Angiotensin II receptor
Bovine bone gelatin-derived peptides: Food processing characteristics and evaluation of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic activities
Cao S, Wang Z, Xing L, Zhou L, Zhang W (2022) Bovine bone gelatin-derived peptides: Food processing characteristics and evaluation of antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic activities. J Agric Food Chem 70(32):9877-9887. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.2c02982
Objective: To evaluate the food processing properties of bovine bone gelatin-derived peptides (BGPs) and their effects and mechanisms on hypertension and hypertension complications in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Summary: BGPs could alleviate hypertension and dyslipidemia in SHRs by inhibiting ACE/Ang II/AT1R and activating the Ang II/AT2R signaling pathway.
Usage: Angiotensin II receptor (AT-2R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified
Gao X, Zhang S, Gou J, Wen Y, Fan L, Zhou J, Zhou G, Xu G, Zhang Z (2022) Spike-mediated ACE2 down-regulation was involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Infect 85(4):418-427. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2022.06.030
Objective: To determine the role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry, is also an important regulator of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) homeostasis, which plays an unsettled role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
Summary: The downregulation of ACE2 potentially links COVID-19 to the imbalance of RAS.
Usage: Western blot
Liu G, Chen Y, Wang Y, Deng X, Xiao Q, Zhang L, Xu H, Han X, Lei A, He J, Li X, Cao Y, Zhou P, He C, Wu P, Jiang W, Tan M, Chen C, Yang Q, Lu L, Deng K, Yao Z, Zhou J (2022) Angiotensin II enhances group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses via AT1a during airway inflammation. J Exp Med 219(3):e20211001. doi: 10.1084/jem.20211001
Objective: To identify angiotensin (Ang) II as a positive regulator of Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s).
Summary: Ang II plays a critical role in regulating ILC2 responses and airways inflammation.
Usage: Administration of Ang II (30ug) i.n. or i.p. daily for 5 days.
Aparicio Prieto MV, Rodríguez Gallego MV, Valdivia Palacín A, Franco Iriarte Y, Hervás Barbara G, Echevarría Orella E, Casis Saenz L (2022) Local renin angiotensin system and sperm DNA fragmentation. Asian J Androl 24(2):139-146. doi: 10.4103/aja202150
Objective: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) appears to influence male fertility at multiple levels. The relationship between the RAS and DNA integrity was analyzed.
Summary: Fragmented DNA spermatozoa have a lower capacity to respond to bioactive RAS peptides.
Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum attenuates Angiotensin-II induced cardiac hypertrophy and improves cardiac function by repressing protein kinase C-ζ to restore HSF2 deSUMOlyation and Mel-18-IGF-IIR signaling suppression
Lin HJ, Mahendran R, Huang HY, Chiu PL, Chang YM, Day CH, Chen RJ, Padma VV, Liang-Yo Y, Kuo WW, Huang CY (2021) Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum attenuates Angiotensin-II induced cardiac hypertrophy and improves cardiac function by repressing protein kinase C-ζ to restore HSF2 deSUMOlyation and Mel-18-IGF-IIR signaling suppression. J Ethnopharmacol 8:114728. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114728
Objective: To investigate the ability of Solanum nigrum to attenuate Angiotensin II – induced cardiac hypertrophy and improve cardiac function through the suppression of protein kinase PKC-ζ and Mel-18-IGF-IIR signaling leading to the restoration of HSF2 desumolyation.
Summary: The data reveals the cardioprotective effect of S. nigrum inhibiting PKC-ζ with alleviated IGF IIR level in the heart that profoundly remits cardiac hypertrophy for hypertension-induced heart failure.
