Saporin References

Cat #PR-01


Andriessen AS, Donnelly CR, Ji RR (2021) Reciprocal interactions between osteoclasts and nociceptive sensory neurons in bone cancer pain. Pain Rep 6(1):e867. doi: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000867

Summary: Current pharmacotherapies available for bone cancer pain are insufficient to provide safe and efficacious pain relief. The authors discuss the mechanisms used by cancer cells within the bone tumor microenvironment (TME) to drive bone cancer pain.
Dose: Microglial ablation using Mac1-SAP (15 μg in 8.8 μl i.t.) and Saporin control (Cat. #PR-01, 8.8 μg in 8.8 μl), is sufficient to attenuate nerve injury-induced pain in male, but not female mice. See Sorge et al. 2015.

Arslan I, Akgul H, Kara M (2021) Saporin, a Polynucleotide-Adenosine Nucleosidase, May Be an Efficacious Therapeutic Agent for SARS-CoV-2 Infection. SLAS Discov 26(3):330-335. doi: 10.1177/2472555220970911

Summary: This mini-review focuses on how saporin-based targeted toxins may be efficacious therapeutic agents for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The discussed points suggest that saporin might be a strategic molecule for therapeutic knockout treatments and a powerful candidate of novel drugs for the struggle against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Chandra S, Rawat D, Bhatt A (2021) Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Saponaria officinalis L.: A review. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 13(1):10809. doi: 10.15835/nsb13110809

Summary: Saponaria officinalis is an important medicinal and ornamental plant. Different saporins found in the species cause cytotoxicity of various cell lines and thereby play an important role in cancer treatment. Various kinds of saponins are synthesized by the species and exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiinsecticide properties. Further studies need to be done proper understanding of their target-receptor mechanism and scientific evaluation of traditional medicinal uses.

di Leandro L, Giansanti F, Mei S, Ponziani S, Colasante M, Ardini M, Angelucci F, Pitari G, d’Angelo M, Cimini A, Fabbrini MS, Ippoliti R (2021) Aptamer-Driven Toxin Gene Delivery in U87 Model Glioblastoma Cells. Front Pharmacol 12:588306. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.588306

Summary: A 26nt G-rich double-stranded DNA aptamer (AS1411) was integrated into a vector at the 5′ of a mammalian codon-optimized saporin gene, under CMV promoter. The gene encoding saporin is driven intracellularly by the glioma-specific aptamer that binds to cell surface-exposed nucleolin and efficiently kills target cells.

Dorogin J, Townsend JM, Hettiaratchi MH (2021) Biomaterials for protein delivery for complex tissue healing responses. Biomater Sci 9(7):2339-2361. doi: 10.1039/d0bm01804j

Summary: Delivery of saporin into MCF-7 breast cancer cells using pH-sensitive hyaluronic acid nanogels. MCF-7 cells overexpress CD44, which has a high affinity for hyaluronic acid (HA). This enables binding and subsequent uptake of the coiled-coil peptide-crosslinked HA nanogels (HAcNGs) by MCF-7 cells. Upon endocytosis, HAcNGs dissociate in the acidic conditions of the endosomes of the cell, due to the pH-sensitive dissociation of the crosslinker, releasing saporin.

Duarte L, Alexandre M, Chaves A, Santos D, deSouza A, Bernacci L (2021) Plant-virus infection inhibitors: The great potential of Caryophyllales species. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 113:101597. doi: 10.1016/j.pmpp.2020.101597

Summary: The proteinaceous nature of antiviral proteins (AVP) produced by Caryophyllales, as well as the role of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) as plant-defense inducers have received considerable attention. This review proposes a model for the main mode of action hypotheses of viral infection inhibitors. The activity of two RIPs, in addition to PAP, against capped and uncapped viral RNAs has been reported. PAP, M. expansa RIP (ME1), and Saponaria officinalis RIP (saporin) depurinated capped TMV and brome mosaic virus (BMV, genus Bromovirus) RNAs, but did not depurinate uncapped luciferase RNA, indicating that in addition to PAP, other type I RIPs can distinguish between capped and uncapped RNAs.

Kawasaki R, Sasaki Y, Nishimura T, Katagiri K, Morita KI, Sekine Y, Sawada SI, Mukai SA, Akiyoshi K (2021) Magnetically Navigated Protein Transduction In Vivo using Iron Oxide-Nanogel Chaperone Hybrid. Adv Healthc Mater 10(9):e2001988. doi: 10.1002/adhm.202001988

Summary: A magnetically guided in vivo protein transduction is demonstrated using magnetic nanogel chaperone (MC) composed of iron oxide nanoparticles and a polysaccharide nanogel, a protein carrier inspired by “catch and release” mechanisms of MCs. In an oral cancer model, MC-delivered magnetically targeted saporin decreased tumor volume without significant body weight changes and no regrowth of tumor at 3 months after complete regression.

Liu J, Ding X, Fu Y, Xiang C, Yuan Y, Zhang Y, Yu P (2021) Cyclodextrins based delivery systems for macro biomolecules. Eur J Med Chem 212:113105. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.113105

Summary: This review recognizes Saporin as a targetable delivery system.  See He X, Long Q, Zeng Z, Yang L, Tang Y, & Feng X. Simple and efficient targeted intracellular protein delivery with self-assembled nanovehicles for effective cancer therapy. (2019). Adv Funct Mater, 29 (50).

