effects on escape responding, antiDBH-sap did not affect hotplate lick/guard initial latencies to nociceptive heat at 44° or 47oC. Escape responses to aversively bright light were also decreased in antiDBH-sap rats suggesting generally decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli. These results support a significant role for rostral brainstem noradrenergic neurons in modulation of pain and highlight important differences between reflex nocifensive responses (hotplate) and operant (escape) responses.
Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)
Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate.
Bukowski RK, Duffy TE, Ryu V, Covasa M, Czaja K, Ritter RC (2009) Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 870.5/DD2. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK) and other GI satiation signals. However, abdominal vagotomy also is associated with mild to moderate reductions of food intake and body weight gain. These sequels of vagotomy may be due to surgical trauma, gastroesphageal dysmotility or, perhaps, hypersensitivity of residual or regenerating afferent vagal fibers and terminals. In an attempt to selectively destroy the abdominal vagal afferents and their cell bodies, we injected the abdominal vagal trunks with OX7-saporin (OX7), a conjugate of the ribosomal toxin, saporin, and a monoclonal antibody against Thy1. This conjugate has been shown to destroy vagal afferent cell bodies in the ipsilateral nodose ganglion following unilateral injection into a cervical vagal trunk. In our study rats received an IP injection of fast blue (FB) which retrogradely labeled cell bodies of abdominal vagal afferents, enabling us to verify their destruction. OX7 was injected into both dorsal and ventral abdominal vagal trunks using a picospritzer and capillary pipettes. Beginning two weeks after OX7, the rats were tested for reduction of food intake by IP injection of CCK-8 (4ug/kg). Subsequently, nodose ganglia from the treated rats and their controls were examined to determine the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons remaining in the ganglia. Successful destruction of nodose neurons varied between animals. However, in OX7-treated rats the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons was reduced by approximately 60%, compared to vehicle injected controls. While CCK injection significantly reduced food intake in control rats, CCK-induced reduction of intake by the OX7 treated group was significantly attenuated. Interestingly, the OX7-treated rats did not exhibit the chronically reduced body weight that is typical of surgically vagotomized rats. In fact OX7 rats actually gained more weight than control rats over the 30 period following vagal injections. Our data indicate that immunotoxic destruction of the abdominal vagal innervation mimics surgical vagotomy in its attenuation of CCK-induced satiation, but does not cause sustained reduction of body weight.
Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)
Botly LC, De Rosa E (2009) Using visual search to examine cholinergic contributions to feature binding in the rat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 873.26/EE13. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: According to the feature integration theory of attention, feature binding is an attention-dependent process whereby the different features of an object are simultaneously integrated to form a unified whole. Using a rat digging paradigm that was faithful to this theory of attention, we have previously demonstrated that acetylcholine is critical to the attention-dependent processes required for both crossmodal and intramodal feature binding. Moreover, we demonstrated that cholinergic cells in brain regions that have been implicated in human feature binding, specifically frontal and parietal cortices, supported feature binding in rats. We have now translated the gold-standard test of human feature binding, visual search (VS), for rats. In the present study, sixteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform VS using touchscreen-equipped operant chambers and black-and-white shapes. Testing sessions comprised Feature-Search (no feature binding required) and Conjunctive-Search (feature binding required) trials using set sizes of four, six, and eight stimuli. Following acquisition of the VS task, eight rats received bilateral 192 IgG-Saporin immunotoxic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) of the basal forebrain to reduce cholinergic afferentation of the neocortex. Importantly, there was no significant effect of lesion on accuracy for selecting the target stimulus. As expected, relative to sham-lesioned rats, NBM-lesioned rats took significantly longer to locate the target stimulus on Conjunctive-Search but not Feature-Search trials; thus reflecting a less efficient VS. These data confirm that cholinergic contributions from the NBM support feature binding using a rat analog of the VS paradigm.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Effect of aging and prefrontal cholinergic deafferentation on working memory for familiar and novel odors.
