29 entries

Cholinergic contributions to learned attentional suppression in the rat with touchscreens.

Ljubojevic V, Botly L, De Rosa E (2012) Cholinergic contributions to learned attentional suppression in the rat with touchscreens. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 729.13. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: One of the tasks of the attentional system is to filter environmental input according to its behavioral relevance. The neuromodulator acetylcholine (ACh) is thought to play a role in this process because of its ability to boost the signal-to-noise ratio of incoming sensory information. Cholinergic innervation of the attentional system has been shown to be necessary for successful selection of behaviorally-relevant stimuli (signal). However, it is not yet clear if ACh also plays a part in the attentional suppression of behaviorally-irrelevant information (noise). Thus, we examined the effect of cortical cholinergic deafferentation on attentional suppression in rats. To measure attentional suppression, we used a rat analog of the learning-to-ignore (LI) task originally designed for human participants (Dixon et al., 2009). The paradigm consisted of three stages of training (Prime1, Prime2, Probe; 10 sessions per stage), each of which involved stages of visual simultaneous discriminations between two stimuli. In both Prime conditions, individuals learned to respond to target stimuli (A+ and then C+ respectively), while ignoring the same distractor stimulus (B-). During Probe, the previously ignored stimulus became the target (B+) and a novel stimulus (D-) was introduced as a distractor. Eighteen male Long-Evans rats were trained to perform the touchscreen-based LI task. Like the human data, a behavioral decrement (lower accuracy) was observed during the Probe phase of the LI task when compared to Prime 1 and 2, which suggests that the ignored distractor stimulus was suppressed during Prime. We hypothesized that administration of the ACh-specific immunotoxin, 192 IgG-saporin, into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) would lead to better performance during Probe condition relative to controls. Accordingly, the rats were subjected to either cholinergic immunotoxic (SAP, N=10) or sham lesion surgery (SHAM, N=8). After 2 weeks of post-surgical recovery, the rats were tested on the LI task with a new stimulus set. The two groups performed comparably during Prime1 and 2, with both SAP and SHAM rats successfully learning the discriminations. As predicted, during Probe SAP rats exhibited significantly less behavioral decrement than controls. Histological analysis revealed that the lesion was chemically and anatomically specific to cholinergic cells in the NBM. This counterintuitive finding suggests that the improved performance during Probe, due to reduced ACh input to the neocortex, was due to inefficient attentional suppression of the behaviorally-irrelevant stimulus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Limited effect of serotonergic denervation on beta-amyloid and cognitive impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

Ortiz-Barajas O, Ramos-Rodriguez J, Berrocoso E, Garcia Alloza M (2012) Limited effect of serotonergic denervation on beta-amyloid and cognitive impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 751.12. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition, as senile plaques (SP), seems to play a key role in the development and progression of the illness. Moreover SP tend to accumulate in cortex and hippocampus, relevant areas in learning and memory. On the other hand neuronal loss is the pathological feature that best correlates with duration and severity of the illness and at present animal available animal models hardly reproduce the complexity of the disease. We have previously seen that selective cortical and hipocampal cholinergic denervation, using murine p-75 saporin, may worsen cognitive abilities in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice as well as increase SP deposition in denervated areas. In the present work we lesioned 7 months old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with 1 µl of 5,7-dyhidroxytiptamine (0.16 µg/µl) injected in the raphe nucleus (RN). In order to guarantee selective removal of cortical and hipocampal serotonergic inervation, and protect noardernergic and dopaminergic neurons, animals were i.p. injected with desipramine and nomifensine before surgery. We observed a clear reduction of tryptophan hydroxilase staining in the RN. In the Morris water maze test we observed learning and memory impairment in APPswe/Ps1dE9 mice, without a synergistic effect of the serotonergic lesion. When we assessed SP deposition we did not observe a significant increase of SP in cortex or hipocampus 14 days after the lesion, as we observed after selective cholinergic denervation. Altogether our data suggest that cognitive impairment and induced SP depositioin observed after cholinergic denervation is not achieved when serotonergic system is affected, supporting a selective effect mediated by different neurotransmitter systems. Acknowledgements: MG-A: RYC-2008-02333, ISCIII-Subdirección General de Evaluación y Fomento de la Investigación (PS09/00969), Fundación Dr. Eugenio Rodriguez Pascual, Junta Andalucia Excelencia (CTS-7847).