Lointier M, Dussouillez C, Glattard E, Kichler A, Bechinger B (2021) Different Biological Activities of Histidine-Rich Peptides Are Favored by Variations in Their Design. Toxins (Basel) 13(5):363. doi: 10.3390/toxins13050363

Summary: Histidine-rich designer peptides exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, cell penetration, protein transduction, nucleic acid transfection, and lentiviral transduction enhancement. The authors show that a specific range of biological activities is obtained when their hydrophilic angle is varied. The results show that saporin alone induces low levels of cell death, which is expected since it penetrates poorly into cells. In contrast, when mixed with LAH4 peptides, cell viability could be reduced by up to 80%.

Marques SM, Naves LM, Silva TME, Cavalcante KVN, Alves JM, Ferreira-Neto ML, de Castro CH, Freiria-Oliveira AH, Fajemiroye JO, Gomes RM, Colombari E, Xavier CH, Pedrino GR (2021) Medullary Noradrenergic Neurons Mediate Hemodynamic Responses to Osmotic and Volume Challenges. Front Physiol 12:649535. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2021.649535

Summary: The study sought to determine the role of noradrenergic neurons in  hypertonic saline infusion (HSI)-induced hemodynamic recovery.  Findings show that together the A1 and A2 neurons are essential to HSI-induced cardiovascular recovery in hypovolemia.
Dose: Medullary catecholaminergic neurons were lesioned by nanoinjection of Anti-DBH-SAP (0.105 ng·nl−1) into A1, A2, or both (LES A1; LES A2; or LES A1+A2, respectively). Sham rats received nanoinjections of unconjugated saporin in the same regions.

Pazo M, Salluce G, Lostalé-Seijo I, Juanes M, Gonzalez F, Garcia-Fandiño R, Montenegro J (2021) Short oligoalanine helical peptides for supramolecular nanopore assembly and protein cytosolic delivery. RSC Chem Biol 2:503-512. doi: 10.1039/D0CB00103A

Summary: This work introduces a rational design strategy that can be employed to minimize the number of charges and hydrophobic residues of short peptide carriers to achieve non-destructive transient membrane permeation and transport of different macromolecules. Dose response transport experiments with MP1 (0–50 μM) in HeLa cells in the presence or absence of saporin (10 μg mL−1) showed a respectable 70% toxicity enhancement for MP1 and perfect cell viability for the peptide alone in the absence of the toxin.

Polito L, Bortolotti M, Iglesias R, Bolognesi A (2021) Editorial: Toxic Plant Proteins as Experimental Drugs for Human Pathologies. Front Pharmacol 12:689924. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.689924

Summary: The collection of scientific articles composing this Research Topic highlights the progress in the understanding of cell damage mechanisms induced by plant toxins, thus underlying their potential anticancer activity. Moreover, this Research Topic provides an update of the correlations between molecular damages induced by RIPs and the triggering of different cell death pathways.

Shramm PA, Ancheta LR, Bouajram R, Lappi DA (2021) A Brief History of Saporin and its Contributions to Neuroscience. Neuroscience 2021 Abstracts J002/11. Society for Neuroscience, Virtual

Utterström J, Naeimipour S, Selegård R, Aili D (2021) Coiled coil-based therapeutics and drug delivery systems. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 170:26-43. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2020.12.012

Summary: Coiled coils are abundant structural motifs found in many fibrous proteins and transcription factors and are often involved in assembly of higher order protein structures. The possibilities to use coiled coil as key molecular components in drug delivery systems, biomaterials, vaccines and therapeutics can be further expanded by combining them with other proteins as fusion proteins or synthetic polymers, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and inorganic nanoparticles, using physical interactions or chemical conjugation, to create coiled coil hybrids and nanocomposites. The possibility to deliver drugs was evaluated by loading the highly potent protein toxin saporin (SAP) in the nanogels, resulting in a significant decrease in viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Wensley HJ, Smith WS, Holmes SE, Flavell SU, Flavell DJ (2021) The Effect of Small Molecule Pharmacological Agents on the Triterpenoid Saponin Induced Endolysosomal Escape of Saporin and a Saporin-Based Immunotoxin in Target Human Lymphoma Cells. Biomedicines 9(3):300. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines9030300

Summary: Triterpenoid saponins augment the cytotoxicity of saporin based immunotoxins. It is postulated that this results from a saponin-mediated increase in the endolysosomal escape of the toxin to the cytosol. The authors used a number of pharmacological inhibitors of endocytic processes as probes to investigate the role played by saponin in the endolysosomal escape of fluorescently labeled saporin and a saporin based immunotoxin targeted against CD38 on human lymphoma and leukemia cell lines.


Li W, Luo S, Wan C (2020) Characterization of fever and sickness behavior regulated by cytokines during infection. Behaviour 157:855-878. doi: 10.1163/1568539X-bja10028

Summary: This study reviews the characterization of fever and sickness behavior regulated by cytokines during infection.
Dose: IL-1β-saporin or unconjugated Saporin as control (icv or ip, 1.75 μg) eliminated IL-1R1-expressing cells in the hippocampus and indicated these neurons mediate the function of peripheral IL-1β induced hypophagia.

