Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal References

Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

37 entries found for : antimelanopsin

Examination of zinc in the circadian system.

Moshirpour M, Nakashima AS, Sehn N, Smith VM, Thackray SE, Dyck RH, Antle MC (2020) Examination of zinc in the circadian system. Neuroscience 432:15-29. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.02.016

Objective: To examine the anatomical and functional aspects of zinc in the circadian system.

Summary: Neither enhancement nor chelation of free zinc at either the SCN or IGL altered circadian responses to phase-shifting light in hamsters.

Usage: Retinal immunohistochemistry (1:5000) included a 20-min wash in 4% PFA prior to initiation of the IHC protocol.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

nGnG amacrine cells and Brn3b-negative M1 ipRGCs are specifically labeled in the ChAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse.

Cui LJ, Chen WH, Liu AL, Han X, Jiang SX, Yuan F, Zhong YM, Yang XL, Weng SJ (2020) nGnG amacrine cells and Brn3b-negative M1 ipRGCs are specifically labeled in the ChAT-ChR2-EYFP mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 61(2):14. doi: 10.1167/iovs.61.2.14

Summary: The authors speculated that type II cells might be ipRGCs. This was later verified by the strong immunostaining of type II cells in response to the melanopsin antibody UF006 (100%, 141 of 141 cells collected from 5 retinas, Figs. 6B1–B3), which probes multiple ipRGC subtypes.

Usage: Immunostaining 1:10000

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Viability of mouse retinal explant cultures assessed by preservation of functionality and morphology

Alarautalahti V, Ragauskas S, Hakkarainen JJ, Uusitalo-Järvinen H, Uusitalo H, Hyttinen J, Kalesnykas G, Nymark S (2019) Viability of mouse retinal explant cultures assessed by preservation of functionality and morphology. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 60(6):1914-1927. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25156

Summary: Organotypic retinal explant cultures have been used to study retinal development, retinal diseases and injuries, drug screening, and retinal stem cell therapies.

Usage: The amount of ganglion cells and melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) were detected by staining of RNA-binding protein. Melanopsin detection by immunostaining. 1:2500

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Degeneration of ipRGCs in mouse models of huntington’s disease disrupts non-image-forming behaviors before motor impairment.

Lin M-S, Liao P-Y, Chen H-M, Chang C-P, Chen S-K, Chern Y (2019) Degeneration of ipRGCs in mouse models of huntington's disease disrupts non-image-forming behaviors before motor impairment. J Neurosci 39(8):1505. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0571-18.2018

Summary: Results show that M1 ipRGCs were susceptible to the toxicity caused by mutant Huntingtin. The resultant impairment of M1 ipRGCs contributed to the early degeneration of the ipRGC–SCN pathway and disrupted circadian regulation during HD progression.

Usage: Immunostaining (1:3000)

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

The M6 cell: A small-field bistratified photosensitive retinal ganglion cell.

Quattrochi LE, Stabio ME, Kim I, Ilardi MC, Michelle Fogerson P, Leyrer ML, Berson DM (2019) The M6 cell: A small-field bistratified photosensitive retinal ganglion cell. J Comp Neurol 527(1):297-311. doi: 10.1002/cne.24556

Summary: M6 cells express low levels of melanopsin and have correspondingly weak intrinsic light responses.

Usage: In all experiments involving melanopsin immunofluorescence, melanopsin immunodetection was enhanced using tyramide signal amplification coupled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-paired with goat anti-rabbit IgG and an Alexa fluorophore. 1:10,000.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Expression of transcription factors divides retinal ganglion cells into distinct classes.

Sweeney NT, James KN, Nistorica A, Lorig-Roach RM, Feldheim DA (2019) Expression of transcription factors divides retinal ganglion cells into distinct classes. J Comp Neurol 527(1):225-235. doi: 10.1002/cne.24172

Usage: Melanopsin (Opn4) Immunostaining 1:1000

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Assembly of functionally antagonistic visual circuits for controlling pupil dynamics

Dhande OS, Seabrook TA, Phan AH, Salaly LD, Ishiko N, Nguyen PL, Wang JT, Evans SM, Huberman AD (2018) Assembly of functionally antagonistic visual circuits for controlling pupil dynamics. bioRxiv 500868. doi: 10.1101/500868

Objective: Investigate the mechanisms controlling the specification and establishment of parallel sensory pathways.

