Shramm PA, Ancheta L (2019) Streptavidin-pHast: A readily conjugatable, pH-sensitive dye to screen for internalization. Cancer Res 79(13 Suppl):2177. Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, Atlanta GA.
Summary: Quick and efficient screening of targeting agents that internalize effectively is vital for determining their suitability as potential therapeutics. Some of the most recent successes in the treatment of cancers have been from antibodies to cell surface proteins that are responsible for tumor cell proliferation. Examples are Cetuximab (target: EGFR) approved for colorectal cancer, and Trastuzumab (target: HER2) for breast cancer. These antibodies have more than one effect on the cancer cell, but one of the most important is that, upon binding to the cell surface antigen, the complex is internalized. As such, the down-regulated cell surface protein no longer plays a role in cancer cell division. Here we describe a method for determining internalization of cell surface molecules by targeting agents using a pH-dependent fluorescent reporter cross-linked to streptavidin. Streptavidin is a tetrameric protein (molecular weight 53 kDa in its recombinant form), with each subunit able to bind a single biotin molecule. The bond between streptavidin and biotin is rapid and essentially non-reversible, unaffected by most extremes of pH, organic solvents, and denaturing reagents. It is the strongest known noncovalent biological interaction (Ka = 1015 M-1) between protein and ligand. A variety of molecules, including lectins, proteins, and antibodies, can be biotinylated and reacted with streptavidin-labeled probes or other detection reagents for use in biological assays. The fluorescence from this reporter increases intensity as the pH of its surroundings becomes more acidic, as demonstrated when exposed to the environment inside a cell (thereby providing evidence of internalization). Here we describe methods that can be used to explore candidates as cancer therapeutics in a quick, reliable and reproducible manner.
Related Products: Streptavidin-pHast (Cat. #PH-03)