Nakase I (2020) Intracellular delivery methods using biofunctional peptide-modified extracellular vesicles. Extracell Vesicles Circ Nucleic Acids 1:44. doi: 10.20517/evcna.2020.10

Summary: Extracellular vesicles (exosomes, EVs) with encapsulation of biofunctional molecules (e.g., enzymes and genes) are highly expected to be next-generation therapeutic carriers because of their pharmaceutical advantages. Saporin-artificially encapsulated EVs with modification of the (sC18)2 peptides showed glycosaminoglycan-dependent cell-killing activity. Our experimental techniques and findings are considered to contribute to the development for EV-based intracellular delivery system via macropinocytosis.


Chaskiel L, Bristow AD, Bluthé RM, Dantzer R, Blomqvist A, Konsman JP (2019) Interleukin-1 reduces food intake and body weight in rat by acting in the arcuate hypothalamus. Brain Behav Immun 81:560-573. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.07.017

Summary: The authors tested the hypothesis that IL-1R1 expressing cells in the ARH mediate IL-1β and/or LPS-induced hypophagia in the rat.

He X, Long Q, Zeng Z, Yang L, Tang Y, Feng X (2019) Simple and efficient targeted intracellular protein delivery with self-assembled nanovehicles for effective cancer therapy. Adv Funct Mater 29(50):1906187. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201906187

Summary: Using saporin as a therapeutic protein, AS1411-aptamer-modified cyclodextrin (CDEH) nanovehicles can preferentially accumulate in tumors and efficiently inhibit tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 xenograft mouse model. these data convincingly prove that CDEH-AP can efficiently deliver saporin into the cytosol and enhance its anticancer effect.

Jenrette TA, Logue JB, Horner KA. Lesions of the Patch Compartment of Dorsolateral Striatum Disrupt Stimulus-Response Learning. (2019) Neuroscience 415:161-172. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.07.033

Objective:  To investigate whether enhanced activation of the patch compartment contributes to habitual behavior.
Summary:  The dorsolateral patch compartment may mediate habit formation by altering information flow through basal ganglia circuits.
Dose:  A volume of 2 ul of Dermorphin-SAP (17 ng/ul or an equivalent amount of unconjugated SAP (as a control) was infused bilaterally, at a rate of 0.5 ul/min.

Plum T. Identification of lineage-specific markers for therapeutic targeting of mast cells. (2019) PhD Dissertation, Ruperto-Carola University of Heidelberg, Germany. doi: 10.11588/heidok.00023555

Mice were injected i.v. with either 100 µg of 1:1 molar mixture of biotinylated CD63 antibody and Streptavidin-ZAP (60 µg mAb + 40 µg SAP) or with 40 µg SAP alone. All injections were performed in 200 µl PBS.

Saika F, Kiguchi N, Matsuzaki S, Kobayashi D, Kishioka S. Inflammatory Macrophages in the Sciatic Nerves Facilitate Neuropathic Pain Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (2019) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 368(3):535-544. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.252668

IT-06: Mac-1-SAP / PR-01: Saporin
Objective: To determine whether inflammatory macrophages contribute to neuropathic pain associated with type 2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM).
Summary: Inhibitory agents for macrophage-driven neuroinflammation could be potential candidates for novel pharmacotherapy against intractable neuropathic pain.
Dose: Injections of Mac-1-SAP or unconjugated Saporin (10 μl) were administered 3 times every 2 days. Perineural administration of Mac-1-SAP improved high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mechanical allodynia and the accumulation of F4/80+ macrophages and the upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the SCN after HFD-feeding.


Mousseau M, Burma NE, Lee KY, Leduc-Pessah H, Kwok CHT, Reid AR, O’Brien M, Sagalajev B, Stratton JA, Patrick N, Stemkowski PL, Biernaskie J, Zamponi GW, Salo P, McDougall JJ, Prescott SA, Matyas JR, Trang T.  (2018) Microglial pannexin-1 channel activation is a spinal determinant of joint pain. Sci Adv 4:1-12. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aas9846

Objective: To identify therapeutic targets for alleviating mechnical allodynia, a sign/symptom of arthritis.
Summary: The pannexin-1 (Panx1) channel is validated as a target; blockade of P2X7 receptors or ablation of spinal microglia prevented and reversed mechanical allodynia.
Dose: Mac-1-SAP and unconjugated Saporin (15 mg per intrathecal injection on days 0, 1, and 2).  The specific depletion of spinal lumbar microglia attenuated the development of MIA-induced hypersensitivity indicating that spinal microglia causally contribute to the development of mechanical allodynia.  By contrast, intrathecal injection of Control (unconjugated Saporin) did not alter the development of MIA-induced mechanical allodynia.

Nichols NL, Craig TA, Tanner MA. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death. (2018) Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 256:43-49. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2017.08.003

Objective:  To study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death.
Summary:  Intrapleural CTB-SAP mimics aspects of ALS.  Seven days of CTB-SAP enhances respiratory plasticity.
Dose:  Bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25 μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control).

