2019 Scientific References

Targeted Toxins: Targeting agent attached to Saporin

IT-01  192-IgG-SAP

Co-treatment with rivastigmine and idalopirdine reduces the propensity for falls in a rat model of falls in Parkinson’s disease (2019) Koshy Cherian A, et al. Psychopharmacol (Berl)

Basal forebrain chemogenetic inhibition disrupts the superior complex movement control of goal-tracking rats (2019) Kucinski A, et al. Behav Neurosci 133: (1):121-134.

Partial depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic cells reduces seizure susceptibility, but does not mitigate hippocampal neurodegeneration in the kainate model of epilepsy (2019) Soares JI, et al. Brain Res 1717: 235-246

Disruption of medial septum and diagonal bands of Broca cholinergic projections to the ventral hippocampus disrupt auditory fear.memory (2018) Staib JM, et al. Neurobiol Learn Mem 152: 71-79.

Are some animal models more equal than others? A case study on the translational value of animal models of efficacy for Alzheimer’s disease (2019) Veening-Griffioen DH, et al. Eur J Pharmacol 859: 172524.

Astroglia in Alzheimer’s Disease (2019) Verkhratsky A, et al. Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases. 273-324.

Cholinergic Deficit Induced by Central Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Is Associated With Activation of Microglia and Cell Loss in the Dorsal Hippocampus of Rats (2019) Dobryakova YV, et al. Front Neurosci 13: 146.

Nitric oxide donor molsidomine promotes retrieval of object recognition memory in a model of cognitive deficit induced by 192 IgG-saporin (2019) Hernández-Melesio MA, et al. Behav Brain Res 366: 108-117.

Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening improves adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function in a cholinergic degeneration dementia rat model (2019) Shin J, et al. Alzheimer’s Res Ther 11: (1):110.

IT-02  OX7-SAP

RGS14414 treatment induces memory enhancement and rescues episodic memory deficits (2019) Masmudi-Martín M, et al. FASEB J fj.201900429RR.

IT-03  Anti-DBH-SAP

BDNF Downregulates Adrenergic β-Receptor-Mediated Hypotensive Mechanisms in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (2019) Thorsdottir D, et al. Ameri J Physiol Heart Circulatory Physiol 317:6.

Brainstem pre-sympathetic neurons contribute to irregular breathing patterns in volume overload heart failure (2019) Toledo C, et al. FASEB J 33: (1_supplement):lb630-lb630.

Central Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling via Brainstem Catecholamine Neurons Counteracts Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (2019) Katsurada K, et al. Sci Rep 9: (1):12986.

Hindbrain glucoregulatory mechanisms: Critical role of catecholamine neurons in the ventrolateral medulla (2019) Ritter S, et al. Physiol Behav 208: 112568.

Ablation of brainstem C1 neurons improves cardiac function in volume overload heart failure (2019) Andrade DC, et al. Clin Sci CS20180589.

Spinal α2-adrenoceptors and neuropathic pain modulation; therapeutic target (2019) Bahari Z, et al. Brit J Pharmacol 176: (14):2366-2381.

Rostral ventrolateral medullary catecholaminergic neurones mediate irregular breathing pattern in volume overload heart failure rats (2019) Toledo C, et al. J Physiol 597(24):5799-5820. doi: 10.1113/JP278845. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Morphological analysis for neuronal pathway from the hindbrain ependymocytes to the hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons (2019) Deura C, et al. J Reprod Dev 65: (2):129-137.

IT-06  Mac-1-SAP (mouse)

Contribution of microglial reaction to increased nociceptive responses in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male mice (2019) Liang Y-J, et al. Brain Behav Immun 80: 777-792.

Inflammatory macrophages in the sciatic nerves facilitate neuropathic pain associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (2019) Saika F, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 368: (3):535-544.

IT-10  IB4-SAP

Role of Nociceptor Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Hyperalgesic Priming (2019) Araldi D, et al. J Neurosci 39: (33):6414-6424.


Episodic stimulation of central chemoreflex elicits long-term breathing disorders and autonomic imbalance in heart failure rats (2019) Díaz HS, et al. Eur Respir J 54: (suppl 63):OA4936.

