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Are Hum-ZAP and Rat-ZAP bivalent?

Q: Concerning Hum-ZAP (Cat. #IT-22) and Rat-ZAP (Cat. #IT-26), are they monovalent or bivalent to their target immunoglobulins?

A: The secondary conjugates Hum-ZAP and Rat-ZAP are, in fact, bivalent and so do have the theoretical possibility of causing internalization when the primary would not – a false positive. In fact, we have never heard of this happening, mainly because the theoretical situation is difficult to put into practice – probably things get a little bulky on the cell surface.

Our idea is that the secondary conjugates are meant for large-scale screening in a very cost-effective manner, and upon identification of a positive, that primary antibody can be biotinylated and tested in vivo with streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27). Streptavidin-ZAP can also cause oligomerization, but it’s used at equimolar amounts to the primary antibody, so that may not happen to an appreciable amount. However, the best method is to have a primary immunotoxin constructed through custom synthesis, in which saporin is directly coupled to the targeting agent.

Related: ZAP Conjugates