Related Products: mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16)

Noradrenergic denervation by DBH saporin reduces behavioral responsivity to L-DOPA in the hemi-parkinsonian rat.

Ostock CY, Lindenbach D, Jaunarajs KL, Dupre KB, Goldenberg A, Bhide NS, Bishop C (2012) Noradrenergic denervation by DBH saporin reduces behavioral responsivity to L-DOPA in the hemi-parkinsonian rat. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 758.06. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Dopamine (DA) replacement therapy with L-DOPA remains the most effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD), but prolonged use frequently leads to deleterious side effects including involuntary choreic and dystonic movements known as L-DOPA induced dyskinesias (LID). It has been well established that DA loss in PD is accompanied by concomitant noradrenergic (NE) denervation of the locus coeruleus (LC); however, the contribution of NE loss to LID remains controversial and is often overlooked in traditional animal models of PD. Previous work from our lab demonstrated that rats with NE depletion induced by the selective NE neurotoxin DA beta hydroxylase saporin (DBH saporin) display reduced behavioral sensitivity to L-DOPA. The current investigation sought to further characterize the utility of DBH saporin lesions in a rodent model of PD by employing immunohistological techniques to correlate NE cell loss with behavioral outcome. Male Spraque-Dawley rats received unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle with intraventricular injections of either vehicle or DBH saporin. A number of well characterized behavioral tests were employed to determine lesion effects and L-DOPA responsiveness including: the abnormal involuntary movements scale for rodent dyskinesia, the forepaw adjusting steps (FAS) test as a metric of L-DOPA’s anti-parkinsonian efficacy, and locomotor chambers to observe motor performance. Sensitivity of primed animals to different doses of L-DOPA (0-12 mg/kg) and DA agonists SKF81297 (0., 0.08, 0.8 mg/kg) and Quinpirole (0, 0.05, 0.5 mg/kg) was assessed. Reduced behavioral responsiveness was associated with reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells within the LC of DBH saporin lesioned animals. Results indicate that NE denervation reduced anti-parkinsonian efficacy of L-DOPA on the FAS test. In primed rats, LC NE loss attenuated dyskinetic responses to L-DOPA and the DA agonist SKF81297. Taken together, these results indicate that DBH saporin lesions not only mimick the NE loss seen in idiopathic PD, but also reveal an underexplored contribution of the NE system to the manifestation of PD symptoms and LID.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Intercalated nucleus modulates chemosensory processing in medial amygdala.

Biggs LM, Simonton AR, Meredith M (2012) Intercalated nucleus modulates chemosensory processing in medial amygdala. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 781.07. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: The vomeronasal organ is necessary for interpretation by naive rodents (hamsters, mice) of many chemosensory signals. Information is relayed to medial amygdala (Me) via the accessory olfactory bulbs. FRA (Fos related antigen) responses in Me to chemosensory cues suggest this area is important for categorization of cues based on biological relevance to the animal. Anterior Me (MeA) is activated by all chemosensory cues (conspecific and heterospecific). Posterior Me (MeP) activates for conspecific and biologically relevant heterospecific stimuli only. Other heterospecific stimuli suppress MeP, apparently via GABA inhibition, while the adjacent medial-caudal intercalated nucleus (m-ICNc) is activated. Intercalated nuclei (ICNs) are groups of GABAergic cells between amygdala main-divisions. Those adjacent to basolateral and central amygdala (BLA, CeA) are known to mediate BLA, CeA responses via GABA inhibition, modulated by inhibitory DA-D1 receptors on ICN cells. We hypothesize that m-ICNc modulates MeP in a similar manner, as suggested by FRAs data, but this has not yet been tested directly. In hamsters, we show a hyperpolarization of MeP cells and suppression of ongoing spiking in whole-cell slice electrophysiology using in-slice stimulation of m-ICNc. The effect of dopamine and other modulators on this functional relationship is under study with agonists and antagonists. ICN, but not Me, cells carry mu-opioid receptors (MORs). In mice, we use Dermorphin-Saporin, a toxin that selectively destroys MOR+ neurons, to lesion m-ICNc to assess its role in chemosensory responses in MeP. Also in mice, a specific MUP protein in male urine (mMU) facilitates learning of a male’s chemosensory signature by females. We have quantified Me response to high and low molecular weight (HMW, LMW) fractions (LMW lacks protein) and whole mMU using FRAs immediate early gene expression. Preliminary results show no significant difference between HMW, LMW, or whole mMU in Me, however within the BLA (involved in volatile odor learning), there are significant differences in activity between stimuli in females without post-weaning exposure to male urine and no prior exposure to adult male urine.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Descending facilitation contributes to changes in dorsal horn gene expression in a rat model of inflammatory joint pain.