Episodic stimulation of central chemoreceptor neurons elicits disordered breathing and autonomic dysfunction in volume overload heart failure (2019) Diaz HS, et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 318(1):L27-L40. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00007.2019. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Targeted hippocampal GABA neuron ablation by Stable Substance P–saporin causes hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy in rats (2019) Chun E, et al. Epilepsia 60: (5):e52-e57.

Objective:  Hippocampal GABA neurons were targeted for selective elimination to determine whether a focal hippocampal GABAergic defect in an otherwise normal brain can initiate cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.
Summary:   Hippocampal GABAergic dysfunction is epileptogenic and can produce the defining features of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy.
Dose:  Intrahippocampal injections of SSP-SAP (0.4 ng/10 nL) were performed using a 0.5-µL Neuros Syringe lowered into four hippocampal sites along both the transverse and longitudinal hippocampal axes bilaterally.

The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus: Central Chemoreceptor and Regulator of Breathing Automaticity (2019) Guyenet PG, et al. Trends Neurosci 42(11):807-824. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2019.09.002. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Contribution of retrotrapezoid nucleus and carotid bodies to asphyxia-induced arousal in rats (2019) Souza G, et al. FASEB J 33: (1_supplement):733.6-733.6.

Spinal cord projection neurons: a superficial, and also deep, analysis (2019) Wercberger R, et al. Curr Opin Physiol 11:109-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cophys.2019.10.002

Contribution of the retrotrapezoid nucleus and carotid bodies to arousal from sleep elicited by hypercapnia and hypoxia (2019) Souza G, et al. J Neurosci 39(49):9725-9737. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1268-19.2019

IT-12  Dermorphin (MOR)-SAP

Lesions of the Patch Compartment of Dorsolateral Striatum Disrupt Stimulus–Response Learning (2019) Jenrette TA, et al. Neuroscience 415: 161-172.

Inflammatory mediators of opioid tolerance: Implications for dependency and addiction (2019) Eidson LN, et al. Peptides 115: 51-58.


A2A and 5-HT Receptors are Differentially Required for Respiratory Plasticity Over the Course of Motor Neuron Loss in Intrapleurally CTB-SAP Treated Rats (2019) Borkowski LF, et al. FASEB J 33: (1_supplement):843.3-843.3.

Neuroprotective Effects of Exercise on the Morphology of Somatic Motoneurons Following the Death of Neighboring Motoneurons (2019) Chew C, et al. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 33: (8):656-667.

Neuromuscular Plasticity in a Mouse Neurotoxic Model of Spinal Motoneuronal Loss (2019) Gulino R, et al. Int J Mol Sci 20: (6):doi: 10.3390/ijms20061500.

Objective:  To use a neurotoxic model of spinal motoneuron depletion, induced by injection of CTB-SAP, to investigate the possible occurrence of compensatory changes in both the muscle and spinal cord.
Summary:  Plastic changes in surviving motoneurons produce a functional restoration probably similar to the compensatory changes occurring in disease.  These changes could be  driven by glutamatergic signaling; astrocytes contacting surviving motoneurons may support this process.
Dose:  Mice received 2 injections of CTB-SAP (3 mg in 2 mL PBS) into the medial and lateral left gastrocnemius muscle.

Adenosine 2A Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neuroprotection Following Toxic Insult to Phrenic Motor Neurons (2019) Sajjadi E, et al. FASEB J 33: (1_supplement):844.3-844.3.

Adenosine 2A receptor inhibition protects phrenic motor neurons from cell death induced by protein synthesis inhibition (2019) Seven YB, et al. Exp Neurol 323:113067. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.113067. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Renal denervation for treating congenital long QT syndrome: shortening the QT interval or modulating sympathetic tone? (2019) Kiuchi MG, et al. EP Europace 21: (11):1755-1756.