Usage: Western Blot
Hypertensive effects of transforming growth factor-β1 in vascular smooth muscles cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats are mediated by sulfatase 2
Kim HS, Kim HY (2022) Hypertensive effects of transforming growth factor-β1 in vascular smooth muscles cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats are mediated by sulfatase 2. Cytokine 150:155754. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155754
Objective: To examine the role of extracellular sulfatases on TGF-β1-induced effects associated with the expression of mediators related to hypertension in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Summary: The hypertensive effects of TGF-β1 through the AT1 R pathway were mainly dependent on Sulf2 activity in SHR VSMCs. Taken together, these results suggest that Sulf2, but not Sulf1, plays a major role in mediating the increased effects of TGF-β1 in hypertensive VSMCs.
Usage: Angiotensin II receptor (AT-2R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified
The protective effects of AT2R agonist, CGP42112A, against angiotensin ii-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in astrocytes: role of AT2R/PP2A/NFκB/ROS signaling
Bhat SA, Fatima Z, Sood A, Shukla R, Hanif K (2021) The protective effects of AT2R agonist, CGP42112A, against angiotensin ii-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in astrocytes: role of AT2R/PP2A/NFκB/ROS signaling. Neurotox Res 39(6):1991-2006. doi: 10.1007/s12640-021-00403-4
Objective: To evaluate the role and molecular mechanism of AT2R agonist CGP against Angiotensin II-induced astrocytic activation in primary astrocytes, and in a rat model of hypertension.
Summary: AT2R activation by CGP abrogated Ang II-induced astrocytic activation, by mitigating the ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, IκB-α degradation, NFκB nuclear translocation, and release of TNF-α in astrocytes.
Tetrahydrocurcumin ameliorates kidney injury and high systolic blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice
Sangartit W, Ha KB, Lee ES, Kim HM, Kukongviriyapan U, Lee EY, Chung CH (2021) Tetrahydrocurcumin ameliorates kidney injury and high systolic blood pressure in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 36(4):810-822. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2021.988
Objective: To investigate the protective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THU) on intrarenal RAS expression, kidney injury, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice.
Summary: THU alleviated kidney injury in mice with HFD-induced type 2 diabetes, possibly by blunting the activation of the intrarenal RAS/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase IV (NOX4)/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) axis and by lowering the high SBP.
Usage: Western Blot (1:1000)
Baoyuan decoction (BYD) attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through ANKRD1-ERK/GATA4 pathway in heart failure after acute myocardial infarction
Meng H, Du Z, Lu W, Wang Q, Sun X, Jiang Y, Wang Y, Li C, Tu P (2021) Baoyuan decoction (BYD) attenuates cardiac hypertrophy through ANKRD1-ERK/GATA4 pathway in heart failure after acute myocardial infarction. Phytomedicine 89:153617. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153617
Objective: To explore whether BYD plays a protective role against heart failure (HF) by attenuating cardiac hypertrophy (CH) via the ANKRD1-ERK/GATA4 pathway.
Summary: BYD ameliorates CH and improves HF through the ANKRD1-ERK/GATA4 pathway, providing a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of HF.
Usage: Western Blot
Angiotensin (1-7) alleviates postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction by suppressing oxidative stress through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase b, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway
Zhu L, Liu Z, Huang LP, Zhou HR, Cao Y, Yang XP, Wang BJ, Yang ZL, Chen J (2021) Angiotensin (1-7) alleviates postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction by suppressing oxidative stress through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase b, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 78(1):e65-e76. doi: 10.1097/fjc.0000000000001037
Objective: To investigate the role of the Ang (1-7)-MasR axis in postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction (PRMD) and its associated mechanism.
Summary: The Ang (1-7)-MasR axis can alleviate PRMD by reducing myocardial tissue damage and oxidative stress through activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B-endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway and provide a new direction for the clinical treatment of PRMD.