Carter ES, Newman LA, Mcgaughy J (2009) Effect of aging and prefrontal cholinergic deafferentation on working memory for familiar and novel odors. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 879.14/EE124. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Aging is associated with cholinergic fiber loss in the entorhinal cortex (EC). Previous research has shown that acetylcholine (ACh) in this region mediates memory for novel information (Schon et al., 2005), and cholinergic lesions of the EC in young rats impair memory for novel, but not familiar, stimuli at an odor delayed non-match to sample task (DNMS; McGaughy et al., 2005). Currently, we tested whether age-related cholinergic fiber loss in the medial EC of male rats would be sufficient to produce impairments in memory for novel information during the DNMS task. Half of the aged animals were subjected to cholinergic depletion of medial, prefrontal cortex (pACh-lx) including both prelimbic and anterior cingulate cortex prior to the onset of testing. We hypothesized that this previous damage would result in impairments in memory for familiar items and would prevent improvements in memory shown after repeated exposure to novel items. Additionally the effects of increasing the delay between sample and choice portions of the test and memory for list of items were assessed. The pACh-lx animals were not impaired relative to sham-lx animals at memory for familiar information when there was a minimal delay between the sample and choice. However if a 15 minute delay was introduced between the sample and choice phase, pACh-lx rats performed more poorly than sham-lx rats. This suggests that ACh in the medial, prefrontal cortex is necessary for maintaining representations of familiar stimuli over a delay period. Aged rats showed accuracy impairments during sessions that required encoding of novel samples relative to their own performance at sessions requiring encoding of familiar samples. This impairment was greater on trials that required rats to discriminate the novel sample from a familiar non-match than on trials where all stimuli were novel. Though the extent of cholinergic fiber loss in EC due to aging was highly similar to that produced by infusion of the 192 IgG saporin to the EC of young rats, the severity of the cognitive impairments due to aging was not as great as that produced by lesioning. These data suggest that impact of damage to the cholinergic fibers of EC may vary based on whether the deterioration is gradual or has an acute onset.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Damage to nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) cholinergic target areas produce different effects on the acquisition of learning set.
Bailey AM, Enos J, Medley V (2009) Damage to nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) cholinergic target areas produce different effects on the acquisition of learning set. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 879.15/EE125. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) using either quisqualic acid or 192 IgG-saporin produce differing effects on the acquisition of learning set. Specifically, quisqualic acid lesions produce severe and long lasting impairments but 192 IgG-saporin lesions produce transient effects on learning set acquisition. One possible explanation for acquisition differences involves altered neuronal activity in the cholinergic target areas of the nBM. We examined two main cholinergic targets of the nBM, namely the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Rats with either NMDA (20 Âµg/Âµl) lesions to the basolateral amygdala (n=10) or NMDA (20 Âµg/Âµl) lesions to the anterior cingulate PFC (n=6) were tested on an olfactory learning set formation task as well as operant delayed non-matching to-position (DNMTP) and open field activity. The rats with amygdala lesions were additionally tested on a fear conditioning task. Lesions to the PFC significantly impaired acquisition of learning set as measured by chance performance on Trial 2 (M = 56.17%, SD = 7.47). Rats with PFC lesions did not differ from sham animals on the DNMTP task (p > .05) or in activity counts in an open field (p > .05). However, rats with NMDA lesions to the amygdala were significantly higher than chance (50% correct) on Trial 2 (p .05) or percentage correct on the DNMTP task (p > .05). NMDA lesions to the amygdala did, however, significantly decrease time spent freezing to an aversive CS+ in the fear conditioning task (p < .05). In total, the results imply that learning set acquisition differences following either quisqualic acid or 192 IgG-saporin lesions to the nBM are not likely due to damage to the cholinergic projection to the amygdala but may be associated with altered PFC activity.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Effects of combined neonatal cholinergic lesion and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on CA1 cytoarchitecture.
