Dai M, Nakamura S, Takahashi C, Sato M, Munetomo A, Magata F, Uenoyama Y, Tsukamura H, Matsuda F (2021) Reduction of arcuate kappa-opioid receptor-expressing cells increased luteinizing hormone pulse frequency in female rats. Endocr J 68(8):933-941. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0832
Summary: The number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the ARC was not affected by ARC Dyno-SAP treatment. Dynorphin-Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) signaling within the ARC seems to mediate the suppression of the frequency of pulsatile GnRH/LH release, and neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) non-KNDy KOR neurons may be involved in the mechanism modulating GnRH/LH pulse generation.
Usage: Female rats were stereotaxically injected with Dyno-SAP (20 ng/200 nL) or unconjugated Saporin (18.6 ng/200 nL) as a control, bilaterally into the anterior and posterior ARC (total of 4 injection sites).