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Custom Saporin Conjugations

Q: We recently spoke to you about performing a custom saporin conjugation using our antibody. Is 0.09% azide in PBS in the antibody stock acceptable?

A: There are a number of dialysis steps within the conjugation protocol that will ultimately remove the azide from your antibody solution. So as long as your antibody will be happy in PBS without azide during the procedure, sending the material in 0.09% azide is fine. The final conjugate will be returned to you in PBS, sterile-filtered, without azide.

Q: In general, how many saporin molecules are incorporated per antibody? Can we test this by HPLC?

A: We aim for 2-2.5 moles of saporin per mole of antibody. You should be able to see differences in HPLC between your antibody with one vs. two vs. three saporins attached, however we will provide you with a saporin molar ratio and a product that has had free saporin and free antibody removed from the final conjugate.

Related: Custom Conjugates

Integrin α10-antibodies reduce glioblastoma tumor growth and cell migration

Masoumi KC, Huang X, Sime W, Mirkov A, Munksgaard Thorén M, Massoumi R, Lundgren-Åkerlund E (2021) Integrin α10-antibodies reduce glioblastoma tumor growth and cell migration. Cancers (Basel) 13(5):1184. doi: 10.3390/cancers13051184

Summary: The authors investigated the treatment effect of two antibodies that have been developed to target the protein integrin 10, which is present on the surface of Glioblastoma (GB) cells. Function-blocking integrin alpha10, beta1-antibodies inhibit GB tumor growth as well as the migration of GB cells. This further validates integrin alpha10, beta1 as a promising target in GB and suggests a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GB and other high-grade gliomas.

Usage: Infusions of anti-integrin α10β1-SAP or Anti-ctrl-SAP were made icv (1 µg/2 L per infusion).

See: Thorén MM et al. Integrin α10, a Novel Therapeutic Target in Glioblastoma, Regulates Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Survival. Cancers (Basel) 11(4):587, 2019.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Identification of prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (PTGFRN) as an internalizable target in cancer cells for antibody-drug conjugate development

Marquez J, Dong J, Dong C, Tian C, Serrero G (2021) Identification of prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (PTGFRN) as an internalizable target in cancer cells for antibody-drug conjugate development. PLoS One 16(1):e0246197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246197

Summary: PTGFRN is a cell-surface protein that is upregulated in certain cancer types, including head and neck and, notably, pediatric medulloblastoma, an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. With the selection of the mouse monoclonal antibody 33B7, the authors identified PTGFRN as a potential therapy target, and show that it is internalized by incubation with 33B7. Purified 33B7 antibody was sent to Advanced Targeting Systems where saporin was directly conjugated to the Fc region of 33B7 using their proprietary cleavable linker.

Usage: In a 96-well plate, 2000 cells/well were plated in triplicate in 100 μL of DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 2.5% FBS, 0.4 ug/ml 33B7 antibody, and 0.9ug/ml of Fab-ZAP mouse. As an isotype control, cells were incubated with mouse Fab IgG-SAP as control (instead of 33B7) and Fab-ZAP.

Related Products: Fab-ZAP mouse (Cat. #IT-48), Fab IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-67), Custom Conjugates

Superior mouse eosinophil depletion in vivo targeting transgenic Siglec-8 instead of endogenous Siglec-F: Mechanisms and pitfalls.

Knuplez E, Krier-Burris R, Cao Y, Marsche G, O’Sullivan J, Bochner BS (2020) Superior mouse eosinophil depletion in vivo targeting transgenic Siglec-8 instead of endogenous Siglec-F: Mechanisms and pitfalls. J Leukoc Biol 108:43-58. doi: 10.1002/jlb.3hi0120-381r

Objective: To determine if targeting Siglec-8 with mouse IgG1 antibodies, rather than targeting Siglec-F with rat IgG antibodies, in mice transgenic for Siglec-8, will prove to be a more effective strategy for eliminating mouse eosinophils in vivo.

Summary: This study is the first to describe a novel mouse strain of Siglec-8+F− eosinophils—a useful tool for studying human Siglec biology in preclinical models.

Usage: Siglec-8+F− mouse eosinophils were pretreated with 10 μg/mL saporin-conjugated isotype controls (mouse IgG1 or rat IgG2), anti-Siglec-8 (2C4) or anti-Siglec-F (9C7) antibodies for 24 h.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration due to obstructive sleep apnoea increases Alzheimer’s pathology in mice.