Rennie KE, Ward C, Fréchette M, Pappas BA (2009) Effects of combined neonatal cholinergic lesion and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on CA1 cytoarchitecture. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 736.23/M38. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Neonatal lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) system alters cytoarchitecture of pyramidal cells in both the hippocampus and neocortex of the adult rat, indicating a role for the BFC in forebrain development. In addition to altering forebrain development, neonatal cholinergic lesion may also exacerbate the brain’s response to pathological factors that emerge as the brain ages. One factor that might interact with BFC lesion is reduced cerebral blood flow (hypoperfusion). Examining this interaction is especially interesting because both BFC degeneration and reduced cerebral blood flow are characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. In the rat, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency by itself reportedly causes the degeneration of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, alters amyloid processing and produces spatial memory impairments. We hypothesized that neonatal cholinergic lesion using the cholinotoxin 192-IgG-saporin would render the hippocampus more vulnerable to the neuropathological effects of chronic forebrain hypoperfusion induced by permanent bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries (2VO). We previously reported that combined BFC lesion and 2VO impaired working memory in the Morris water maze and increased anxiety-like behaviours on the elevated plus apparatus, whereas neither of these treatments alone caused any of these effects. Here we report the effects of neonatal BFC lesion, 2VO, or their combined application on hippocampal CA1 cytoarchitecture using quantitative Golgi analysis. Rats subjected to 2VO showed increased apical branch length and spines, and increased basal spines. Neonatal BFC lesion on its own had only restricted effects on apical branch length at certain branch orders and no effect on spines. However, at a number of branch orders the stimulating effect of 2VO on apical spines occurred only in animals subjected to neonatal BFC lesion, indicating that this lesion modulated the response to 2VO. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the effects of 2VO on CA1 neuron cytoarchitecture. Surprisingly, it increased rather than decreased dendritic length and spines. Furthermore, while the BFC lesion had minimal effects on its own, it was permissive to some of the effects of 2VO on dendritic spines. Taken together with our previous data, this study suggests that pre-existing cholinergic dysfunction alters aspects of both the behavioural and neural consequences of chronic hypoperfusion. These results may have implications for Alzheimer’s disease where cholinergic dysfunction and hypoperfusion are co-expressed
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Poster: Expression of cell fate determinants and plastic changes after neurotoxic lesion of adult mice spinal cord by cholera toxin-B saporin.
Gulino R, Gulisano M (2009) Poster: Expression of cell fate determinants and plastic changes after neurotoxic lesion of adult mice spinal cord by cholera toxin-B saporin. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 563.15/DD51. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Recent studies have attempted to achieve recovery after spinal cord (SC) injury or disease by either increase neurogenesis or stimulate neuroplasticity. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) Notch-1 and Numb are involved in the regulation of stem cell function. Additionally, Notch-1 has a role as modulator of synaptic plasticity. Little is known about the role of these proteins in the adult SC after selective removal of motoneurons. We injected Cholera toxin-B saporin into the gastrocnemius muscle to induce a selective depletion of motoneurons within lumbar mice SC and analysed the expression levels of Shh, Notch-1, Numb, Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and Synapsin-I proteins. The functional outcome of the lesion was monitored by grid walk test and rotarod. The neurotoxin lesion determined a motoneuron depletion and a decrease of ChAT and Synapsin-I protein levels in the lumbar SC. ChAT and Synapsin-I appeared correlated each other and with the motor performance, suggesting that the recovery of locomotion could depend from synaptic plasticity. Moreover, we observed a number of proliferating cells within the depleted SC, which were identified as active astrocytes. Shh and Notch-1 appeared reduced in the lesioned tissue and correlated with ChAT and Synapsin-I levels, suggesting a role in modulating synaptic plasticity. Numb expression was also reduced after lesion and appeared correlated with motor performance Therefore, given the role of these proteins in adult neurogenesis, we presume their involvement also in the observed glial reaction. The in vivo manipulation of Shh, Notch-1 and Numb signalling after lesion could be a way to reduce glial reaction and improve functional recovery.
Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)
Behavioral and histological characteristics of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats depending on injection site and dose.