IT-16  mu p75-SAP

3D Reconstruction of the Neurovascular Unit Reveals Differential Loss of Cholinergic Innervation in the Cortex and Hippocampus of the Adult Mouse Brain (2019) Nizari S, et al. Front Aging Neurosci 11: (172)

Central cholinergic neuronal degeneration promotes the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (2019) Xu H, et al. Lab Invest 99: (7):1078-1088.

IT-20  Orexin-SAP

0054 SUVN-G3031, a Histamine H3 Receptor Inverse Agonist Produces Wake Promoting Effect in Orexin-2-saporin Lesioned Rats (2019) Benade V, et al. Sleep 42: (Supplement_1):A22-A23.

Cannabidiol partially blocks the sleepiness in hypocretin-deficient rats. Preliminary data (2019) Murillo-Rodriguez E, et al. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 18: (9):705-712.

Discovery and Development of N-[4-(l-Cyclobutylpiperidin-4-yloxy) phenyl]-2-(morpholin-4-yl) acetamide dihydrochloride (SUVN-G3031): A Novel, Potent, Selective and Orally Active Histamine H3 Receptor Inverse Agonist with Robust Wake-Promoting Activity (2019) Nirogi R, et al. J Med Chem 62: (3):1203-1217.

Objective:  To discover and develop a therapeutic for human sleep disorders.
Summary:  Histamine H3 Receptor Inverse Agonist demonstrated high receptor occupancy and marked wake promoting effects with decreased  REM sleep in Orexin-B-SAP lesioned rats. This study supports its potential therapeutic utility in treating human sleep disorders.
Dose:  Injections (490 ng/0.8 µl) were made bilaterally to the lateral hypothalamus.

IT-23  Anti-SERT-SAP

S38. Dissecting the Functional Heterogeneity of Serotonergic Systems That Regulate Fear and Panic (2019) Bernabe C, et al. Biol Psychiatry 85: (10):S311.

Serotonin and motherhood: From molecules to mood (2019) Pawluski JL, et al. Front Neuroendocrinol 53. 00742. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.03.001. Epub 2019 Mar 13.


Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn (2019) Nelson TS, et al. Sci Rep 9: (1):7248.


OP11: Role of spinal cholecystokinin receptor 2 in alloknesis models (2019) Tominaga M, et al. Itch 4: 1-62.


The undeveloped properties of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area promote energy intake for growth in juvenile rats (2019) Maejima Y, et al. Sci Rep 9: (1):11848.

IT-40  Bombesin-SAP

Spinal Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Form an Essential Excitatory Pathway for Mechanical Itch (2019) Acton D, et al. Cell Reports 28: (3):625-639.e6.

Identification of a Spinal Circuit for Mechanical and Persistent Spontaneous Itch (2019) Pan H, et al. Neuron 103: 1-15.

Selective role of neurokinin B in IL-31–induced itch response in mice (2019) Sakata D, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 144: (4):1130-1133.

IT-42  Anti-ChAT-SAP

Cholinergic neural activity directs retinal layer-specific angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation (2019) Weiner GA, et al. Nature Commun 10: (1):2477.

Objective:  To determine which neurons are responsible for angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation.
Summary:  Anti-ChAT-SAP reduces SAC (starburst amacrine cell) number and inhibits deep-layer angiogenesis.
Dose:  Anti-ChAT-SAP or control Rabbit-IgG-SAP was injected intravitreally at P3 and P11 (0.12 mg/mL in PBS).

IT-46:  Oxytocin-SAP

Oxytocin attenuates phencyclidine hyperactivity and increases social interaction and nucleus accumben dopamine release in rats (2019) Kohli S, et al. Neuropsychopharmacology 44: (2):295-305.

IT-47:  Leptin-SAP

Leptin receptor-expressing neurons in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus contribute to weight loss caused by fourth ventricle leptin infusions (2019) Seamon M, et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 317: (4):E586-E596.

IT-63  NK3-SAP

Glutamatergic Neurokinin 3 Receptor Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Defense Pathways in Female Mice (2019) Krajewski-Hall SJ, et al. Endocrinology 160: (4):803-816.

Evidence that the LH surge in ewes involves both neurokinin B-dependent and –independent actions of kisspeptin (2019) Goodman RL, et al. Endocrinology 160: (12):2990-3000.