Carr F, Géranton SM, Hunt SP (2012) Descending facilitation contributes to changes in dorsal horn gene expression in a rat model of inflammatory joint pain. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 785.07. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Chronic pain is associated with increased excitability and changes in gene expression within the dorsal horn. Descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is known to contribute to this excitability and behavioural hypersensitivity in a number of pain states. This would suggest that some of the gene changes associated with chronic pain could be driven by descending pathways terminating in the dorsal horn. We have previously demonstrated that ablation of a subset of RVM neurons expressing the mu opioid receptor (MOR) attenuates behavioural hypersensitivity following joint inflammation. The aim of the present study was to combine lesion of the RVM with microarray analysis of the dorsal horn to identify genes regulated by descending facilitation in this pain model. Selective lesion of MOR expressing cells of the RVM was carried out in rats by microinjection of the selective toxin dermorphin-saporin. Non-lesioned controls received vehicle microinjection. 4 weeks after the lesion procedure when depletion of the MOR+ cells was complete, both groups received an injection of 10μl Complete Freund’s Adjuvant to the left ankle joint. 7 days later the animals were sacrificed and the ipsilateral quadrant of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord lumbar region (L4-L6) removed. RNA was extracted and microarray analysis carried out using Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Raw data was analysed in R using Bioconductor open source software. Limma testing was applied and a list of genes differentially regulated in animals with prior RVM lesion compared to non-lesioned controls was generated. The majority of differentially regulated genes (73%) were downregulated in the lesioned group. We used the DAVID bioinformatics resource to cluster the genes into groups with similar functional annotations (Huang et al., 2009). This analysis identified 16 gene clusters with significantly enriched functional annotations. Among these enriched functions were ribosomal function and biogenesis, inflammatory response (including the chemokine CXCL10), GPCR signalling (including the serotonin receptor 5HTR1D) and transcriptional regulation (including the transcriptional repressor RCOR2). Following on from identification of functional categories, validation of genes of interest was carried out using RT-qPCR. Our findings suggest that descending facilitation contributes to gene expression changes within the dorsal horn and that this may correlate with behavioural hypersensitivity observed in chronic pain.

Related Products: Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12)

Depletion of spinal norepinephrine increases the duration of postoperative pain related behaviors following acute plantar incision and partial nerve injury in the rat.