Jeong D, Hwang Y, Lee D, Chang J (2009) Behavioral and histological characteristics of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats depending on injection site and dose. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 526.23/H8. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Cholinergic neuronal deficits are evident in both Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Forebrain Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) project primarily to the neocortex, and those in the medial septum project to the hippocampus and they make an important role in memory function. We used 192 IgG-saporin to mimic deficits of cholinergic neurons at AD and VaD. 192 IgG-saporin is composed with monoclonal antibody had a low affinity to the rat nerve growth factor receptor p75 and ribosomal inactivating protein, called saporin. When injected intracerebroventricularly or directly into the basal forebrain cholinergic complex, 192 IgG-saporin selectively destroys cholinergic neurons. Many experimenters had used 192 IgG-saporin to investigate cholinergic function but it had been used in different doses and sites of lesion. This makes it difficult to compare the degrees of impairment produced by different lesions. Consequently, our aim is observation of behavioral and histological changes depending on injection site and dose of 192 IgG-saporin. We injected 192 IgG-saporin (0.63ug/ul) in medial septum (dose: 0.05ul, 0.1ul, 0.2ul) or lateral ventricle (dose: 6ul, 8ul, 10ul). 192 IgG-saporin injected rats were compared with Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline injected rats. Neurological deficit and functional outcome were determined by immuohistochemistry using anti-cholineacetyltransferase antibody and behavioral test, called water maze. In immunohistological study, the extent of the cholinergic lesion was showed in the basal forebrain complex region of 8ul and 10ul of 192 IgG-saporin injected rats. In behavioral study, sham and lesion groups were able to learn the reference aspect of the water maze within 5day of training. In probe test, we observed significant decrease in time in target quadrant, platform and platform crossings, and increase in latency to first crossing at 8ul and 10ul of 192 IgG-sapoin injected rats (p<0.05). Therefore, our study evaluated that 8ul 192 IgG-saporin injections were sufficient to make an AD mimic dementia model.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin can produce memory deficits without impairing motor deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease.
Matchynski JJ, Lowrance S, Rossignol J, Puckett N, Derkorver N, Radwan J, Trainor K, Sandstrom M, Dunbar G (2009) Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin can produce memory deficits without impairing motor deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 528.1/H34. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Intracerebroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin (Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA) effectively and efficiently destroys cholinergic neurons and creates memory deficits in mice, mimicking some of the key symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Early attempts to use mu-P-75 saporin in mice required a relatively high mean effective dose (ED50) of 3.6 µg in order to create behavioral deficits (Berger-Sweeney et al., 2001, The Journal of Neuroscience, 21: 8164-8173; Hunter et al, 2004, European Journal of Neuroscience, 19: 3305-3316). Recent advances in producing the saporin have lowered the ED50 to doses to 0.4 µg, although the resulting memory deficits are transient, and doses above 0.8 µg can cause motor deficits (Moreau et al., 2008, Hippocampus, 18: 610-622). In an effort to elucidate the behavioral effects of a higher (0.8 µg) dose, we gave bilateral intracerbroventricular injections of mu-P-75 saporin (n=6) or sterile phosphate buffered saline (n=3) into C57/BL6 mice and assessed their cognitive abilities on both a Morris water maze (MWM) and an object-recognition task, while monitoring their motor abilities using a rotarod task. Mice receiving the mu-P-75 saporin performed significantly worse than sham animals on an object recognition task and tended to have longer latencies and swim paths during the seven days of MWM testing. Importantly, no between-group differences were observed for latency to fall on the rotarod task. Collectively, these results suggest that the 0.8 µg dose of saporin is both safe and effective for mimicking AD-like memory deficits, without causing significant motor deficits.
Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)
Evaluation of the effect of molsidomine on nitregic system in an experimental model of cognitive impairment.