Usage: Angiotensin II receptor (AT-1R) Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified
Suppression of inflammatory cardiac cytokine network in rats with untreated obesity and pre-diabetes by AT2 receptor agonist NP-6A4
Gavini MP, Mahmood A, Belenchia AM, Beauparlant P, Kumar SA, Ardhanari S, DeMarco VG, Pulakat L (2021) Suppression of inflammatory cardiac cytokine network in rats with untreated obesity and pre-diabetes by AT2 receptor agonist NP-6A4. Front Pharmacol 12:693167. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.693167
Objective: To determine whether NP-6A4 (a new AT2R peptide agonist with an FDA orphan drug designation for pediatric cardiomyopathy) would mitigate cardiac damage from chronic inflammation induced by untreated obesity.
Summary: Seventeen pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines that increase during lethal cytokine storms caused by infections such as COVID-19 were among the cytokines suppressed by NP-6A4 treatment in ZO rat heart. Thus, NP-6A4 activates a novel anti-inflammatory network comprised of 21 proteins in the heart that was not reported previously. Since NP-6A4’s unique mode of action suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine network and attenuates myocardial damage, it can be an ideal adjuvant drug with other anti-glycemic, anti-hypertensive, standard-of-care drugs to protect the heart tissues from pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine attack induced by obesity.
Usage: Immunohistochemistry, 5-micrometer heart sections
Implication of RAS in postnatal cardiac remodeling, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by fetal undernutrition
Rodríguez-Rodríguez P, Vieira-Rocha MS, Quintana-Villamandos B, Monedero-Cobeta I, Prachaney P, López de Pablo AL, González MDC, Morato M, Diniz C, Arribas SM (2021) Implication of RAS in postnatal cardiac remodeling, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by fetal undernutrition. Pathophysiology 28(2):273-290. doi: 10.3390/pathophysiology28020018
Objective: To assess if alterations in renal artery stenosis (RAS) during lactation participate in cardiac dysfunction associated with fetal undernutrition.
Summary: In rats exposed to fetal undernutrition, RAS disbalance and associated cardiac remodeling during lactation may set the basis for later heart dysfunction.
Usage: Immunohistochemistry (1:50)
Cardiac pathology in Mucopolysaccharidosis I mice: Losartan modifies ERK1/2 activation during cardiac remodeling.
Gonzalez EA, Leitão SAT, Dos Santos Soares D, Tavares AMV, Giugliani R, Baldo G, Matte U (2021) Cardiac pathology in Mucopolysaccharidosis I mice: Losartan modifies ERK1/2 activation during cardiac remodeling. J Inherit Metab Dis 44(3):740-750. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12327
Objective: To investigate whether the pathways influenced by losartan and propranolol may modulate the cardiac remodeling process in MPS I mice.
Summary: Losartan and propranolol restore the heart function and could be used to ameliorate the cardiac disease in MPS I.
Usage: Western Blot 1:400
Hou G, Jiang Y, Zheng Y, Zhao M, Chen Y, Ren Y, Wang C, Li W (2021) Mechanism of Radix Astragali and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae ameliorates hypertensive renal damage. Biomed Res Int eCollection:5598351. doi: 10.1155/2021/5598351
Objective: To explore the mechanism of combination of Radix Astragali (RA) and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RS) ameliorating HRD by regulation of the renal sympathetic nerve.
Summary: The combination of RA and RS may inhibit the hyperexcitability of sympathetic nerves, reduce Ang II overexpression, avoid abnormal activation of the RAS system, and improve rat renal blood flow resistance, accordingly maintaining the normal physiological structure and function of kidney tissue and having a protective effect on the cardiovascular system.
Usage: Immunohistochemistry (1:150)
Vehicle emissions-exposure alters expression of systemic and tissue-specific components of the renin-angiotensin system and promotes outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease and obesity in wild-type C57BL/6 male mice
Phipps BL, Suwannasual U, Lucero J, Mitchell NA, Lund AK (2021) Vehicle emissions-exposure alters expression of systemic and tissue-specific components of the renin-angiotensin system and promotes outcomes associated with cardiovascular disease and obesity in wild-type C57BL/6 male mice. Toxicol Rep 8:846-862. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.04.001
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to engine emissions increases systemic and local adipocyte RAS signaling, promoting the expression of factors involved in cardiovascular disease and obesity.