Qian L, Kasas L, Milne MR, Rawashdeh O, Marks N, Sharma A, Bellingham MC, Coulson EJ (2020) Cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration due to obstructive sleep apnoea increases Alzheimer’s pathology in mice. bioRxiv 2020.03.12.989848. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.12.989848

Usage: bilateral injections of urotensin II-saporin (UII-SAP; 0.07 μg/μL per site – unless stated otherwise; generous gift from Advanced Targeting Systems)

Related Products: Custom Conjugates, Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)

Cell-specific ablation of GnRH neurons using kisspeptin-saporin in the preoptic area of sheep, but not mice.

Porter D, Moore A, Goodman R, Hileman S, Coolen L, Lehman M (2019) Cell-specific ablation of GnRH neurons using kisspeptin-saporin in the preoptic area of sheep, but not mice. J Endocrine Society 3(1):SAT–421. ENDO 2019 – 101st Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, New Orleans, Louisiana doi: 10.1210/js.2019-SAT-421

Objective: To invesigate the potential of integrin α10β1 as a therapeutic target in glioblastomas (GBMs).

Summary: Integrin α10β1 has a crucial role in the migration, proliferation, and survival of GBM cells and that an integrin α10β1 antibody–drug conjugate induced cell death of GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Usage: Infusions of anti-10-SAP or Anti-ctrl-SAP were made icv (1 µg/2 L per infusion).

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Integrin α10, a novel therapeutic target in glioblastoma, regulates cell migration, proliferation, and survival.

Thorén MM, Chmielarska Masoumi K, Krona C, Huang X, Kundu S, Schmidt L, Forsberg-Nilsson K, Floyd Keep M, Englund E, Nelander S, Holmqvist B, Lundgren-Åkerlund E (2019) Integrin α10, a novel therapeutic target in glioblastoma, regulates cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Cancers (Basel) 11(4):587. doi: 10.3390/cancers11040587

Objective: To investigate the potential of integrin alpha10beta1 as a therapeutic target in glioblastomas (GBMs).

Summary: Integrin alpha10beta1 has a crucial role in the migration, proliferation, and survival of GBM cells and that an integrin alpha10beta1 antibody–drug conjugate induced cell death of GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo.

Usage: Infusions of anti- 10-SAP or Anti-ctrl-SAP were made icv (1 mcg/2 L per infusion).

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Novel high molecular weight albumin-conjugated angiotensin II activates β-arrestin and G-protein pathways.

Pang HW, Linares A, Couling L, Santollo J, Ancheta L, Daniels D, Speth RC (2019) Novel high molecular weight albumin-conjugated angiotensin II activates β-arrestin and G-protein pathways. Endocrine 66(2):349-359. doi: 10.1007/s12020-019-01930-z

Objective: To study the ability of a novel bovine serum albumin-angiotensin II (BSA-Ang II) conjugate to effect responses of the AT1 angiotensin II receptor subtype mediated by the G-protein-coupled and the beta-arrestin pathways.

Summary: BSA-Ang II and Ang II stimulated water appetite equivalently but BSA-Ang II stimulated saline appetite more than Ang II. Both BSA-Ang II and Ang II were considerably more potent at causing calcium mobilization than β-arrestin binding.

Usage: Angiotensin II (Ang II) was conjugated with bovine serum albumin and compared with Ang II for competition binding to AT1 receptors, to stimulate aldosterone release from adrenocortical cells, to promote beta-arrestin binding to AT1 receptors, to promote calcium mobilization, and stimulate drinking of water and saline by rats.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Evidence that the LH surge in ewes involves both neurokinin B-dependent and -independent actions of kisspeptin

Goodman RL, Lopez JA, Bedenbaugh MN, Connors JM, Hardy SL< Hileman SM, Coolen LM, Lehman MN (2018) Evidence that the LH surge in ewes involves both neurokinin B-dependent and -independent actions of kisspeptin. Neuroscience 2018 Abstracts 773.20 / YY14. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.