Wang F, Eisenach JC, Peters CM (2012) Depletion of spinal norepinephrine increases the duration of postoperative pain related behaviors following acute plantar incision and partial nerve injury in the rat. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 785.11. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Background and Objective: The percentage of patients that develop chronic postsurgical pain can range from 10-50% depending on the type of surgery. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the transition from an acute to chronic postoperative pain state are unknown. Recent clinical studies suggest that the integrity of endogenous pain inhibitory circuits may be important for preventing this transition. The descending noradrenergic transmission has well-known inhibitory effects on spinal synaptic transmission and norepinephrine has anti-inflammatory effects on spinal glial activation. We hypothesized that disrupting spinal noradrenergic fibers in rats prior to peripheral tissue injury would enhance spinal glial activity and impair resolution of postoperative pain. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we used a model of acute pain (Brennan incision model) and a model of nerve injury involving partial L5 spinal nerve ligation. We intrathecally injected dopamine β hydroxylase conjugated to the ribosomal toxin saporin (DβH-sap, 5 μg) or control (IgG-sap) to Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days prior to surgery to deplete noradrenergic fibers. Sensitivity to mechanical stimuli (von Frey) and spontaneous guarding were assessed for several weeks. We used immunohistochemistry to assess microglial (IBA1) and astrocyte (GFAP) activation in spinal cord tissue. Results: Depletion of noradrenergic fibers resulted in a significant increase in the duration of mechanical hypersensitivity in the ipsilateral paw of rats with plantar incision (6 days in IgG-sap treated rats vs. at least 21 days in DβH-sap treated rats) and partial L5 spinal nerve ligation (42 days in IgG-sap treated rats vs. at least 70 days in DβH-sap treated rats). Depletion of noradrenergic fibers did not affect mechanical withdrawal thresholds in normal rats suggesting both tissue injury and spinal noradrenergic depletion were required for prolonged mechanical hypersensitivity. The duration of spontaneous guarding following plantar incision was not affected by DβH-sap treatment. Additionally, microglia and astrocyte activation was increased in the spinal cord 21 days following incision and 70 days after nerve injury in DβH-sap treated rats compared to IgG-sap treated rats. Conclusions: These findings highlight the crucial role of spinally projecting noradrenergic pathway in the resolution of incision and nerve injury induced hypersensitivity which may be due in part to inhibitory effect of norepinephrine on spinal glial activation. Future studies will focus on the adrenergic receptor subtypes and mechanisms responsible for the transition from acute to chronic postoperative pain in these models.

Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03)

Effects of a dual hypocretin receptor antagonist on sleep and wakefulness in rats.

Schwartz MD, Dittrich L, Fisher SP, Lincoln W, Liu H, Miller MA, Warrier DR, Wilk AJ, Morairty SR, Kilduff TS (2012) Effects of a dual hypocretin receptor antagonist on sleep and wakefulness in rats. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 799.23. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Benzodiazepine receptor agonists promote sleep by activating GABAA receptors, leading to generalized reduction in cortical activity. They are widely used as hypnotic medications, but have side effects including risk for tolerance and/or dependence, as well as cognitive impairment while under their influence. The excitatory hypocretin (HCRT) neuropeptides promote wakefulness by activating multiple subcortical wake-promoting neurotransmitter systems which, in turn, project to and regulate cortical activity. Blocking HCRT signaling should therefore promote sleep by acting specifically on subcortical brain areas regulating sleep and wake without adversely impacting cortical function. Here, we assessed the ability of the dual HCRT receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) to promote sleep in rats following ablation of a major sleep-wake regulatory region, the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF). We predicted that ALM would be less effective at inducing sleep in BF-lesioned rats compared to neurologically-intact rats, whereas benzodiazepine-based compounds should be equally as effective in lesioned and intact rats. Male rats received bilateral stereotaxic injections of saline or the selective cholinergic neurotoxin192-IgG-saporin (SAP) directed at the BF and were implanted with telemetry for recording sleep EEG. Following recovery, animals were given increasing doses of ALM, the GABA-A receptor agonist zolpidem (ZOL), or vehicle. Spontaneous sleep/wake regulation and homeostatic recovery from sleep deprivation was also assessed. At baseline, NREM sleep in the dark (active) phase was reduced in SAP rats compared to intact rats; SAP rats also exhibited decreased NREM recovery sleep following 6 h sleep deprivation in the dark phase. Sleep in the light (rest) phase was unaffected by SAP. Analysis of ALM and ZOL administration in these animals is currently in progress.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Neural plasticity in injured spinal cord.