Summary: Identification of a novel genetic program that marks and is required for the development of non-image-forming parallel visual pathways.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry (1:1000)

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

Synaptic circuits for irradiance coding by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

Sabbah S, Papendorp C, Koplas E, eltoja M, Etebari C, Gunesch AN, Carrete L, Kim MT, Manoff G, Bhatia-Lin A, Zhao T, Schreck D, Dowling H, Briggman KL, Berson DM (2018) Synaptic circuits for irradiance coding by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. bioRxiv 442954. doi: 10.1101/442954

Objective: To explore the synaptic networks responsible for the unique capacity of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to encode overall light intensity. This luminance signal is crucial for circadian, pupillary and related reflexive responses light.

Summary: Most ipRGCs sample from all bipolar terminals costratifying with their dendrites, but M1 cells avoid all OFF bipolar input and accept only ectopic ribbon synapses from ON cone bipolar axonal shafts. These monad synapses are equipped with as many as a dozen ribbons and only one postsynaptic process.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry of retina – after recording, retinas were fixed and counterstained with rabbit anti-melanopsin (1:1000) to enhance the fluorescence of the GFP-based GCaMP6f indicator.

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Intersectional strategies for targeting amacrine and ganglion cell types in the mouse retina

Jo A, Xu J, Deniz S, Cherian S, DeVries SH, Zhu Y (2018) Intersectional strategies for targeting amacrine and ganglion cell types in the mouse retina. Front Neural Circuits 12:66. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2018.00066

Objective: To obtain unambiguous information about retinal processing.

Summary: Results establish a foundation for future application of intersectional strategies in the retina and retino-recipient regions.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry 1:1000.

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Retina-specific loss of Ikbkap/Elp1 causes mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to selective retinal ganglion cell degeneration in a mouse model of familial dysautonomia

Ueki Y, Shchepetkina V, Lefcort F (2018) Retina-specific loss of Ikbkap/Elp1 causes mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to selective retinal ganglion cell degeneration in a mouse model of familial dysautonomia. Dis Model Mech 11(7):dmm033746. doi: 10.1242/dmm.033746

Objective: To determine the pathophysiological mechanisms that are triggered by the absence of IKAP (inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein) in the retina.

Summary: The loss of IKAP caused progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by 1 month of age. There was no loss of melanopsin+ intrinsically photosensitive RGCs at 18 months. RGCs were the only cell type that degenerated, with the survival of other retinal neurons unaffected.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), RGC Counts, and H&E staining – Anti-melanopsin (1:5000).

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Survival of melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells long term after optic nerve trauma in mice

Sánchez-Migallón MC, Valiente-Soriano FJ, Nadal-Nicolás FM, Di Pierdomenico J, Vidal-Sanz M, Agudo-Barriuso M (2018) Survival of melanopsin expressing retinal ganglion cells long term after optic nerve trauma in mice. Exp Eye Res 174:93-97. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2018.05.029

Summary: Melanopsin-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) do not respond to axotomy in the same way than the rest of RGCs, and so while image-forming RGCs die in two exponential phases, non-image forming RGCs die only during the first quick phase.

Usage: Retinas were dissected as flat mounts and double-immunostained against melanopsin (1:5000).

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Differential roles for cryptochromes in the mammalian retinal clock

Wong JCY, Smyllie NJ, Banks GT, Pothecary CA, Barnard AR, Maywood ES, Jagannath A, Hughes S, van der Horst GTJ, MacLaren RE, Hankins MW, Hastings MH, Nolan PM, Foster RG, Peirson SN (2018) Differential roles for cryptochromes in the mammalian retinal clock. FASEB J 32:4302-4314. doi: 10.1096/fj.201701165RR

Objective: To determine roles of cryptochromes (CRY) in the retinal clock.