Summary: It is generally recognized that kisspeptin plays a key role in induction of the LH surge in sheep and we have reported evidence that neurokinin B (NKB) does so as well. Specifically, disrupting NKB signaling in the retrochiasmatic area (RCh) using either an antagonist to its receptor, NK3R, or lesions of NK3R-containing neurons in the RCh with a saporin conjugate (NK3-SAP) reduced the amplitude of the estrogen-induced LH surge by 50%. Because a KISS1R antagonist (p271) also produced a 50% decrease in surge amplitude, we hypothesized that these two systems are organized in series with NKB actions in the RCh stimulating kisspeptin release. If this is the case, then the combination of NK3R lesions and a KISS1R antagonist should produce the same inhibition as either treatment alone. This experiment tested this prediction using a 2 x 2 design. Breeding season ewes were ovariectomized and immediately given an estradiol (E) implant sc and two progesterone implants (CIDRs) intravaginally that produced luteal phase levels of these steroids. Ewes then received bilateral injections of either NK3-SAP (n=6) or Blank-SAP (n=5) into the RCh. Three weeks later, an artificial follicular phase was produced by inserting four 3 cm long E implants 24 hrs after CIDR removal and either saline or p271 was infused into the lateral ventricle for 16-24 hrs after E implantation; LH was monitored every 2-4 hrs for two days. CIDRs were then reinserted and the protocol repeated in a cross-over design so that all ewes received saline and p271 treatment. In Blank-SAP ewes, p271 decreased the peak of the LH surge from 61.2 ± 7.6 to 27.4 ± 4.6 ng/mL and delayed it 8 hrs (from 26.5 ± 0.5 to 34.1 ± 1.2 hrs post E implantation). The NK3-SAP injections alone decreased the peak of the LH surge to 29.7 ± 10.7 ng/mL compared to Blank-SAP, but the peak was not further inhibited by p271 in these NK3-SAP-treated ewes (24.4 ± 1.4 ng/mL). However, p271 delayed the peak of the LH surge (from 28.8 ± 1.2 to 34.8 ± 2.1 hrs post E implantation) in the ewes injected with NK3-SAP. Based on these results, we propose that kisspeptin has two roles in the LH surge in ewes: it initiates the surge independent of NKB signaling in the RCh, and maintains LH secretion during the surge by a NKB-dependent system.

Related Products: NKB-SAP (Cat. #IT-63), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21), Custom Conjugates

Targeting of embryonic annexin A2 expressed on ovarian and breast cancer by the novel monoclonal antibody 2448

Cua S, Tan HL, Fong WJ, Chin A, Lau A, Ding V, Song Z, Yang Y, Choo A (2018) Targeting of embryonic annexin A2 expressed on ovarian and breast cancer by the novel monoclonal antibody 2448. Oncotarget 9:13206-13221. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.24152

Objective: To develop mAbs to potentially target oncofetal antigens and be repurposed for antibody or antibody drug conjugate (ADC) therapy.

Summary: The novel IgG1, 2448, was shown to target a unique glycosylated surface epitope on ANXA2. As a possible therapeutic candidate for ovarian and breast cancer, 2448 demonstrated anti-tumor activity via two independent mechanisms of action.

Usage: Cells were seeded in 96-well plates at 1000 or 2000 cells/well. Primary antibody, 2448 or ch2448 (10 μg/mL) was pre-mixed with appropriate secondary saporin conjugate, Mab-ZAP or Hum-ZAP.  The most significant decreases in cell viability (20% to 60%) were observed against the epithelial IGROV1 and MCF7 cell lines.  ATS created a Custom ADC by direct conjugation of saporin to ch2448 (ch2448-SAP).  As a control, an isotype chimeric IgG was also conjugated to saporin (IgG-SAP). Compared to using secondary saporin conjugates, ch2448-SAP induced and increase of  20–30% cytotoxicity.)

Related Products: Mab-ZAP (Cat. #IT-04), Hum-ZAP (Cat. #IT-22), Custom Conjugates

Preclinical modeling highlights the therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem cell gene editing for correction of SCID-X1.

Schiroli G, Ferrari S, Conway A, Jacob A, Capo V, Albano L, Plati T, Castiello M, Sanvito F, Gennery A, Bovolenta C, Palchaudhuri R, Scadden D, Holmes M, Villa A, Sitia G, Lombardo A, Genovese P, Naldini L (2017) Preclinical modeling highlights the therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem cell gene editing for correction of SCID-X1. Sci Transl Med 9(411):eaan0820. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aan0820

Objective: To study potential approaches to gene therapy in mouse models of severe combined immunodeficiency.

