Targeting Topics 10q1

Neuroprotective effects of testosterone on dendritic morphology following partial motoneuron depletion: efficacy in female rats

Wilson RE, Coons KD, Sengelaub DR

Neurosci Lett 465(2):123-127, 2009.

Previous work demonstrated a protective effect from testosterone in a motoneuron nerve injury model for male rats. This work investigated whether testosterone has the same effect in females. Female rats received 2 µg of CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14) into the left vastus medialis muscle. 4 weeks later surviving motoneurons were visualized with CTB conjugated to HRP. Testosterone treatment greatly attenuated the atrophy seen in control animals, suggesting that testosterone is also a neurotherapeutic agent in females.

Proteomic analysis uncovers novel actions of the neurosecretory protein VGF in nociceptive processing

Riedl MS, Braun PD, Kitto KF, Roiko SA, Anderson LB, Honda CN, Fairbanks CA, Vulchanova L

J Neurosci 29(42):13377-13388, 2009.

Peripheral tissue injury can alter protein expression in sensory neurons, which may contribute to abnormal nociceptive processing. The authors used cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons as a model for axotomized neurons to examine early changes in protein expression after nerve injury. Several different parameters were measured, including immunohistochemistry using anti-TrkA (Cat. #AB-N03). The data show an increased level of a putative neuropeptide precursor, VGF, as a result of nerve injury.

Amyloid-beta expression in retrosplenial cortex of triple transgenic mice: relationship to cholinergic axonal afferents from medial septum

Robertson RT, Baratta J, Yu J, LaFerla FM

Neuroscience 164(3):1334-1346, 2009.

In this work the authors developed a model to examine the relationship between afferent projections and the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposits. Mice received 1.86-µg unilateral injections of mu p75-SAP (Cat. #IT-16) into the lateral ventricle. Lesioned animals had persistent Aβ immunoreactivity in layer III of the granular division of retrosplenial cortex (RSg). This data indicates that septal cholinergic axonal projections transport Aβ or amyloid precursor protein to layer III of the RSg.

Serotonin Transport and Metabolism in the Mammary Gland Modulates Secretory Activation and Involution

Marshall AM, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Hernandez LL, Dewey KG, Chantry CJ, Gregerson KA, Horseman ND

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95(2):837-846, 2010.

Serotonin is known to be a local regulator of lactation homeostasis. This work examined  the roles of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and monoamine oxidase in this system. Immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical staining was done on human primary mammary epithelial cells and mouse tissue with a SERT antibody (Cat. #AB-N09). Additional data included epidemiological studies and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment of mice. The results suggest that women taking SSRI inhibitor medications were more likely to experience delayed secretory activation.

Nitrous oxide-induced analgesia does not influence nitrous oxide’s immobilizing requirements

Jinks SL, Carstens E, Antognini JF

Anesth Analg 109(4):1111-1116, 2009.

Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) are involved with the analgesic action of nitrous oxide (N2O). In order to examine whether these neurons are also involved with the immobilizing effects of N2O, rats received 4-µg intracerebroventricular injections of anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03). Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18) was used as a control. Lesioned animals did not experience the analgesic effects of N2O, but the immobilizing effects were still present. The data demonstrate that the immobilizing mechanism of N2O is independent from its analgesic effects.

Spatial memory following selective cholinergic lesion of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis

Dashniani M, Burjanadze M, Beselia G, Maglakelidze G, Naneishvili T

Georgian Med News 174:77-81, 2009.

This study investigated the role of cholinergic nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) cells in learning and memory. Rats received bilateral 200-ng injections of 192 IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) into the NBM. Mouse IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-18) was used as a control. The results indicate the NBM is important in accurate spatial learning and processing information about the spatial environment. Deficits in rats with the cholinergic lesion may be due to lowered attentional function.

Cell transplantation: a future therapy for narcolepsy?

Arias-Carrion O, Murillo-Rodriguez E

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 8(4):309-314, 2009.

This review covers the current understanding of narcolepsy and discusses the potential for transplants as a therapeutic treatment. Animal models are summarized, including the use of orexin-SAP (Cat. #IT-20, discontinued) in rats. The review goes on to suggest that production of orexigenic neuroblasts from stem cells may be a useful therapy.