Oliveira LM, Moreira TS, Takakura AC.  (2018) Raphe Pallidus is Not Important to Central Chemoreception in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease.. Neuroscience 369:350-362. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.11.038

Objective: To investigate if serotonin-expressing neurons in the Raphe pallidus/parapyramidal region (RPa/PPy) are also involved in the modulation of breathing during central chemoreception activation in a PD animal model.

Potter H, Alenciks E, Frazier K, Porter A, Fraley GS. Immunolesion of melanopsin neurons causes gonadal regression in Pekin drakes (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). (2018) Gen Comp Endocrinol 256:16-22. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2017.08.006

Objective:  Examine effects of loss of melanopsin in drakes.
Summary:  Loss of melanopsin in PMM elicits decrease in GnRH mRNA expression, gonadal regression, and sex behaviors in drakes.
Dose:  To specifically lesion melanopsin-receptive neurons, 3 μl of an anti-melanopsin-saporin conjugate (MSAP, 100 ng/ul) was injected into the lateral ventricle (n = 10). Control drakes were injected with 3 μl of equimolar unconjugated anti-melanopsin and saporin (SAP, n = 10).

Suarez AN, Hsu TM, Liu CM, Noble EE, Cortella AM, Nakamoto EM, Hahn JD, de Lartigue G, Kanoski SE. Gut vagal sensory signaling regulates hippocampus function through multi-order pathways. (2018) Nat Commun 9(1):2181. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04639-1

KIT-31:  CCK-SAP, Saporin
Objective:  To determine the  endogenous relevance of GIderived vagal HPC communication.
Summary:  Endogenous derived vagal sensory signaling promotes HPC-dependent memory function via a multi-order brainstem–septal pathway, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut–brain axis in memory control.
Dose:   A 1-µl volume of CCK-SAP (250 ng/µl) or control Saporin (250 ng/µl) was injected at two sites: 0.5 µl rostral and 0.5 µl caudal to the laryngeal nerve branch.

Tan HL, Yong C, Tan BZ, Fong WJ, Padmanabhan J, Chin A, Ding V, Lau A, Zheng L, Bi X, Yang Y, & Choo A. Conservation of Oncofetal Antigens on Human Embryonic Stem Cells Enables Discovery of Monoclonal Antibodies against Cancer. (2018). Scientific Reports, 8 (1):11608.

Objective:  To identify and characterize an antibody raised using human embryonic stem cells with potential as a cancer therapeutic.
Summary:  Antibody A19 not only binds to undifferentiated hESCs by flow cytometry, it also reacts with ovarian and breast cancer cell lines with low or no binding to normal cells.
DoseIn Vitro – Number of viable cells treated showed a decrease in cell number (Hum-ZAP mixed with A19; Streptavidin-ZAP mixed with biotinylated A19).  To determine if there were off-target effects, Hum-ZAP and chA19 were incubated with a non-binding cell line OVCAR10; no apparent cytotoxicity was observed.
In Vivo – 5 x 106 SKOV3 cells were implanted s.c. in NUDE mice and Biotinylated A19-Streptavidin-ZAP (ADC), administered ip.  The controls were free Saporin and naked A19.  By the end of 10 weeks, mice administered with the ADC saw a 60% reduction in tumor size compared to control groups.


Burma NE, Bonin RP, Leduc-Pessah H, Baimel C, Cairncross ZF, Mousseau M, Shankara JV, Stemkowski PL, Baimoukhametova D, Bains JS, Antle MC, Zamponi GW, Cahill CM, Borgland SL, De Koninck Y, Trang T.  (2017) Blocking microglial pannexin-1 channels alleviates morphine withdrawal in rodents. Nat Med 23:355-360. doi: 10.1038/nm.4281

Summary: The authors investigated the mechanisms underlying opiate withdrawal in rat.  Depletion of spinal lumbar microglia by intrathecal injections of Mac-1–SAP (Cat. #IT-33; 20 mcg) decreased withdrawal behaviors and attenuated the severity of withdrawal without affecting morphine antinociception.  Unconjugated Saporin (Cat. #PR-01; 20 mcg) was used as control and had no effect on spinal CD11b immunoreactivity or naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal.

Echeverry S, Shi XQ, Yang M, Huang H, Wu Y, Lorenzo L-E, Perez-Sanchez J, Bonin RP, De Koninck Y, Zhang J.  (2017) Spinal microglia are required for long-term maintenance of neuropathic pain. Pain 158:1792-1801. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000982

Summary: Selective depletion of spinal microglia in male rats with the targeted immunotoxin Mac-1-SAP and blockade of brain derived neurotrophic factor–TrkB signalling with intrathecal TrkB Fc chimera, but not cytokine inhibition, almost completely reversed pain hypersensitivity.  To selectively deplete microglia in the spinal cord, Mac-1-SAP was injected intrathecally.  In each group, rats received either an intrathecal injection of 12 mg/7 mL of Mac-1-SAP (n = 6-8) or equal volume of 0.9% saline (n 5 6) or the inactive unconjugated toxin, Saporin (n = 6).)