Summary: The threshold of IL2RG gene editing can be reached for safe and efficient correction of SCID-X1 established in a preclinical model in human long-term repopulating HSPCs.

Usage: Biotinylated Anti-CD45 was mixed equimolar to Streptavidin-ZAP and administered as a single dose which caused substantial depletion (~70%) of the HSPC compartments and milder depletion of the more mature cell populations.

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27)

Leveraging Siglec-8 endocytic mechanisms to kill human eosinophils and malignant mast cells.

O’Sullivan J, Carroll D, Cao Y, Salicru A, Bochner B (2018) Leveraging Siglec-8 endocytic mechanisms to kill human eosinophils and malignant mast cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol 141:1774-1785.e1777. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.06.028

Summary: Therapeutic payloads can be targeted selectively to eosinophils and malignant mast cells by exploiting this Siglec-8 endocytic pathway.

Usage: Eosinophil cell death was assessed with 2C4 mAb or isotype control (both at 2.5 μg/mL).

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Effective antitumor therapy based on a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting the Tn carbohydrate antigen.

Sedlik C, Heitzmann A, Viel S, Ait Sarkouh R, Batisse C, Schmidt F, De La Rochere P, Amzallag N, Osinaga E, Oppezzo P, Pritsch O, Sastre-Garau X, Hubert P, Amigorena S, Piaggio E (2016) Effective antitumor therapy based on a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting the Tn carbohydrate antigen. Oncoimmunology 5:e1171434. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2016.1171434

Summary: Scientists wanted to study the potential of Chi-Tn, a monoclonal antibody against a glycol-peptidic tumor-associated antigen, as an anticancer antibody-drug conjugate. They demonstrated that Chi-Tn specifically targeted tumor cells in vivo, using flow cytometry and deconvolution microscopy to show that Chi-Tn is rapidly internalized. Chi-Tn-SAP (ATS Custom Services) effectively killed Tn-positive cells, but had no effect on Tn-negative cells. Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) was used as control. The cytotoxicity of the Chi-Tn-SAP correlated with the level of tumoral Tn expression.

Related Products: Saporin (Cat. #PR-01), Custom Conjugates

Lack of effects on growth and body weight gain after elimination of the leptin receptor from the brain of immature Pekin drakes

Porter LM, Alenciks E, Frazier K, Porter A, Fraley GS (2015) Lack of effects on growth and body weight gain after elimination of the leptin receptor from the brain of immature Pekin drakes. Neuroscience 2015 Abstracts 613.04/R19. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago IL.

Summary: The presence of the hormone leptin (LEP) is a controversial topic in the field of avian physiology. While LEP is well understood in mammals, the hormone has not been definitively verified in avian species. Although the hormone remains elusive, the leptin receptor (LEPR) has been identified and sequenced in multiple avian species. Its role, however, remains unclear. To attempt to deduce the role of the leptin system in birds, we focused on altering the leptin receptor expression in the brain of immature Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that eliminating the LEPR-expressing neurons of the hypothalamus would elicit an increase in body weight, as is the case for mammals. To test this hypothesis, we injected stereotaxically 3 ul of a solution containing a monoclonal antibody (anti-LEPR) conjugated to saporin (LSAP, 100 ng/ul) was injected into the lateral ventricle of 10 day old Pekin ducks (LSAP, N = 10). Control group animals (SAP) were injected with unconjugated antibody and saporin at equimolar concentrations to the LSAP. Ducks were weighed weekly starting at 3 days of age. After a final weight was obtained at 50 days of age, ducks were euthanized and a blood sample was collected and sent out for an avian panel to assay serum glucose and free fatty acids. We found that the elimination of LEPR had no significant effect on the body weights of the ducks (p>0.05). In addition, The CBC panel did not reveal any significant differences in the overall health of the ducks in each treatment group. Our data indicates LEPR may not play a significant role in the regulation of body weight or growth in juvenile ducks.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates, Saporin (Cat. #PR-01)

Nociceptive effects of neurotensin(NTS)- and somatostatin(SST)-toxin conjugates applied to the lumbar dorsal horn in rats

Wiley RG (2015) Nociceptive effects of neurotensin(NTS)- and somatostatin(SST)-toxin conjugates applied to the lumbar dorsal horn in rats. Neuroscience 2015 Abstracts 418.11/O12. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago IL.