Gulisano M, Parenti R, Gulino R (2012) Neural plasticity in injured spinal cord. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 846.09. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Sonic hedgehog and Noggin are morphogenetic factors involved in neural induction and ventralization of the neural tube, but recent findings suggest that they could participate in regeneration and functional recovery after injury. Here, in order to verify if these mechanisms could occur in the spinal cord and involve synaptic plasticity, we measured the expression levels of Sonic hedgehog, Noggin, Choline acetyltransferase, Synapsin-I, and Glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2, GluR4), in a motoneuron-depleted mouse spinal lesion model obtained by intramuscular injection of Cholera toxin-B saporin. The lesion caused differential expression changes of the analyzed proteins. Moreover, motor performance was found correlated with Sonic hedgehog and Noggin expression in lesioned animals. The results also suggest that Sonic hedgehog could collaborate in modulating synaptic plasticity. Together, these findings confirm that the injured mammalian spinal cord has intrinsic potential for repair and that some proteins classically involved in development, such as Sonic hedgehog and Noggin could have important roles in regeneration and functional restoration, by mechanisms including synaptic plasticity.

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

Spatial memory facilitation by electrical stimulation of the medial septum in rats.

Jeong D, Lee J, Lee S, Kim S, Chang J (2012) Spatial memory facilitation by electrical stimulation of the medial septum in rats. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 851.01. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Recently, deep brain stimulation has been used to treat various neurological disorders. Some studies support that DBS can be a strategy to treat Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electrical stimulation in the medial septum using rat model mimicking basal forebrain cholinergic deficits of Alzheimer’s disease. Four experimental groups were composed of normal, lesion, lesion + implantation and lesion + stimulation. 192 IgG-saporin (Selective cholinergic toxin, 8ul of 0.63ug/ul) were bilaterally injected into the lateral ventricle. Electrode was stereotactically implanted into the left medial septum (AP +0.6, ML 0.16, DV -6). Stimulation parameters are 50Hz, 120us pulse width and 1 volt. One week after implantation, Stimulation started for 2 weeks. Two weeks after surgery, water maze was performed for 1 week and rats were sacrificed immediately after behavioral test. Features were verified by immunochemistry and AChE assay. During the training trials, latencies of lesion and implantation significantly increased in day3 and day4. In contrast, latency of stimulation group had no differences as compared to normal group but it decreased significantly when compared to lesion group in day4. In the probe test, lesion group had decreases in time in target quadrant, time in platform zone and the number of platform crossing. Although they did not perform as normal group, stimulation group showed tendency of recovery. IHC and AChE assay are ongoing. Spatial memory is associated with hippocampus. We had expected activation of hippocampus by stimulation of the medial septum. We confirmed that stimulation of the medial septum facilitates acquisition and recall of spatial memory. Currently we are studying the effects of medial septal stimulation on the hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01)

Evidence that focal hippocampal interneuron loss disrupts theta- and gamma- band activity.

Rossi CA, Lehmkuhle MJ, Dudek FE (2012) Evidence that focal hippocampal interneuron loss disrupts theta- and gamma- band activity. Neuroscience 2012 Abstracts 918.06. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Hippocampal theta (6-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) activity are oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) that are thought to play a critical role in the encoding and storage of new information. GABA-ergic interneurons are hypothetically involved in the generation and pacing of these oscillatory patterns of activity. The current study aimed to directly test the hypothesis that interneurons are responsible for local gamma and theta generation in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus in mice. Selective focal interneuron lesions were made by intrahippocampal injection of the targeted neurotoxin SSP-Saporin into dorsal CA1 in the hippocampus of GAD67-GFP transgenic mice. Chronic recording electrodes were also implanted in the lesion area. LFPs were monitored continuously, along with video recordings of the subjects, for a period of several weeks. LFP recordings were analyzed over 24-hour periods for the occurrence of theta- and gamma-band activity. Analysis of LFP data revealed attenuation of both local theta and gamma activity in SSP-saporin-injected animals compared to controls. These results suggest a direct role of GABA-ergic interneurons in the generation of local rhythmic activity in these two frequency bands, and, by extension, an important role in learning and memory processes.

Related Products: SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11)

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