Leduc-Pessah H, Weilinger N, Fan C, Burma N, Thompson R, Trang T (2017) Site-Specific Regulation of P2X7 Receptor Function in Microglia Gates Morphine Analgesic Tolerance. J Neurosci 37:10154-10172. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0852-17.2017

Summary: By selectively ablating microglia in the spinal cord using a Mac-1-SAP the authors demonstrate a causal role for microglia in the development, but not maintenance, of morphine tolerance in male rats.
Dose: Mac-1-SAP or unconjugated Saporin control (15 μg) was administered by intrathecal injection.


Gritsch S, Bali KK, Kuner R, Vardeh D. (2016) Functional characterization of a mouse model for central post-stroke pain. Molecular Pain 12:1744806916629049. PMID: (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Harasawa I, Johansen JP, Fields HL, Porreca F, Meng ID. (2016) Alterations in the rostral ventromedial medulla after the selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Pain 157(1):166-173. PMID: 26335909 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

La JH, Feng B, Kaji K, Schwartz ES, Gebhart GF. (2016) Roles of isolectin B4-binding afferents in colorectal mechanical nociception. Pain 157(2):348-354. PMID: 26447707 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Lee SJ, Diener K, Kaufman S, Krieger JP, Pettersen KG, Jejelava N, Arnold M, Watts AG, Langhans W. (2016) Limiting glucocorticoid secretion increases the anorexigenic property of Exendin-4. Mol Metab 5(7):552-565. PMID: 27408779 (Targeting Trends 16q4)

Sedlik C, Heitzmann A, Viel S, Ait Sarkouh R, Batisse C, Schmidt F, De La Rochere P, Amzallag N, Osinaga E, Oppezzo P, Pritsch O, Sastre-Garau X, Hubert P, Amigorena S, Piaggio E. (2016) Effective antitumor therapy based on a novel antibody-drug conjugate targeting the Tn carbohydrate antigen. Oncoimmunology 5(7):e1171434. PMID: 27622021 (Targeting Trends 16q4)


Bostad M, Olsen CE, Peng Q, Berg K, Hogset A, Selbo PK. (2015) Light-controlled endosomal escape of the novel CD133-targeting immunotoxin AC133-saporin by photochemical internalization – A minimally invasive cancer stem cell-targeting strategy. J Control Release 206:37-48. (Targeting Trends 15q2)

Burjanadze M, Mataradze S, Rusadze K, Chkhikvishvili N, Dashniani M. (2015) Selective lesion of gaba-ergic neurons in the medial septum by gat1-saporin impairs spatial learning in a water-maze. Georgian Med News (240):59-64. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Dashniani M, Kruashvili L, Rusadze Kh, Mataradze S, Beselia G. (2015) Effects of immunotoxic and electrolytic lesions of medial septal area on spatial short-term memory in rats. Georgian Med News (239):98-103. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Dashniani MG, Burjanadze MA, Naneishvili TL, Chkhikvishvili NC, Beselia GV, Kruashvili LB, Pochkhidze NO, Chighladze MR. (2015) Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats. Physiol Res Epub(Targeting Trends 15q3)

Devoto P, Flore G, Saba P, Frau R, Gessa GL. (2015) Selective inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase enhances dopamine release from noradrenergic terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Behav 5(10):e00393. PMID: 26516613 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Kras JV, Weisshaar CL, Pall PS, Winkelstein BA. (2015) Pain from intra-articular NGF or joint injury in the rat requires contributions from peptidergic joint afferents. Neurosci Lett 604:193-198. PMID: 26240991 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Elsarelli MM, Brown RL, Ritter S. (2015) Hindbrain catecholamine neurons activate orexin neurons during systemic glucoprivation in male rats. Endocrinology 156(8):2807-2820. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Davis H, Wang R, Ritter S. (2015) Orexin-A Enhances Feeding in Male Rats by Activating Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Epub:ajpregu.00065.2015. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Murray R, Logan M, Horner K.  (2015) Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration.. Brain Res 1618:286-298. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2015.06.012 (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Navratilova E, Xie JY, Meske D, Qu C, Morimura K, Okun A, Arakawa N, Ossipov M, Fields HL, Porreca F. (2015) Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain. J Neurosci 35(18):7264-7271. PMID: 25948274 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Nichols NL, Vinit S, Bauernschmidt L, Mitchell GS. (2015) Respiratory function after selective respiratory motor neuron death from intrapleural CTB-saporin injections. Exp Neurol 267:18-29 (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Ono K, Ye Y, Viet CT, Dang D, Schmidt BL. (2015) TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B4-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity. J Neurophysiol 113(9):3345-3355. (Targeting Trends 15q2)

Sorge R, Mapplebeck J, Rosen S, Beggs S, Taves S, Alexander J, Martin L, Austin J, Sotocinal S, Chen D, Yang M, Shi X, Huang H, Pillon N, Bilan P, Tu Y, Klip A, Ji R, Zhang J, Salter M, Mogil J.  (2015) Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice.. Nat Neurosci 18:1081-1083. doi: 10.1038/nn.4053

Wu YH, Song SY, Liu H, Xing D, Wang X, Fei Y, Li GL, Zhang C, Li Y, Zhang LC. (2015) Role of adrenomedullin in the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the modulation of immobilization stress. Neuropeptides 51:43-54. (Targeting Trends 15q3)