Secondary Conjugates: ZAP conjugates use your secondary agent conjugated to Saporin and makes a targeted toxin for use in vitro or in vivo. Use your biotinylated targeting agent with Streptavidin-ZAP.

IT-27  Streptavidin-ZAP

Targeting the niche: depleting haemopoietic stem cells with targeted therapy (2019)Abadir E, et al. Bone Marrow Transplant 54: (7):961-968.

Nongenotoxic antibody-drug conjugate conditioning enables safe and effective platelet gene therapy of hemophilia A mice (2019) Gao C, et al. Blood Adv 3: (18):2700-2711.

Hematopoietic chimerism and donor-specific skin allograft tolerance after non-genotoxic CD117 antibody-drug-conjugate conditioning in MHC-mismatched allotransplantation (2019) Li Z, et al. Nature Commun 10: (1):616.

Selective hematopoietic stem cell ablation using CD117-antibody-drug-conjugates enables safe and effective transplantation with immunity preservation (2019) Czechowicz A, et al. Nat Commun 10: (1):617-617.

Targeting prostate cancer: Prostate-specific membrane antigen based diagnosis and therapy (2019) Wüstemann T, et al. Med Res Rev 39: (1):40-69.

Summary: Conjugation to the antibody was achieved by reacting the biotinylated antibody with Streptavidin-ZAP. Binding potency of the conjugate was comparable to that of the naked antibody and in vivo experiments proved potent for selective tumor growth inhibition in mice bearing LNCaP tumors.

Identification of lineage-specific markers for therapeutic targeting of mast cells (2019) Plum T. Journal Ph.D. 112.

Selected Antibodies

AB-02  Anti-CRH

Immunohistochemical detection of prolactin-releasing peptide2 in the brain of the inshore hagfish Eptatretus burgeri. (2019) Amano M, et al. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 274:1-7.

Objective: Localization of PrRP2 in the brain of the inshore hagfish was examined.
Summary: Reciprocal connections are suggested between the PrRP2 and PQRFa neurons.   IHC (1000-fold)

Disrupted compensatory response mediated by Wolfram syndrome 1 protein and corticotrophin-releasing hormone family peptides in early-onset intrahepatic cholestasis pregnancy. (2019) Xu T, et al. Placenta, 83 63-71.

Western (1:1000)

Effects of Shugan Hewei Granule on Depressive Behavior and Protein Expression Related to Visceral Sensitivity in a Rat Model of Nonerosive Reflux Disease. (2019) Wang Y, et al. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2019 12.

IF (1:200)

Light stimulation into dorsal raphe nucleus contributes to antidepressant effect for a stressed rat model. (2019) Li X. bioRxiv821421.

IHC (1:500)

Ro41-5253, a selective antagonist of retinoic acid receptor α, ameliorates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive-like behaviors in rats: Involvement of regulating HPA axis and improving hippocampal neuronal deficits. (2019) Ke Q, et al. Brain Res Bull, 146 302-309.


Conditioned Aversion and Neuroplasticity Induced by a Superagonist of Extrasynaptic GABAA Receptors: Correlation With Activation of the Oval BNST Neurons and CRF Mechanisms. (2019) de Miguel E. et al. Front Mol Neurosci, 12 130.

IHC (1:250)

Enteric apelin enhances the stress-induced stimulation of colonic motor functions. (2019) Bülbül M, et al. Stress, DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2019.1658739 1-12.

Histology (1:100)

AB-07  Anti-FGF-2

MALAT1 overexpression promotes the proliferation of human periodontal ligament stem cells by upregulating fibroblast growth factor 2. (2019) Chen P. et al.. Exper Ther Med, 18 (3):1627-1632. 07/08.

Western (1:1300)

Adipose-derived stem cells embedded in platelet-rich plasma scaffolds improve the texture of skin grafts in a rat full-thickness wound model. (2019) Gao Y, et al. Burns, DOI: 10.1016/j.burns.2019.07.041

Western (1:500)

Palladium based nanoparticles for the treatment of advanced melanoma. (2019) Elsey J, et al. Sci Rep, 9 (1):3255.