Summary: Data suggest that CRY1 is an essential component of the mammalian retinal clock, whereas CRY2 has a more limited role.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry 1:2500.

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Combinatorial effects of alpha- and gamma-protocadherins on neuronal survival and dendritic self-avoidance

Ing-Esteves S, Kostadinov D, Marocha J, Sing AD, Joseph KS, Laboulaye MA, Sanes JR, Lefebvre JL (2018) Combinatorial effects of alpha- and gamma-protocadherins on neuronal survival and dendritic self-avoidance. J Neurosci 38:2713-2729. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3035-17.2018

Objective: The clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) comprise 58 cadherin-related proteins encoded by three tandemly arrayed gene clusters, Pcdh- , Pcdh- , and Pcdh- (Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg, respectively). This study sought to determine roles of Pcdhas and Pcdhgs in the retina and cerebellum from mice (both sexes) lacking one or both clusters.

Summary: Study examined two regions of the CNS, the retina and cerebellum and showed that the 14 -Pcdhs and 22 -Pcdhs act synergistically to mediate neuronal survival and dendrite patterning. In retina, Pcdhgs are essential for survival of inner retinal neurons and dendritic self-avoidance of starburst amacrine cells, whereas Pcdhas are dispensable for both processes.

Usage: Anti-Melanopsin (1:5000) used to quantify two mutually exclusive RGC cell types, the Brn3a RGCs and the melanopsin-positive intrinsically photo- sensitive RGCs (Mel ipRGCs).

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Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are not labeled in Thy-1YFP-16 transgenic mice

Grillo SL, Stella SL, Jr. (2018) Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells are not labeled in Thy-1YFP-16 transgenic mice. Neuroreport 29:118-122. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000918

Objective: To determine whether mRGCs are labeled with YFP in Thy-1 YFP-16 transgenic mice. The transgenic Thy-1 YFP mouse line 16 (Thy-1 YFP-16) expresses yellow-fluorescent protein (YFP) in projection neurons, including RGCs.

Summary: The majority of mRGC somas and axons are not labeled with YFP in the transgenic Thy-1 YFP-16 mouse line; therefore, this mouse model may not suitable for research involving mRGC visual pathways.

Usage: Affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against melanopsin (1:500) was used to label mRGCs (Retinal ganglion cells expressing melanopsin). Immunolabeled Thy-1 YFP-16 mouse retina with anti-melanopsin and found that majority (∼89%) of mRGCs are not YFP-positive despite numerous other YFP-positive RGCs in the retina.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

Melanopsin expression in the cornea.

Delwig A, Chaney S, Bertke A, Verweij J, Quirce S, Larsen D, Yang C, Buhr E, VAN Gelder R, Gallar J, Margolis T, Copenhagen D (2018) Melanopsin expression in the cornea. Vis Neurosci 35:E004. doi: 10.1017/S0952523817000359

Objective: To determine melanopsin expression in cornea.

Summary: Found no light-evoked activation of melanopsin-expressing fibers in cornea or in cell bodies in the TG; melanopsin protein might serve other sensory functions in the cornea. One justification for this idea is that melanopsin expressed in Drosophila photoreceptors can serve as a temperature sensor.

Usage: For the primary staining, we used Anti-Melanopsin at 1:5000 for 3 days.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

The M5 cell: A color-opponent intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell

Stabio ME, Sabbah S, Quattrochi LE, Ilardi MC, Fogerson PM, Leyrer ML, Kim MT, Kim I, Schiel M, Renna JM, Briggman KL, Berson DM (2018) The M5 cell: A color-opponent intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell. Neuron 97:150-163. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2017.11.030

Objective: To provide a fuller description of the least understood ipRGC type, the M5 cell, and discovered a distinctive functional characteristic— chromatic opponency (ultraviolet excitatory, green inhibitory).

Summary: M5 cells send axons to the dLGN and are thus positioned to provide chromatic signals to visual cortex. These findings under- score that melanopsin’s influence extends beyond unconscious reflex functions to encompass cortical vision, perhaps including the perception of color.

Usage: M5 cells have the weakest melanopsin responses of all known ipRGC types. The intrinsic melanopsin response (~10 pA) in M5 cells is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the extrinsic, synaptically mediated response.