Summary: Intrathecal injections of NTS or SST have been reported to be anti-nociceptive, and in the case of SST, analgesic in humans. Preliminary experiments in our lab previously showed that lumbar intrathecal injection of the excitatory neuropeptide, NTS, or the inhibitory neuropeptide, SST, conjugated to the ribosome inactivating protein, saporin (sap), produced compulsive scratching/biting of hindquarters resulting in loss of fur and skin. This was thought likely due to pain and/or itching from selective loss of superficial dorsal horn nociceptive inhibitory interneurons expressing NTS receptors. Subsequent experiments using lumbar intrathecal injections of NTS-cholera toxin A chain conjugate resulted in prolonged anti-nociception on hotplate, tail flick and von Frey testing, that was not reversed by naloxone and lasted several days, likely due to sustained activation of the same neurons. The present study sought to determine if the lesions produced by NTS-sap or SST-sap alter nociceptive responses. In the present study, rats, under isoflurane anesthesia, were injected intrathecally using temporarily-placed subarachnoid catheters over the lumbar enlargement with 10 ul of sterile preservative-free normal saline containing either 300-400 ng of NTS-sap, 1 ug of SST-sap or 1 ug blank-sap (control) from Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA. Catheters were flushed with an additional 10 ul of saline. After post-surgical recovery, the rats were then observed for scratching/biting their hindquarters, nocifensive responses on the hotplate, von Frey mechanical probing of the hindpaws, and on operant thermal escape. 4 of 11 NTS-saporin rats and 5 of 9 SST-saporin rats, but none of 9 blank-saporin rats began scratching within 8-47 days after toxin conjugate injection. Hotplate nocifensive reflex testing at 44.5°C and 47°C showed no significant difference between the groups. Von Frey, operant thermal escape testing and anatomic studies are in progress to further specify the functional effects of the toxin conjugate injections and to identify the dorsal horn neurons being destroyed. The results to date are interpreted as consistent with a possibly unique role for NTS and/or SST receptor-expressing superficial dorsal horn inhibitory interneurons in nociception and/or itch. Excitatory/activating moieties such as cholera toxin A subunit targeted by conjugation to NTS or SST may offer a novel approach to enhance inhibition in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons and to produce analgesia by a non-opioid mechanism.

Related Products: Neurotensin-CTA (Cat. #IT-60), Neurotensin-SAP (Cat. #IT-56), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21), Custom Conjugates

Retrograde transport is not required for cytosolic translocation of the B-subunit of Shiga toxin.

Garcia-Castillo M, Tran T, Bobard A, Renard H, Rathjen S, Dransart E, Stechmann B, Lamaze C, Lord M, Cintrat J, Enninga J, Tartour E, Johannes L (2015) Retrograde transport is not required for cytosolic translocation of the B-subunit of Shiga toxin. J Cell Sci 128:2373-2387. doi: 10.1242/jcs.169383

Summary: Bacterial and plant toxins rely on various trafficking pathways to reach intracellular targets. Shiga and Shiga-like toxins have been found to be moved via vesicular transport through several subcellular structures on the way to the cytosol. Shiga toxin (STx) is the cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome, for which there is no effective treatment. In order to better understand the mechanisms of STx membrane translocation the authors used a custom conjugate of the receptor-binding B-subunit of STx (STxB) and saporin (Custom conjugation provided by Advanced Targeting Systems). In vitro assays demonstrated that STxB-SAP did not use retrograde transport to the Golgi complex in order to reach the cytosol. This information has relevance to antigen cross-presentation of antigen-presenting cells.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Light-controlled endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin by photochemical internalization – A minimally invasive cancer stem cell-targeting strategy.

Bostad M, Olsen C, Peng Q, Berg K, Høgset A, Selbo P (2015) Light-controlled endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin by photochemical internalization – A minimally invasive cancer stem cell-targeting strategy. J Control Release 206:37-48. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.03.008

Summary: Previously the authors demonstrated the use of photochemical internalization of a custom conjugate consisting of a CD133 antibody coupled to saporin (ATS Custom conjugation). Several cancer cell lines were plated, and incubated in the presence of a photosensitizer with either CD133-SAP at 8.6 pM or Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) at 24 pM. The different concentrations equalized the number of saporin molecules in each sample. A light source was used to initiate the internalization of the molecules. The results indicate that this is a viable strategy for the targeted treatment of cancer stem cells.