IHC (1:300)

A ZEB1/p53 signaling axis in stromal fibroblasts promotes mammary epithelial tumours. (2019) Fu R, et al. Nature Commun, 10 (1):3210.

IHC (1:100)

Cilostazol Promotes Angiogenesis and Increases Cell Proliferation After  Myocardial Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury Through a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism. (2019) Li J, et al. Cardiovasc Eng Technol., 10 (4):638-647.


YY1-mediated overexpression of long noncoding RNA MCM3AP-AS1 accelerates angiogenesis and progression in lung cancer by targeting miR-340-5p/KPNA4 axis. (2019) Li X, et al.  J Cell Biochem, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.29448.

Western (1:1000)

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells boost vascularization in grafted ovarian tissue by growth factor secretion and differentiation into endothelial cell lineages. (2019) Manavella DD, et al. Mol Hum Reprod, 25 (4):184-193.

IHC (1:2000)

Effectiveness of topical administration of Anethum graveolens essential oil on MRSA-infected wounds. (2019) Manzuoerh R, et al. Biomed Pharmacother, 109 1650-1658.

IHC (1:500)

Metalloprotease inhibitor TIMP proteins control FGF-2 bioavailability and regulate skeletal growth. (2019) Saw S, et al. J Cell Biol, 218 (9):3134-3152.

Immunostaining (1:100)

Downregulation of Linc-RNA activator of myogenesis LncRNA participates in FGF2 mediated-proliferation of human periodontal ligament stem cells. (2019) Wu X, et al. J Periodontol, DOI: 10.1002/JPER.19-0317

Western (1:1200)

AB-265  Anti-Tri-methyl Lysine

Human FAM173A is a mitochondrial lysine-specific methyltransferase that targets adenine nucleotide translocase and affects mitochondrial respiration. (2019) Małecki J, et al. J Biol Chem DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA119.009045.


Evidence for the involvement of protein lysine methylation in the response of sensitive and tolerant Arabidopsis species to cadmium stress. (2019) Serre NBC, et al. bioRxiv652651


Protein lysine methylation contributes to modulating the response of sensitive and tolerant Arabidopsis species to cadmium stress. (2019) Serre NBC, et al. Plant Cell Environ DOI: 10.1111/pce.13692: 


AB-N01  Anti-mu p75

Direct Conversion of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts into Neural Crest Cells. (2019) Motohashi T, & Kunisada T. In K Turksen (Ed.), Skin Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols (pp. 307-321). New York, NY: Springer New York.

Flow Cytometry

Development of Intestinal Scaffolds that Mimic Native Mammalian Intestinal Tissue (2019) Ladd MR, et al. Tissue Engineering Part A 25: (17-18):1225-1241.

IHC (1:500)

AB-N01AP  Anti-mu p75 ap

Knockdown of Fidgetin Improves Regeneration of Injured Axons by a Microtubule-Based Mechanism. (2019) Matamoros AJ, et al. J Neurosci, 39 (11):2011-2024. 01/15.


Combining naproxen and a dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist improves pain and structural outcomes in the collagen-induced arthritis rat model. (2019) Katri A, et al. Arthritis Res Ther, 21 (1):68.

Histology (1:4000)

Early Forebrain Neurons and Scaffold Fibers in Human Embryos.(2019) Qin J, et al. Cereb Cortex, DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhz136

IF (1:600)

Upregulation of proBDNF in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes in Septic Mice. (2019) Wang Z, et al. Neurotox Res, 36 (3):540-550.

Western (1:2000)

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Precursor in the Hippocampus Regulates Both Depressive and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Rats.(2019) Zhong F, et al. Front Psychiatr, 9 776-776.


AB-N03  Anti-trkA

The impact of bone cancer on the peripheral encoding of mechanical pressure stimuli.(2019) Kucharczyk MW, et al. bioRxiv498980.