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3D visualization of individual regenerating retinal ganglion cell axons reveals surprisingly complex growth paths

Bray ER, Noga M, Thakor K, Wang Y, Lemmon VP, Park KK, Tsoulfas P (2017) 3D visualization of individual regenerating retinal ganglion cell axons reveals surprisingly complex growth paths. eNeuro 4:ENEURO.0093-0017.2017. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0093-17.2017

Summary: “Our study demonstrates extensive and circuitous RGC axon elongation both in pre- and post-lesion regions, highlighting the need to better understand the factors that inhibit direct axon growth in the optic nerve.”

Usage: Immunohistochemistry: Rabbit-anti-melanopsin (OPN4; UF006) 1:2500 (Cat. #AB-N38)

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A retinoraphe projection regulates serotonergic activity and looming-evoked defensive behaviour.

Huang L, Yuan T, Tan M, Xi Y, Hu Y, Tao Q, Zhao Z, Zheng J, Han Y, Xu F, Luo M, Sollars P, Pu M, Pickard G, So K, Ren C (2017) A retinoraphe projection regulates serotonergic activity and looming-evoked defensive behaviour. Nat Commun 8:14908. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14908

Objective: To investigate how the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and superior colliculus work in concert to extract and translate visual threats into defensive behavioural responses.

Summary: A dedicated population of RGCs signals rapidly approaching visual threats and their input to the DRN controls a serotonergic self-gating mechanism that regulates innate defensive responses.

Usage: Mice received bilateral intraocular injection (2 μg per eye) made between Streptavidin-Saporin and a biotinylated CTB antibody, or Anti-Melanopsin-SAP (2 μg per eye). For detection of melanopsin, retinas were incubated for 3 days at 4 °C with anti-melanopsin (1:600).

Related Products: Streptavidin-ZAP (Cat. #IT-27), Melanopsin-SAP (Cat. #IT-44), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

C-terminal phosphorylation regulates the kinetics of a subset of melanopsin-mediated behaviors in mice.

Somasundaram P, Wyrick G, Fernandez D, Ghahari A, Pinhal C, Simmonds Richardson M, Rupp A, Cui L, Wu Z, Brown R, Badea T, Hattar S, Robinson P (2017) C-terminal phosphorylation regulates the kinetics of a subset of melanopsin-mediated behaviors in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:2741-2746. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1611893114

Summary: The authors show that the melanopsin photoresponse shutoff due to C-terminal phosphorylation determines the kinetics of the intrinsic light response in ipRGCs, the PLR, and reentrainment, but not masking and phase angle of entrainment. Immunofluorescence was performed using rabbit Anti-Melanopsin (1:1,000, Cat. #AB-N38) as the primary antibody with a 2-d incubation period, followed by goat anti-rabbit IgG 488 as the secondary antibody.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid beta precursor protein is associated with retinal function improvement in aging male APP

Joly S, Lamoureux S, Pernet V (2017) Nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid beta precursor protein is associated with retinal function improvement in aging male APP. Neurobiol Aging 53:181-191. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.02.004

Objective: To determine amyloid beta role in the aging retina in Alzheimer’s Disease

Summary: Retinal-specific processing of amyloid may confer protection against AD and selectively preserve cone-dependent vision during aging.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry 1:1000

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Loss of Ikbkap causes slow, progressive retinal degeneration in a mouse model of familial dysautonomia

Ueki Y, Ramirez G, Salcedo E, Stabio ME, Lefcort F (2016) Loss of Ikbkap causes slow, progressive retinal degeneration in a mouse model of familial dysautonomia. eNeuro 3:ENEURO.0143-0116.2016. doi: 10.1523/eneuro.0143-16.2016

Summary: Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive congenital neuropathy that is caused by a mutation in the gene for inhibitor of kappa B kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP). A classic hallmark of the disease is progressive blindness marked by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic nerve atrophy. To investigate the consequences of Ikbkap loss in the retina, we generated Ikbkap conditional knockout mice using TUBA1a-Cre. Our data demonstrate that this is a powerful model system that faithfully recapitulates the phenotype and progression of FD blindness.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry

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Neural activity promotes long-distance, target-specific regeneration of adult retinal axons.