Flak JN, Myers B, Solomon MB, McKlveen JM, Krause EG, Herman JP. (2014) Role of paraventricular nucleus-projecting norepinephrine/epinephrine neurons in acute and chronic stress. Eur J Neurosci 39(11):1903-1911. (Targeting Trends 14q3)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Powers BR, Ritter S. (2014) Stimulation of feeding by three different glucose-sensing mechanisms requires hindbrain catecholamine neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 306(4):R257-64. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Liu H, Yan WW, Lu XX, Zhang XL, Wei JQ, Wang XY, Wang T, Wu T, Cao J, Shao CJ, Zhou F, Zhang HX, Zhang P, Zang T, Lu XF, Cao JL, Ding HL, Zhang LC. (2014) Role of the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus in the descending inhibition of spinal pain transmission. Exp Neurol 261C:475-485. (Targeting Trends 14q4)

Ye Y, Bae S, Viet CT, Troob S, Bernabe D, Schmidt BL. (2014) IB4(+) and TRPV1(+) sensory neurons mediate pain but not proliferation in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma. Behav Brain Funct 10(1):5. (Targeting Trends 14q2)


Chang ST, Liu YP, Huang CL, Wang PY, Tung CS. (2013) Implication of Cerebral Dopamine-beta Hydroxylase for Cardiovascular and Mood Regulation in Rats. Chin J Physiol 56(4) (Targeting Trends 13q4)

da Silva EF, Freiria-Oliveira AH, Custodio CH, Ghedini PC, Bataus LA, Colombari E, de Castro CH, Colugnati DB, Rosa DA, Cravo SL, Pedrino GR. (2013) A1 noradrenergic neurons lesions reduce natriuresis and hypertensive responses to hypernatremia in rats. PLoS One 8(9):e73187. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Ferrini F, Koninck YD. (2013) Role of spinal microglia in the development of morphine-induced hyperalgesia. Targeting Trends 14(4).

Ferrini F, Trang T, Mattioli TA, Laffray S, Del’Guidice T, Lorenzo LE, Castonguay A, Doyon N, Zhang W, Godin AG, Mohr D, Beggs S, Vandal K, Beaulieu JM, Cahill CM, Salter MW, De Koninck Y. (2013) Morphine hyperalgesia gated through microglia-mediated disruption of neuronal Cl(-) homeostasis. Nat Neurosci 16(2):183-192. (Targeting Trends 13q2)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Wiater MF, Eskelsen AK, Ritter S. (2013) Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Control Rapid Switching of Metabolic Substrate Use during Glucoprivation in Male Rats. Endocrinology 154(12):4570-4579. (Targeting Trends 14q1)


Choi JI, Koehrn FJ, Sorkin LS. (2012) Carrageenan induced phosphorylation of Akt is dependent on neurokinin-1 expressing neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Mol Pain 8(1):4. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Han N, Zu JY, Chai J. (2012) Spinal bombesin-recognized neurones mediate more nonhistaminergic than histaminergic sensation of itch in mice. Clin Exp Dermatol 37(3):290-295. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Pedrino GR, Freiria-Oliveira AH, Almeida Colombari DS, Rosa DA, Cravo SL. (2012) A2 noradrenergic lesions prevent renal sympathoinhibition induced by hypernatremia in rats. PLoS One 7(5):e37587. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Savage S, Mattsson A, Olson L. (2012) Cholinergic denervation attenuates phencyclidine-induced c-fos responses in rat cortical neurons. Neuroscience 216:38-45. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

Selbo PK, Weyergang A, Eng MS, Bostad M, Maelandsmo GM, Hogset A, Berg K. (2012) Strongly amphiphilic photosensitizers are not substrates of the cancer stem cell marker ABCG2 and provides specific and efficient light-triggered drug delivery of an EGFR-targeted cytotoxic drug. J Control Release 159(2):197-203. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Sikandar S, Bannister K, Dickenson AH. (2012) Brainstem facilitations and descending serotonergic controls contribute to visceral nociception but not pregabalin analgesia in rats. Neurosci Lett 519(1):31-36. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

Staudt MD, Truitt WA, McKenna KE, de Oliveira CV, Lehman MN, Coolen LM. (2012) A Pivotal Role of Lumbar Spinothalamic Cells in the Regulation of Ejaculation via Intraspinal Connections. J Sex Med 9(9):2256-2265. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Taylor AM, Osikowicz M, Ribeiro-da-Silva A. (2012) Consequences of the ablation of nonpeptidergic afferents in an animal model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. Pain 153(6):1311-1319. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

Ye Y, Dang D, Viet CT, Dolan JC, Schmidt BL. (2012) Analgesia Targeting IB4-Positive Neurons in Cancer-Induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity. J Pain 13(6):524-531. (Targeting Trends 12q3)


I’anson H, Jethwa PH, Warner A, Ebling FJ. (2011) Histaminergic regulation of seasonal metabolic rhythms in Siberian hamsters. Physiol Behav 103(3-4):268-278. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Ritter S. (2011) Participation of hindbrain AMP-activated protein kinase in glucoprivic feeding. Diabetes 60(2):436-442. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