IHC (1:400)

AB-N27AP  Angiotensin IIR (AT1R)

The regulation effect of WNT-RAS signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus on renal fibrosis. (2019) Zhou G, et al. J Nephrol, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40620-019-00637-8

IHC and Western

Infrared fluorescence imaging of infarcted hearts with Ag2S nanodots. (2019) Ortgies DH, et al. Nano Res, 12 (4):749-757.

Western (1:1000)

Attenuation of Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension in BubR1 Low Expression Mice Via Repression of Angiotensin II Receptor 1 Overexpression. (2019) Aoyagi Y, et al. J Am Heart Assoc, 8 (23):e011911


Kangxianling decoction prevents renal fibrosis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy and inhibits Ang II-induced ECM production in glomerular mesangial cells. (2019) Ji J, et al. J Pharmacol Sci, 139 (4):367-372.

Western (1:100)
Objective: To investigate effects of Kangxianling decoction on renal fibrosis in a ratmodel of 5/6 Nephrectomy (5/6 N) in vivo and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) in vitro.

Mixed Vehicle Emissions Induces Angiotensin II and Cerebral Microvascular Angiotensin Receptor Expression in C57Bl/6 Mice and Promotes Alterations in Integrity in a Blood-Brain Barrier Coculture Model. (2019) Suwannasual U, et al. Toxicol Sci, 170 (2):525-535.

AT1R Antibody was used in IF staining of cerebral tissue. Brain sections (10 mm) were prepared for AT1 receptor (1:1000).

Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Mechanical Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokines in the Dorsal Root Ganglia. (2019) Kim E, et al. Molec Neurobio l1-12.

Western (1:100)

Sulfisoxazole inhibits the secretion of small extracellular vesicles by targeting the endothelin receptor A. (2019) Im E-J, et al. Nature Commun, 10 (1):1387.

Western (1:1000)

Inhibition of Methamphetamine Self-Administration and Reinstatement by Central Blockade of Angiotensin II Receptor in Rats. (2019) Xu X, et al. J Pharmacol ExpTher, 369 (2):244. PMID: 30867225

Membranes were incubated at 4°C overnight (1:1000).

Cardiac hypertrophy in mice submitted to a swimming protocol: influence of training volume and intensity on myocardial renin-angiotensin system. (2019) Soares DdS, et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 316 (6):R776-R782. 

Incubation at 4°C with anti-AT1R diluted in TTBS buffer with 5% non-fat 220 milk (1:800).

LncRNA AK094457 promotes AngII-mediated hypertension and endothelial dysfunction through suppressing of activation of PPARγ. (2019) Zhuo X, et al.. Life Sciences, 233 116745.


AB-N28AP Angiotensin IIR (AT2R)

Targeting AngII/AT1R signaling pathway by perindopril inhibits ongoing liver fibrosis in rat. (2019) Abd El-Rahman SS, & Fayed HM. J Tissue Eng Regen Med, 13 (12):2131-2141.

IHC (1:100)

Altered expression of renin-angiotensin system receptors throughout colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence. (2019) Beitia M, et al. Int J Mol Sci, 16 (6):813-821. 


Expression of the intrarenal angiotensin receptor and the role of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in IgA nephropathy. (2019) Zhang Z, et al. Mol Cell Biochem, 453 (1):103-110. 

IHC (1:500)

AB-N27AP and AB-N28AP  

AT2R Activation Prevents Microglia Pro-inflammatory Activation in a NOX-Dependent Manner: Inhibition of PKC Activation and p47(phox) Phosphorylation by PP2A. (2019) Bhat SA, et al. Mol Neurobiol, 56 (4):3005-3023.

Immunoblotting: membranes were incubated with respective primary antibodies AT1R (1:1000), AT2R (1:500). ICH: AT1R (1:100), AT2R (1:100).

AB-N32  Anti-mGluR2

RGS4 Maintains Chronic Pain Symptoms in Rodent Models. (2019) Avrampou K, et al. J Neurosci, 39 (42):8291. 


Localization of group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors at pre- and postsynaptic sites of inner hair cell ribbon synapses. (2019) Klotz L, et al. FASEB J, 33 (12):13734-13746. 