Lim J, Stafford B, Nguyen P, Lien B, Wang C, Zukor K, He Z, Huberman A (2016) Neural activity promotes long-distance, target-specific regeneration of adult retinal axons. Nat Neurosci 19:1073-1084. doi: 10.1038/nn.4340

Summary: Axons in the CNS fail to regenerate after injury. Scientists sought to identify strategies that would allow retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons to regenerate in the eye-to-brain pathway, and if that was possible, whether the axons could reconnect with their correct targets and restore visual function. It was previously shown that increasing mTOR signaling could trigger RGC axon regeneration. Several conditions were tested, but combining increased mTOR signaling and then exposing mice to high-contrast visual stimulation daily for 3 weeks scientists after optic nerve crush resulted in long distance RGC axon regeneration, re-innervation of the brain and partial recovery of a subset of visual behaviors. A 1:1000 dilution of Anti-Melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N38) was used for the immunohistochemical analysis of retinas, optic nerves and brain tissue.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Retinal waves modulate an intraretinal circuit of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

Arroyo D, Kirkby L, Feller M (2016) Retinal waves modulate an intraretinal circuit of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 36:6892-6905. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0572-16.2016

Summary: The researchers explore the neural circuits underlying the ipRGC driven light responses of the developing retina and the mechanisms by which retinal waves regulate these circuits. They demonstrate that, even in the presence of cholinergic waves, ipRGC gap junction microcircuits propagate light-driven signals, thus strongly contributing to the overall light response of the developing retina. Following fixation, retinas were washed in PBS and remounted onto a new piece of filter paper. They were incubated in blocking buffer and then in primary immunoreaction solution, 1:2500 rabbit anti-melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N38). Results show that, during development, ipRGCs form extensive gap junction microcircuits that shape the early retinal light response. Retinal waves exert a far-reaching, neuromodulatory influence on these circuits via dopaminergic modulation of gap junctions, thus potentially impacting the processing of early visual input.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

Mao C, Agca C, Mocko-Strand J, Wang J, Ullrich-Lüter E, Pan P, Wang S, Arnone M, Frishman L, Klein W (2016) Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development. Proc Biol Sci 283:20152978. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2978

Summary: Pou4f2 is Pou domain transcription factor that is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. The sea urchin genome contains SpPou4f1/2, a distant orthologue of Pou4f2, but they have no obvious eyes and their photoreceptors are located around their tube feet disc. Scientists replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA to see if SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in mice. Mice expressing SpPou4f1/2 developed retinas that looked like wild-type mice. Immunolabeling of retinas with a 1:1000 dilution of Anti-Melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N39) showed the presence of many well-bundled axons emanating from SpPou4f1/2-expressing RGCs. Electroretinogram recordings from these mice indicate that their RGCs are functionally active. These results suggest that there is a high degree of functional conservation between the two genes despite more than 540 million years of divergence from the common ancestor of mice and sea urchins.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

Neuropsin (OPN5)-mediated photoentrainment of local circadian oscillators in mammalian retina and cornea.

Buhr E, Yue W, Ren X, Jiang Z, Liao H, Mei X, Vemaraju S, Nguyen M, Reed R, Lang R, Yau K, Van Gelder R (2015) Neuropsin (OPN5)-mediated photoentrainment of local circadian oscillators in mammalian retina and cornea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:13093-13098. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1516259112

Summary: Circadian clocks are found in most mammalian tissues. These clocks are synchronized by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the brain. The local clock found in the retina does not require rods, cones, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, or the SCN. In order to determine what photopigments are responsible for local retinal photoentrainment, the authors used a candidate gene approach. For immunohistochemical studies on flat mount retinas they used a melanopsin antibody (Cat. #AB-N38) at a 1:1000 dilution. The data indicate that OPN5, also known as neuropsin, has a light-sensing function and is involved in retinal photoentrainment.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Phenotypic and functional characterization of Bst+/- mouse retina.