Hernandez MA, Pineda JB, Del Valle-Mondragón L, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Ríos C, Pérez-Severiano F (2009) Evaluation of the effect of molsidomine on nitregic system in an experimental model of cognitive impairment. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 529.24/J10. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: The relationship between nitric oxide (NO) and cholinergic system in brain has been evidenced by using inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that blocked cognition, while NO donors can facilitate it. Nevertheless, the participation of NO in the recovery of cholinergic deficit due to the administration of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, 192 IgG saporin (SAP) has not been studied. The aim in this work was to evaluate the modulation of the nitrergic system after the damage induced by SAP and to measure the response to the administration of a NO donor, molsidomine (MOL). We used adult male Wistar rats allocated into either one of 4 groups: 1) vehicle PBS, 0.1M pH 7.4, 2) intraseptal administration of SAP (0.22 µg), 3) MOL ip 4 mg/kg, 4) SAP+MOL. Striatum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were dissected out at different times after treatment and quantification of nitrites, NOS activity and expression were performed. Our results show that SAP induces a reduction on the constitutive NOS activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum (54%, 64% respectively compared with control p<0.05); while hippocampal cNOS tended to decrease. MOL alone improved NOS activity in those regions. Neuronal and endothelial NOS expression (nNOS, eNOS) in the same regions did not change significantly. When the nitrites levels were analyzed, changes were region-specific. We conclude that administration of the NO donor promotes the recovery of cNOS activity in the model of cholinergic denervation associated to 192 IgG SAP. Further cognitive studies are being carried out in order to demonstrate the cholinergic recovery by MOL.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Poster: Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain.
Thomsen MS, Hay-Schmidt A, Hansen HH, Mikkelsen JD (2009) Poster: Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 646.2/V14. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are novel drugs candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which have shown pro-cognitive effects in clinical trials. Selective α7 nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and shell of the nucleus accumbens (ACCshell) in rats, regions which are important for cognitive function. However, the neural substrates involved in these effects remain elusive. Using retrograde tracing from the mPFC with Cholera Toxin B and immunoreactivity of the immediate-early gene c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, we identify the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of broca (HDB) in the basal forebrain as an important site of α7 nAChR activation. Approximately 26% of the cortically projecting neurons in the HDB are activated by acute administration of SSR180711 (10 mg/kg), and the neurons activated by SSR180711 in the HDB are cholinergic. Selective depletion of these cholinergic neurons with 192 IgG-Saporin abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the mPFC, but not the ACCshell, demonstrating their critical importance for α7 nAChR-dependent activation of the mPFC. Contrarily, selective depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) with 6-OHDA abolishes the SSR180711-induced activation of the ACCshell, but not the mPFC or HDB. These results indicate that two distinct neural pathways are activated by SSR180711, involving HDB-to-mPFC and VTA-to-ACCshell projections, respectively. The basal forebrain and mPFC are important for attentional function, and may subserve the pro-cognitive effects of α7 nAChR agonists, whereas activation of the ACCshell is implicated in beneficial effects on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)
Spinal µ-opiate receptor (MOR)-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in modulating pain and opiate analgesia.
Kline IV RH, Wiley RG (2009) Spinal µ-opiate receptor (MOR)-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in modulating pain and opiate analgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 560.13/CC72. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Selective destruction of MOR-expressing interneurons in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord increases reflex nocifensive responses to formalin and decreases the anti-nociceptive effects of morphine on the hotplate and in the formalin test. The interpretation of these studies is limited because reflex-based assays may not accurately reflect the cerebral component of nociception. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of selectively destroying MOR-expressing dorsal horn neurons on baseline operant responses to aversive thermal and mechanical stimuli in a shuttle box task and effects of systemic morphine and naloxone in the same task. The preference apparatus consisted of a 15 X 15 X 30 cm smoked Plexiglas vented chamber placed upon two adjoining temperature-controlled smooth aluminum floor plates (thermal preference task) or one smooth temperature-controlled floor plate adjoined to a room temperature surface covered with 40 grit sandpaper (mechanical preference task). For both preference tasks, response functions were obtained by pairing a 44°C plate or the sandpaper surface with either 11°, 16°, 25°, 38° or 46°C. Rats were intrathecally injected over the lumbar cord with either 625ng of derm-sap (n=7) or blank-sap (n=6) followed by daily thermal or mechanical preference testing on a randomized schedule. Derm-sap treated rats showed enhanced avoidance of aversive thermal stimuli and the aversive mechanical stimulus. Morphine and naloxone significantly altered responses of control rats (blank-sap), but not derm-sap rats, in both thermal and mechanical preference tasks. We interpret these results as showing that the derm-sap lesion produces hyperalgesia/allodynia, impairs the anti-nociceptive and analgesic effects of morphine and therefore indicating that postsynaptic dorsal horn MOR-expressing neurons play a key role in modulating nociception, pain and opiate analgesia. Dysfunction of these neurons may also play a role in pathological pain states.
Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)
Tai S, Leung L (2009) Facilitation of dentate gyrus population spike may involve septohippocampal GABAergic input. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 566.18/EE33. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: The medial septum (MS) is known to modulate the neural circuitry in the hippocampus. It have been demonstrated that, in anaesthetized rats, MS stimulation prior to perforant path stimulation facilitated the population spike in the dentate gyrus and such facilitation was unaffected by muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that this facilitation may be mediated by septohippocampal GABAergic neurons. To study the effects of septohippocampal neurons in modulating neural circuitry in the dentate gyrus, selective lesion of septohippocampal GABAergic cells was made by infusion of orexin-saporin in the MS. Evoked field potentials were recorded in the dentate gyrus following stimulation of the medial perforant path in urethane-anesthetized rats using multichannel silicon probes and analyzed as current source density. High-frequency stimulation of the pontis oralis (PnO) activated a hippocampal theta rhythm. Theta peak power was attenuated in lesion rats as compared to control (sham lesion) rats. PnO stimulation resulted in a larger average increase in dentate population spike (pSpike) in control rats compared to lesion rats (26.4 ± 8.8 % vs 5.1 ± 8.7 %) but the difference was not significant (P = 0.1082; control n = 9, lesion n = 8). The number of choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive (cholinergic) cells in the MS was not significantly different (P = 0.88, unpaired t-test) between lesion and control rats, while a significant decrease (about 50%) of the number of parvalbumin-immunopositive GABAergic cells in the MS was observed in lesion as compared to control rats (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The effect of PnO stimulation on the paired-pulse pSpike response versus interpulse interval (30 - 400 ms) was not different between control and lesion rats. No difference between control and lesion rats was detected in the pSpike enhancement after PnO stimulation following scopolamine (5 mg/kg i.p.). Additional studies were needed to demonstrate the facilitation of dentate gyrus population spike by septohippocampal GABAergic neurons.
Related Products: Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20)
Immunotoxic lesion of hypothalamic noradrenergic/adrenergic input ameliorates the effects of peripheral LPS challenge on sickness behavior and associated brain c-Fos expression
Gaykema RP, Thacker GC, Shapiro NJ, Goehler LE (2009) Immunotoxic lesion of hypothalamic noradrenergic/adrenergic input ameliorates the effects of peripheral LPS challenge on sickness behavior and associated brain c-Fos expression. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 570.11/EE120. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Caudal medullary catecholamine neurons that innervate the hypothalamus play a major role in the activation of paraventricular neurons that drive pituitary adrenocorticotropin and adrenal corticosteroid release in response to peripheral pro-inflammatory challenges with interleukin-1 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pro-inflammatory challenges also lead to marked behavioral changes, including fatigue, loss of social interest, anorexia, somnolence, but the precise neuronal mechanisms that underlie sickness behavior remain elusive. We reasoned that the medulla-hypothalamic catecholaminergic pathway may also contribute to the behavioral manifestations in illness. To investigate such possible role, we applied a targeted lesion approach in rats to determine whether or not caudal brainstem catecholaminergic neurons that innervate the hypothalamus are also necessary for the expression of sickness behavior. Anti-dopamine beta hydroxylase antibodies conjugated to saporin (DSAP), when injected into a target region, selectively poisons and destroy noradrenergic/adrenergic neurons that innervate the target. DSAP was micro-injected bilaterally into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), whereas control rats received unconjugated saporin (SAP controls). Fourteen days later the animals were injected intraperitoneally with either LPS or saline, and 2h later were submitted to the open field to record their exploratory behavior, 1h after which the rats were sacrificed for brain immunohistochemical analyses. LPS-treated SAP control rats showed drastic reduction in exploratory behavior (reduced locomotion distance and velocity). Prior DSAP microinjections largely reversed the LPS-induced reduction in locomotor behavior. The brains of these DSAP rats showed a dramatic loss of noradrenergic innervation of the PVN but also in other parts of the medial, tuberal and tuberomammilary regions of the hypothalamus. The behavioral resilience to LPS coincided with diminished LPS-related c-Fos staining in the PVN, and increased c-Fos staining in the lateral and tuberomammillary regions related to behavior and/or arousal. In summary, our findings support the hypothesis that hypothalamic catecholaminergic projections originating in the lower brainstem play a critical role in the expression of sickness behavior in the context of novelty-induced exploratory activity, but we cannot determine with precision in which part of the hypothalamus the noradrenergic/adrenergic input contributes to the expression of sickness behavior due to extensive collateralization of the ascending projections throughout the hypothalamus.
Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)
Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance.
Huang T-Y, Lin L-S, Chen H-I, Jen C (2009) Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 660.18/CC34. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: The effects of exercise on cerebellar functions were studied. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into exercise and sedentary groups. For exercise groups, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise at moderate intensity. In some groups, rats were administered with OX7-saporin, a cerebellar Purkinje cell toxin, into the lateral ventricle during the 5th week of training. At the end of training period, they were tested for rotarod performance. Brain tissues were obtained for measurement of mitochondria-related protein, including Mfn2, OPA1, Drp1 and CcOx-IV. The morphology of Purkinje cells was also examined by two photon microscopy. Our results showed that exercise training improve rotarod performance, and increased cerebellar protein levels of Mfn2 and OPA1 (mitochondrial fusion proteins) but not Drp1 (mitochondrial fission protein) or CcOx-IV (a mitochondrial complex IV marker). The dendritic field of Purkinje cells was significant modified in exercise groups. OX7-saporin application impaired the rotarod performance and decreased cerebellar Purkinje cell number only in sedentary rats. In summary, chronic exercise enlarged dendritic field of Purkinje cells and improved cerebellar function, including the rotarod performance, the mitochondrial fusion protein expression, and the resistance to toxin insult.
Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)
Depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens impairs dopamine function in the prefrontal cortex in the rat.
Laplante FP, Dufresne M, Lappi DA, Sullivan RM (2009) Depletion of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens impairs dopamine function in the prefrontal cortex in the rat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 341.7/O16. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Studies of post mortem schizophrenic brains have revealed a selective loss of cholinergic interneurons, most pronounced in the ventral striatal region. We have previously shown in the rat, that a novel saporin immunotoxin coupled with an antibody targeting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and microinjected (0.5 _g/_l; 0.5 _l) into the nucleus accumbens (N. Acc) of adult rats, reduces the number of cholinergic neurons in N. Acc. by 40-50 %. Such lesions result in a markedly heightened response to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine and impair prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. We proposed that this local cholinergic deficit leads to a hyperresponsiveness in subcortical dopamine (DA) systems of relevance to schizophrenic symptomatology. Presently, we hypothesize that the same local cholinergic defect may trigger broader changes in cortical/subcortical networks, specifically prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits in DA-mediated functions, also proposed in schizophrenia. Young adult male Srpague-Dawley rats were injected bilaterally in the N. Acc. as described above with either the cholinergic immunotoxin or vehicle. Two weeks later, they were trained in a working memory task dependent on PFC function, using the delayed alternation paradigm in the T-maze. Lesioned rats took significantly longer to reach criterion performance during training than controls. During testing, lesioned rats were significantly impaired in the percentage of correct arm choices across delay intervals, but especially with longer (40 sec) delays. The same animals were then implanted with voltammetric recording electrodes in the ventromedial PFC to examine the increases in in vivo extracellular DA release in response to a brief tail pinch stress. Lesioned rats showed a significantly reduced activation of the mesocortical DA system compared to controls. Taken together, the data suggest that reduction in the density of cholinergic neurons in the N. Acc also triggers deficits in prefontally-mediated function known to be under mesocortical DAergic regulation. This raises the possibility that ventral striatal cholinergic deficits may be causally linked to cortical/subcortical functional imbalances proposed to exist in schizophrenia.
Related Products: Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42)
Ablation of NK-1 expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia.