Carvalho AF, Reyes AR, Sterling RC, Unterwald E, Van Bockstaele EJ (2010) Contribution of limbic norepinephrine to cannabinoid-induced aversion. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 211(4):479-491. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Emanuel AJ, Ritter S (2010) Hindbrain Catecholamine Neurons Modulate the Growth Hormone But Not the Feeding Response to Ghrelin. Endocrinology 151(7):3237-3246. (Targeting Trends 10q3)


Cao F, Chen SS, Yan XF, Xiao XP, Liu XJ, Yang SB, Xu AJ, Gao F, Yang H, Chen ZJ, Tian YK (2009) Evaluation of side effects through selective ablation of the mu opioid receptor expressing descending nociceptive facilitatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla with dermorphin-saporin. Neurotoxicology 30:1096-1106. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

Lawhorn C, Smith DM, Brown LL (2009) Partial ablation of mu-opioid receptor rich striosomes produces deficits on a motor-skill learning task. Neuroscience 163(1):109-119. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Ray AP, Chebolu S, Ramirez J, Darmani NA (2009) Ablation of least shrew central neurokinin NK1 receptors reduces GR73632-induced vomiting. Behav Neurosci 123:701-706. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Rivat C, Vera-Portocarrero LP, Ibrahim MM, Mata HP, Stagg NJ, De Felice M, Porreca F, Malan TP (2009) Spinal NK-1 receptor-expressing neurons and descending pathways support fentanyl-induced pain hypersensitivity in a rat model of postoperative pain. Eur J Neurosci 29:727-737. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Tronson NC, Schrick C, Guzman YF, Huh KH, Srivastava DP, Penzes P, Guedea AL, Gao C, Radulovic J (2009) Segregated populations of hippocampal principal CA1 neurons mediating conditioning and extinction of contextual fear. J Neurosci 29:3387-3394. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Zhang W, Gardell S, Zhang D, Xie JY, Agnes RS, Badghisi H, Hruby VJ, Rance N, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Porreca F, Lai J (2009) Neuropathic pain is maintained by brainstem neurons co-expressing opioid and cholecystokinin receptors. Brain 132:778-787. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Zhu J, Xu W, Wang J, Ali SF, Angulo JA (2009) The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice. J Neurochem 111(3):656-668. (Targeting Trends 09q4)


Bee LA, Dickenson AH (2008) Descending facilitation from the brainstem determines behavioural and neuronal hypersensitivity following nerve injury and efficacy of pregabalin. Pain 140:209-223. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Colombari DS, Pedrino GR, Freiria-Oliveira AH, Korim WS, Maurino IC, Cravo SL (2008) Lesions of medullary catecholaminergic neurons increase salt intake in rats. Brain Res Bull 76:572-578. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Darmani NA, Wang Y, Abad J, Ray AP, Thrush GR, Ramirez J (2008) Utilization of the least shrew as a rapid and selective screening model for the antiemetic potential and brain penetration of substance P and NK1 receptor antagonists. Brain Res 1214:58-72. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Joseph EK, Chen X, Bogen O, Levine JD (2008) Oxaliplatin Acts on IB4-Positive Nociceptors to Induce an Oxidative Stress-Dependent Acute Painful Peripheral Neuropathy. J Pain 9:463-472. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Khan IM, Wart CV, Singletary EA, Stanislaus S, Deerinck T, Yaksh TL, Printz MP (2008) Elimination of rat spinal substance P receptor bearing neurons dissociates cardiovascular and nocifensive responses to nicotinic agonists. Neuropharmacology 54:269-279. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Kline RHt, Wiley RG (2008) Spinal mu-opioid receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception and morphine antinociception. J Neurosci 28:904-913. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

McKay LC, Feldman JL (2008) Unilateral Ablation of preBotzinger Complex Disrupts Breathing During Sleep but not Wakefulness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178(1):89-95. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Pedrino GR, Rosa DA, Korim WS, Cravo SL (2008) Renal sympathoinhibition induced by hypernatremia: Involvement of A1 noradrenergic neurons. Auton Neurosci 142(1-2):55-63. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Rahman W, Suzuki R, Hunt SP, Dickenson AH (2008) Selective ablation of dorsal horn NK(1) expressing cells reveals a modulation of spinal alpha2-adrenergic inhibition of dorsal horn neurones. Neuropharmacology 54:1208-1214. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Siva AC, Wild MA, Kirkland RE, Nolan MJ, Lin B, Maruyama T, Yantiri-Wernimont F, Frederickson S, Bowdish KS, Xin H (2008) Targeting CUB domain-containing protein 1 with a monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis in a prostate cancer model. Cancer Res 68:3759-3766. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Zinck ND, Downie JW (2008) IB4 afferent sprouting contributes to bladder dysfunction in spinal rats. Exp Neurol 213:293-302. (Targeting Trends 08q4)


Daniels TR, Ng PP, Delgado T, Lynch MR, Schiller G, Helguera G, Penichet ML (2007) Conjugation of an anti transferrin receptor IgG3-avidin fusion protein with biotinylated saporin results in significant enhancement of its cytotoxicity against malignant hematopoietic cells. Mol Cancer Ther 6:2995-3008. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Emgard M, Paradisi M, Pirondi S, Fernandez M, Giardino L, Calza L (2007) Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure affects learning and vulnerability of cholinergic neurons. Neurobiol Aging 28(1):112-121. (Targeting Trends 06q2)