Riazifar H, Sun G, Wang X, Rupp A, Vemaraju S, Ross-Cisneros F, Lang R, Sadun A, Hattar S, Guan M, Huang T (2015) Phenotypic and functional characterization of Bst+/- mouse retina. Dis Model Mech 8:969-976. doi: 10.1242/dmm.018176

Summary: The belly spot and tail mutant mouse strain was first reported on in 1976. Among other phenotypic changes, it carries ocular mutations including retinal colobomas, reduced retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and axon misrouting. In order to assess the use of this strain as a murine model for stem cell therapies of retinal degenerative diseases the authors performed a number of characterization experiments including electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, testing of circadian rhythms, and morphological studies. Some of the immunohistochemistry was done using Anti-Melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N38) at a 1:5000 dilution.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Characteristic patterns of dendritic remodeling in early-stage glaucoma: evidence from genetically identified retinal ganglion cell types.

El-Danaf R, Huberman A (2015) Characteristic patterns of dendritic remodeling in early-stage glaucoma: evidence from genetically identified retinal ganglion cell types. J Neurosci 35:2329-2343. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1419-14.2015

Summary: The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) is the second-most common cause of blindness worldwide. Using several mouse transgenic cell lines, the authors investigated the changes that occur on the establishment of elevated ocular pressure. Anti-melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N39) at 1:1000 was used to illuminate the morphology of the M1 intrinsically photosensitive RGC.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

T-box transcription regulator Tbr2 is essential for the formation and maintenance of Opn4/melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

Mao C, Li H, Zhang Z, Kiyama T, Panda S, Hattar S, Ribelayga C, Mills S, Wang S (2014) T-box transcription regulator Tbr2 is essential for the formation and maintenance of Opn4/melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 34:13083-13095. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1027-14.2014

Summary: Opsin 4/melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are responsible for controlling non-image-forming visual functions in the retina. The findings show that opsin 4 is only expressed in Tbr2-positive ipRGCs, no ipRGCs are found if Tbr2 is deleted before RGC specialization, and most ipRGCs are eliminated when Tbr2 is deleted from established ipRGCs. An antibody against melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N39) was used at a 1:1000 dilution for immunohistochemical analyses.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

New mouse retinal stroke model reveals direction-selective circuit damage linked to permanent optokinetic response loss.

Joly S, Guzik-Kornacka A, Schwab M, Pernet V (2014) New mouse retinal stroke model reveals direction-selective circuit damage linked to permanent optokinetic response loss. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:4476-4489. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14521

Summary: The authors used a mouse model of 'retinal stroke' to better delineate the optokinetic response deficits at the cellular level. Damage was found in the processes of starburst amacrine cells (SACs), and to a lesser extent, the dendrites. Anti-melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N38) at 1:2500 was used for immunohistochemistry.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Form and function of the M4 cell, an intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell type contributing to geniculocortical vision.

Estevez ME, Fogerson PM, Ilardi MC, Borghuis BG, Chan E, Weng S, Auferkorte ON, Demb JB, Berson DM (2012) Form and function of the M4 cell, an intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell type contributing to geniculocortical vision. J Neurosci 32(39):13608-13620. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1422-12.2012

Summary: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are cells that contain the photopigment melanopsin. In this work the authors extensively characterize the M4 ipRGCs. A melanopsin antibody (Cat. #AB-N38) at a 1:10,000 dilution was used to determine the presence of melanopsin by immunohistochemistry.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are mediated by distinct populations of ipRGCs.