IHC (1:150)

AB-N33AP  Anti-NK-1R

Structural and functional defects of the respiratory neural system in the medulla and spinal cord of Pax6 mutant rats. (2019) Ikeda K, et al. Brain Res Bull, 152 107-116. 

Immunofluorescence (1:800)

AB-N38  Anti-Melanopsin

Viability of Mouse Retinal Explant Cultures Assessed by Preservation of Functionality and Morphology. (2019) Alarautalahti V, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Visual Sci, 60 (6):1914-1927. 

Immunostaining (1:2500)

Degeneration of ipRGCs in Mouse Models of Huntington’s Disease Disrupts Non-Image-Forming Behaviors Before Motor Impairment.  (2019) Lin M-S, et al. J Neurosci, 39 (8):1505. 

Immunostaining (1:3000)

The M6 cell: A small-field bistratified photosensitive retinal ganglion cell. (2019) Quattrochi LE, et al. J Comp Neurol, 527 (1):297-311. 

Immunofluorescence (1:10,000)

Expression of transcription factors divides retinal ganglion cells into distinct classes. (2019) Sweeney NT, et al. J Comp Neurol, 527 (1):225-235. 

Immunostaining (1:1000)

pHast Conjugates: Fab-pHast products bind to your primary antibody via a secondary antibody cross-linked to a pH-dependent fluorescent reporter for quantitative testing of your primary antibody’s specificity, binding, and internalization, providing results in 1 day.

PH-01  Fab-pHast human

SLC46A3 as a Potential Predictive Biomarker for Antibody-Drug Conjugates Bearing Noncleavable Linked Maytansinoid and Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Warheads. (2018) Kinneer K,  et al. Clin Cancer Res, 24 (24):6570-6582. 

Objective:  To develop biomarkers to uncover the underlying mechanism of resistance by certain cell lines for ADCs.
Summary: Loss of SLC46A3 expression was found to be a mechanism of innate and acquired resistance to ADCs bearing DM1 and SG3376.
Dose:  For Lysosomal trafficking, ADCs were labeled with Fab-pHast human. Cells were incubated with 3 mg/mL of labeled ADCs at 37°C for desired time points and fluorescence quantified by flow cytometry.

Custom Conjugates

Novel high molecular weight albumin-conjugated angiotensin II activates beta-arrestin and G-protein pathways.(2019) Pang et al. Endocrine 66(2):349-359. 

Objective: To study the ability of a novel bovine serum albumin-angiotensin II (BSA-Ang II) conjugate to effect responses of the AT1 angiotensin II receptor subtype mediated by the G-protein-coupled and the beta-arrestin pathways.
Summary:  BSA-Ang II and Ang II stimulated water appetite equivalently but BSA-Ang II stimulated saline appetite more than Ang II. Both BSA-Ang II and Ang II were considerably more potent at causing calcium mobilization than β-arrestin binding.
Dose:  Angiotensin II (Ang II) was conjugated with bovine serum albumin and compared with Ang II for competition binding to AT1 receptors, to stimulate aldosterone release from adrenocortical cells, to promote beta-arrestin binding to AT1 receptors, to promote calcium mobilization, and stimulate drinking of water and saline by rats.

SAT-421 Cell-Specific Ablation of GnRH Neurons Using Kisspeptin-Saporin in the Preoptic Area of Sheep, but Not Mice. (2019) Porter D, et al. Journal of the Endocrine Society, Volume 3, Issue Supplement_1, April-May 2019.

Integrin α10, a Novel Therapeutic Target in Glioblastoma, Regulates Cell Migration, Proliferation, and Survival. (2019) Munksgaard Thorén M, et al. Cancers, 11 (4):587.

Objective:  To investigate the potential of integrin α10β1 as a therapeutic target in  glioblastomas (GBMs).
Summary:  integrin α10β1 has a crucial role in the migration, proliferation, and survival of GBM cells and that an integrin α10β1 antibody–drug conjugate induced cell death of GBM cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Dose:  Infusions of anti-10-SAP or Anti-ctrl-SAP were made icv (1 µg/2 L per infusion).