Related Products: Anti-CD133-SAP (Cat. #IT-82), Saporin (Cat. #PR-01), Custom Conjugates

Interleukin-1 receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate hypothalamus mediate peripheral interleukin-1-induced hypophagia

Konsman J, Chaskiel L, Bristow A, Dantzer R (2014) Interleukin-1 receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate hypothalamus mediate peripheral interleukin-1-induced hypophagia. Neuroscience 2014 Abstracts 453.13. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.

Summary: Although the reduction in food intake observed in acute infectious and inflammatory diseases has been proposed to represent a regulated adaptive response, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Our previous work has shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) can act in the brain to alter behavior during peripheral inflammation. The arcuate nucleus of the rat hypothalamus plays a pivotal role in the regulation of food intake and expresses the signaling interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) (Ericsson et al., J. Comp. Neurol., 1995). However, lesioning of the neuropeptide Y(NPY)- and proopiomelancortin(POMC)-expressing neurons, the two major neuronal populations in the arcuate nucleus regulating food intake, does not attenuate the reduction of food intake after peripheral interleukin-1 administration (Reyes & Sawchenko, J. Neurosci., 2002). Besides neurons, venules and glia constitute the main nervous cell types expressing the signaling interleukin-1 receptor. Moreover, glial cells, and in particular tanycytes in the arcuate nucleus, have been proposed to play a role in the regulation of food intake (Bolborea & Dale, Trends Neurosci., 2013). In the present work, we set out ) to determine if IL1-R1-expressing cells in the hypothalamus mediate reduced food intake in response to peripheral IL-1 administration, and 2) if so, to identify the cell types involved. Cells expressing IL-1R1 were killed by infusion of IL-1 coupled to the intracellular toxin saporin (IL-1-SAP) into the arcuate hypothalamus. Control infusions consisted of uncoupled IL-1 and saporin and PBS. At least one week later rats were injected intraperitoneally with IL1. Intra-arcuate IL-1-SAP attenuated the reduction in food intake after peripheral administration of IL-1, indicating that arcuate cells mediate IL-1-induced hypophagia. Post mortem histochemical analyses of brain sections of the same animals revealed that intra-arcuate IL-1-SAP reduced the number of NPY-neurons, without affecting the number of POMC-neurons or the surface covered by tanycytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that IL-1R-bearing NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus take part in the reduction of food intake after peripheral IL-1 administration and suggest that hypophagia observed in infectious and inflammatory diseases reflects, at least in part, a regulated response.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Efficient elimination of CD103-expressing cells by anti-CD103 antibody drug conjugates in immunocompetent mice.

Mang Y, Zhao Z, Zeng Z, Wu X, Li Z, Zhang L (2015) Efficient elimination of CD103-expressing cells by anti-CD103 antibody drug conjugates in immunocompetent mice. Int Immunopharmacol 24:119-127. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.11.004

Summary: Previous work has demonstrated that an M290-SAP custom conjugate promoted the long-term survival of pancreatic islet allografts by reducing the number of CD103+ cells. M290 is an antibody that targets CD103. Systemic use of the saporin conjugate can result in toxicity and bystander effects to the animal. In this work the authors used M290 conjugated to three different cytotoxic agents in order to avoid these bystander effects. The various reagents were compared in several assays, including internalization studies, flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity studies. The results indicate that the alternative cytotoxic drugs can be used systemically with M290 to eliminate CD103+ cells.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

Eye-specific retinogeniculate segregation proceeds normally following disruption of patterned spontaneous retinal activity.

Speer C, Sun C, Liets L, Stafford B, Chapman B, Cheng H (2014) Eye-specific retinogeniculate segregation proceeds normally following disruption of patterned spontaneous retinal activity. Neural Dev 9:25. doi: 10.1186/1749-8104-9-25

Summary: The authors administered 0.88-1.66 μg of an Anti-VaChT-SAP custom conjugate to ferrets with an intraocular injection. Although the lesioned animals demonstrated normal eye-specific retinogeniculate development, there were significant abnormalities in spontaneous retinal activity. These differences in activity manifested themselves as eye-specific segregation defects.

Related Products: Custom Conjugates

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