Brink TS, Khasabov SG, Fliss PM, Simone DA (2009) Ablation of NK-1 expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates inflammatory hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 361.5/BB31. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide synthesized by many nociceptive primary sensory neurons and is released into the spinal cord following noxious stimulation where it binds to neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, mostly located on ascending spinal neurons. Spinal NK-1 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia and central sensitization. NK-1 expressing neurons are also present in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a brainstem area involved in descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. ON cells in the RVM are involved in facilitation of nociceptive transmission and their activity may be modulated by SP. SP injected into the RVM excites ON cells through NK-1 receptors, and NK-1 receptor antagonists into the RVM attenuate hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin. Here, we studied the role of RVM NK-1 positive neurons in modulating hyperalgesia following acute (intraplantar capsaicin injection) or sustained (complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaw) inflammation. We used the ribosomal toxin saporin (SAP) conjugated to a stable agonist of SP (SSP) to selectively ablate RVM cells that possess NK-1 receptors. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, withdrawal responses to noxious heat and mechanical stimuli were obtained using the Hargreaves method and a 15 g von Frey monofilament applied to the plantar hindpaw, respectively. Rats were treated with either the SSP-SAP toxin (0.5 µg/0.5 µl) or blank-SAP, and were tested 10-24 days after injection, when NK-1 expressing RVM neurons are ablated. In control rats, injection of capsaicin (10 µl of 0.1%) produced a 63% decrease in withdrawal latency to heat and an increase in withdrawal response frequency evoked by the monofilament from 16% up to 87%. However, SSP-SAP attenuated capsaicin-evoked hyperalgesia to heat (15% decrease in withdrawal latency) and mechanical (increase to 44% withdrawal frequency) stimuli. Elimination of NK-1 positive neurons in the RVM also attenuated the development of hyperalgesia following CFA. Whereas control rats exhibited a 60% decrease in withdrawal latency to heat and an increase in withdrawal frequency the monofilament from 10% up to 78%, withdrawal latency decreased 27% and withdrawal frequency increased to only 46% in rats treated with SSP-SAP. We conclude that neurons in the RVM that contain NK-1 receptors are pronociceptive and contribute to the hyperalgesia produced by capsaicin or CFA.
Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)
Leptin-saporin injection into the arcuate nucleus lesions NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons and produces hyperphagia, obesity and changes in diurnal feeding patterns in rats
Li A-J, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2009) Leptin-saporin injection into the arcuate nucleus lesions NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons and produces hyperphagia, obesity and changes in diurnal feeding patterns in rats. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 374.5/EE116. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Leptin-saporin (Lep-SAP), a conjugate of leptin with a ribosomal inactivating toxin, saporin (Advanced Targeting Systems), is a novel toxin designed to destroy leptin receptor-expressing cells selectively in vitro. However, its lesioning properties in vivo are currently unknown. Here, we injected Lep-SAP into the arcuate nucleus (Arc), to examine its effects on feeding behavior and on leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in this area. Immunohistochemical studies showed unilateral injection of Lep-SAP into the Arc dramatically reduced numbers of NPY-Y1- and α-MSH- positive neurons compared to the contralateral side injected with SAP control. Real-time PCR revealed only 11-21% of Agrp and Pomc expression remaining in the Arc after Lep-SAP injection into this region. Rats injected bilaterally with Lep-SAP were unresponsive to central leptin administration and showed dramatic increases in feeding, body weight and light-phase feeding, compared pre-injection baseline. Two weeks after injection, total daily feeding was increased by 75%, light phase feeding by 359% and dark phase feeding by 33%. Control SAP injections did not produce these changes. Clock gene expression in homogenates of whole hypothalamus and liver were quantified at ZT 5-7. Bmal1 expression in hypothalamus and liver of Lep-SAP rats was decreased, while hepatic Per1 expression was increased compared to control. Results demonstrate that Lep-SAP effectively lesions Arc leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in vivo, and that rats with this lesion are hyperphagic and obese, possibly due to enhanced hunger drive, lack of responsiveness to leptin and/or changes in circadian control of feeding behavior.