Summary: Subchronic traffic-generated air pollution exposure (MVE) results in elevated expression of AT1 in the systemic vasculature, which is associated with increased vascular adhesion molecule expression, monocyte/macrophage sequestration, and production of ROS, all of which are early tissue-level signaling events in the pathogenesis of CVD. Furthermore, kidney levels of renin and Ang II receptors, AT1 and AT2, were also elevated with MVE exposure.
Usage: Immunofluorescence (1:1000)
Kang H, Wang Y, Zhong X, Yin W, Li F, Jiang J (2021) [Effect of salt intake on residual renal function in rats receiving peritoneal dialysis]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 41(2):264-271. doi: 10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2021.02.15
Objective: To assess the effect of salt intake on residual renal function in rats and explore the possible mechanism.
Summary: In rats with chronic renal failure, high salt intake promotes the activation of the renal RAS system, increases blood pressure, and aggravates renal fibrosis to accelerate the decline of residual renal function, and peritoneal dialysis partially reduces the damage of residual renal function induced by high-salt diets by removing excessive sodium.
Usage: Western Blot.
Leech extract: A candidate cardioprotective against hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis
Wang CH, Pandey S, Sivalingam K, Shibu MA, Kuo WW, Yu-LanYeh, Viswanadha VP, Lin YC, Liao SC, Huang CY (2021) Leech extract: A candidate cardioprotective against hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. J Ethnopharmacol 264:113346. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113346
Objective: To delineate the molecular mechanisms of medicinal leech extract in the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, using both in vitro and in vivo assessments.
Summary: Pre-treatment with leech extract significantly reduced angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.
Usage: Western blot; PVDF membranes were incubated with Anti-AT-1R.
Comparative effects of angiotensin II on the contractility of muscularis mucosae and detrusor in the pig urinary bladder.
Lim I, Mitsui R, Kameda M, Sellers DJ, Chess‐Williams R, Hashitani H (2021) Comparative effects of angiotensin II on the contractility of muscularis mucosae and detrusor in the pig urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 40:102-111. doi: 10.1002/nau.24548
Objective: To explore contractile actions of angiotensin II (AT2) on the muscularis mucosae (MM) of the bladder.
Summary: The MM appears to have great sensitivity to AT2, suggesting that MM may be the predominant target of contractile actions induced by AT2 in the bladder.
Usage: Induction of contractions with Anti-AT2R (1 nM – 1 µM). Immunofluorescence (10-100 pM).
Characterization of the renin-angiotensin system in aged cavernosal tissue and its role in penile fibrosis.
Bragina ME, Costa-Fraga F, Sturny M, Ebadi B, Ruoccolo RT, Santos RAS, Fraga-Silva RA, Stergiopulos N (2020) Characterization of the renin-angiotensin system in aged cavernosal tissue and its role in penile fibrosis. J Sex Med 17:2129–2140. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.08.008
Objective: To investigate local regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in age-related erectile dysfunction (ED).
Summary: Experimental results highlighted the essential role of the RAS in modulation of cavernosal fibrosis.
Usage: Immunohistochemistry (1:800)
Sulfatase 1 mediates IL-10-induced dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 expression and antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats
Kim HY, Kim HS (2021) Sulfatase 1 mediates IL-10-induced dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 expression and antiproliferative effects in vascular smooth muscle cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cytokine 137:155344. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155344
Objective: To examine the effects of exSulfs on IL-10-induced dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) expression, abrogation of Ang II-induced DDAH-1 downregulation, and inhibition of Ang II-induced proliferation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). IL-10-induced DDAH-1 expression and abrogation of Ang II-induced DDAH-1 downregulation were attenuated in Sulf1 siRNA-transfected SHRs VSMC.
Summary: Sulf1, and not Sulf2, mediates the IL-10-induced inhibition of Ang II-induced hypertensive effects in SHRs VSMC.
Usage: Western blot (1:800)