Chen S, Badea T, Hattar S (2011) Photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex are mediated by distinct populations of ipRGCs. Nature 476:92-95. doi: 10.1038/nature10206

Summary: Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment Melanopsin and regulate a wide array of light dependent physiological processes. Genetic ablation of ipRGCs eliminates circadian photoentrainment and severely disrupts the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Scientists showed that ipRGCs consist of distinct subpopulation that differentially express the Brn3b transcription factor, and can be functionally distinguished. Brn3b-negative M1 ipRGCs innervate the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, whereas Brn3b-positive ipRGCs innervate all other known brain targets. Selective ablation of Brn3b-postive ipRGCs severly disrupts the PLR, but does not impair circadian photoentrainment. The scientists concluded that molecularly distinct subpopulations of M1 ipRGCs, which are morphologically and electrophysiologically similar, innervate different brain regions to execute light-induced functions. A dilution of 1:1000 of Anti-Melanopsin (Cat. #AB-N38) was used for immunohistochemical analysis of retina sections.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Morphology and mosaics of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cell types in mice

Berson DM, Castrucci AM, Provencio I (2010) Morphology and mosaics of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cell types in mice. J Comp Neurol 518(13):2405-2422. doi: 10.1002/cne.22381

Objective: To provide a fuller description of murine cell types expressing melanopsin, their contribution to the plexuses of melanopsin dendrites, and mosaics formed by each type.

Summary: M1 cells, corresponding to the originally described ganglion-cell photoreceptors, occupy the ganglion cell or inner nuclear layers. M2 cells ramify in the inner third of the IPL. Rare bistratified cells deploy terminal dendrites within both melanopsin-immunoreactive plexuses within the ON sublayer.

Usage: Immunohistochemistry: The tissue was incubated for 24 hr at 4°C in unpurified primary antiserum diluted 1:2500. Immunoperoxidase labeling of flat mount tissue was incubated for 3 days in the unpurified primary antiserum diluted 1:2500.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Postnatal development and functional adaptations of the melanopsin photoreceptive system in the albino mouse retina.

Gonzalez-Menendez I, Contreras F, Cernuda-Cernuda R, Provencio I, Garcia-Fernandez JM (2010) Postnatal development and functional adaptations of the melanopsin photoreceptive system in the albino mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51(9):4840-4847. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-5253

Summary: Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) adjust the circadian pacemaker of mammals by detecting light. The authors tracked the development of ipRGCs in postnatal mice under varying light conditions. Immunohistochemistry for these experiments was done using an anti-mouse melanopsin polyclonal antibody (Cat. #AB-N38). Alteration of the standard light/dark cycle clearly affected the development of ipRGCs.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

Targeted destruction of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells with a saporin conjugate alters the effects of light on mouse circadian rhythms.

Göz D, Studholme K, Lappi DA, Rollag MD, Provencio I, Morin LP (2008) Targeted destruction of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells with a saporin conjugate alters the effects of light on mouse circadian rhythms. PLoS ONE 3(9):e3153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003153

Summary: Retinal ganglion cells expressing melanopsin photopigment are thought to be involved in non-image forming visual responses to light. The authors had a custom conjugate made between saporin and an anti-melanopsin antibody. A 400-ng injection of the melanopsin-SAP conjugate into the eye of a mouse resulted in a 57% loss of the targeted cells. Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35) was used as a control. The data indicates that melanopsin-containing cells are involved in the response to certain non-image forming visual input.

Related Products: Melanopsin-SAP (Cat. #IT-44), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39), Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35)

Photoreceptive net in the mammalian retina.

Provencio I, Rollag MD, Castrucci AM (2002) Photoreceptive net in the mammalian retina. Nature 415:493. doi: 10.1038/415493a

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38)

A novel human opsin in the inner retina.

Provencio I, Rodriguez IR, Jiang G, Hayes WP, Moreira EF, Rollag MD (2000) A novel human opsin in the inner retina. J Neurosci 20(2):600-605. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-02-00600.2000

Summary: Provencio and colleagues found that melanopsin is also present in mouse retina, specifically in ganglion cells, and that it mediates non-visual photoreceptive tasks.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)

Melanopsin: An opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye.

Provencio I, Jiang G, De Grip WJ, Hayes WP, Rollag MD (1998) Melanopsin: An opsin in melanophores, brain, and eye. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(1):340-345. doi: 10.1073/pnas.95.1.340

Summary: Melanopsin was discovered by Dr. Ignacio Provencio as a novel opsin in the melanophores (light-sensitive skin cells) of the African clawed frog.

Related Products: Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal (Cat. #AB-N38), Melanopsin Rabbit Polyclonal, affinity-purified (Cat. #AB-N39)