Pascual J, Heinrichs SC (2007) Olfactory neophobia and seizure susceptibility phenotypes in an animal model of epilepsy are normalized by impairment of brain corticotropin releasing factor. Epilepsia 48:827-833. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Schiltz JC, Sawchenko PE (2007) Specificity and generality of the involvement of catecholaminergic afferents in hypothalamic responses to immune insults. J Comp Neurol 502:455-467. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Vera-Portocarrero LP, Zhang ET, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Porreca F (2007) Spinal NK-1 receptor expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance via activation of descending pathways. Pain 129:35-45. (Targeting Trends 07q3)


Abdala AP, Schoorlemmer GH, Colombari E (2006) Ablation of NK(1) receptor bearing neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract blunts cardiovascular reflexes in awake rats. Brain Res 1119(1):165-173. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Allen JW. (2006) Safety and Efficacy of Substance P-SAP. Targeting Trends 7(3).

Bugarith K, Dinh TT, Li AJ, Speth RC, Ritter S (2006) Basomedial Hypothalamic Injections of Neuropeptide Y Conjugated to Saporin Selectively Disrupt Hypothalamic Controls of Food Intake. Targeting Trends 7(4):1, 6.

Keener WK, Rivera VR, Young CC, Poli MA (2006) An activity-dependent assay for ricin and related RNA N-glycosidases based on electrochemiluminescence. Anal Biochem 357(2):200-207. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Li AJ, Wang Q, Ritter S (2006) Differential responsiveness of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene expression to glucoprivation in different catecholamine cell groups. Endocrinology 147(7):3428-3434. (Targeting Trends 06q3)

Rygh LJ, Suzuki R, Rahman W, Wong Y, Vonsy JL, Sandhu H, Webber M, Hunt S, Dickenson AH (2006) Local and descending circuits regulate long-term potentiation and zif268 expression in spinal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 24(3):761-772. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Vera-Portocarrero LP, Zhang ET, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Porreca F (2006) Spinal NK-1 receptor expressing neurons mediate opioid-induced hyperalgesia and antinociceptive tolerance via activation of descending pathways. Pain 129(1-2):35-45. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Vera-Portocarrero LP, Zhang ET, Ossipov MH, Xie JY, King T, Lai J, Porreca F (2006) Descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains nerve injury-induced central sensitization. Neuroscience 140(4):1311-1320. (Targeting Trends 06q4)


Vago R, Marsden CJ, Lord JM, Ippoliti R, Flavell DJ, Flavell SU, Ceriotti A, Fabbrini MS (2005) Saporin and ricin A chain follow different intracellular routes to enter the cytosol of intoxicated cells. FEBS J 272(19):4983-4995. (Targeting Trends 06q1)


Hodges MR, Opansky C, Qian B, Davis S, Bonis J, Bastasic J, Leekley T, Pan LG, Forster HV (2004) Transient attenuation of CO2 sensitivity after neurotoxic lesions in the medullary raphe-area in awake goats. J Appl Physiol 97(6):2236-2247. (Targeting Trends 05q1)(Targeting Trends 05q1)

Stirpe F. (2004) The Discovery of Saporin. Targeting Trends 5(3).

Zhang Y, Berger SA (2004) Increased calcium influx and ribosomal content correlate with resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell death in mutant leukemia cell lines. J Biol Chem 279(8):6507-6516. (Targeting Trends 04q2)


I’Anson H, Sundling LA, Roland SM, Ritter S (2003) Immunotoxic destruction of distinct catecholaminergic neuron populations disrupts the reproductive response to glucoprivation in female rats. Endocrinology 144(10):4325-4331. (Targeting Trends 04q1)


Waite JJ, Chen AD (2001) Differential changes in rat cholinergic parameters subsequent to immunotoxic lesion of the basal forebrain nuclei. Brain Res 918:113-120. (Targeting Trends 02q1)


Rajagopal V, Kreitman RJ (2000) Recombinant toxins that bind to the urokinase receptor are cytotoxic without requiring binding to the alpha(2)-macroglobulin receptor. J Biol Chem 275(11):7566-7573.


Mantyh PW, Rogers SD, Honore P, Allen BJ, Ghilardi JR, Li J, Daughters RS, Lappi DA, Wiley RG, Simone DA (1997) Inhibition of hyperalgesia by ablation of lamina I spinal neurons expressing the substance P receptor. Science 278:275-279.


Stirpe F, Barbieri L, Battelli MG, Soria M, Lappi DA (1992) Ribosome-inactivating proteins from plants: present status and future prospects. Bio/Technol 10:405-412.


Lappi DA, Esch FS, Barbieri L, Stirpe F, Soria M (1985) Characterization of a Saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 129:934-942.


Stirpe F, Gasperi-Campani A, Barbieri L, Falasca A, Abbondanza A, Stevens WA. (1983) Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort) of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis (asparagus) and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree). Biochem J 216:617-625.