Lim, I, Mitsui, R, Kameda, M, Sellers, DJ, Chess‐Williams, R, Hashitani, H. Comparative effects of angiotensin II on the contractility of muscularis mucosae and detrusor in the pig urinary bladder. (2021) Neurourol Urodyn 40:102-111. doi: 10.1002/nau.24548
AB-N28AP: Angiotensin II receptor antibody (AT2R)
Objective: To explore contractile actions of angiotensin II (AT2) on the muscularis mucosae (MM) of the bladder.
Summary: The MM appears to have great sensitivity to AT2, suggesting that MM may be the predominant target of contractile actions induced by AT2 in the bladder.
Dose: Induction of contractions with Anti-AT2R (1nM – 1uM). Immunofluorescence (10-100pM).
Abbasloo, E, Najafipour, H, Vakili, A. Chronic treatment with apelin, losartan and their combination reduces myocardial infarct size and improves cardiac mechanical function (2020) Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 47: 393-402. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.13195
Objective: To determine the effect of chronic pretreatment with apelin, losartan and their combination on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in the isolated perfused rat heart and on the expression of apelin-13 receptor (APJ) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) in the myocardium.
Summary: Chronic pretreatment with apelin along with AT1R antagonist had more protective effects against IR injury.
Bragina ME, Costa-Fraga F, Sturny M, Ebadi B, Ruoccolo RT, Santos RAS, Fraga-Silva RA, Stergiopulos N. Characterization of the Renin-Angiotensin System in Aged Cavernosal Tissue and its Role in Penile Fibrosis. (2020) J Sex Med 17:2129–2140. doi: 10.1016/j.jsxm.2020.08.008
AB-N27AP: immunohistochemistry (1:800)
Gonzalez EA, Leitão SAT, Dos Santos Soares D, Tavares AMV, Giugliani R, Baldo G, & Matte U. Cardiac pathology in Mucopolysaccharidosis I mice: Losartan modifies ERK1/2 activation during cardiac remodeling. (2020) J Inherit Metab Dis 1– 11. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12327
Objective: To investigate whether the pathways influenced by losartan and propranolol may modulate the cardiac remodeling process in MPS I mice.
Summary: Losartan and propranolol restore the heart function and could be used to ameliorate the cardiac disease in MPS I.
Dose: AB-N27AP was used in Western Blot at 1:400
Kim M, Do GY, Kim I. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system in high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. (2020) Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 24(4):319-328. doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2020.24.4.319
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that high fructose intake induces activation of the renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), resulting in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.
Summary: High fructose intake increased serum renin, Ang II, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. High fructose intake increased the expression of angiotensinogen in the liver; angiotensin-converting enzyme in the lungs; and renin, angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT1aR), and angiotensin II type 1b receptor (AT1bR) in the kidneys. High fructose intake induces activation of RAS, resulting in hypertension and metabolic syndrome.
Dose: Immunohistochemistry (Anti-AT1R)
Zhou G, Li J, Zeng T, Yang P, Li A. The regulation effect of WNT-RAS signaling in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus on renal fibrosis. (2020) J Nephrol 33(2):289-297. doi: 10.1007/s40620-019-00637-8
Objective: To find the functional lncRNAs associated with hypertension, high throughput lncRNA microarray were used to analyze expression profile of the lncRNAs in the aortic vascular endothelial cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Summary: lncRNA AK094457 is identified as a key regulator in blood pressure and endothelial function, which can increase AngII-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction via suppression of PPARγ.
Dose: Western Blot – 1:500
Abd El‐Rahman, SS, Fayed, HM. Targeting AngII/AT1R signaling pathway by perindopril inhibits ongoing liver fibrosis in rat. (2019) J Tissue Eng Regen Med 13: 2131– 2141. doi: 10.1002/term.2940
AB-N28AP: immunohistochemistry (1:100)
Aoyagi Y, Furuyama T, Inoue K, Matsuda D, Matsubara Y, Okahara A, Ago T, Nakashima Y, Mori M, & Matsumoto T. Attenuation of Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension in BubR1 Low‐Expression Mice Via Repression of Angiotensin II Receptor 1 Overexpression. (2019) J Am Heart Assoc 8(23):e011911. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.118.011911
AB-N27AP: western blot
Beitia M, Solano-Iturri JD, Errarte P, Sanz B, Perez I, Etxezarraga MC, Loizate A, Asumendi A, Larrinaga G. Altered Expression of Renin-Angiotensin System Receptors Throughout Colorectal Adenoma-Adenocarcinoma Sequence. (2019) Int J Med Sci 16(6):813-821. doi: 10.7150/ijms.32599
AB-N28AP: immunohistochemistry (1:100)
Bhat SA, Sood A, Shukla R, Hanif K. AT2R Activation Prevents Microglia Pro-inflammatory Activation in a NOX-Dependent Manner: Inhibition of PKC Activation and p47(phox) Phosphorylation by PP2A. (2019) Mol Neurobiol 56(4):3005-3023. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1272-9
AB-N27AP: Angiotensin IIR (AT1R) and AB-N28AP: Angiotensin IIR (AT2R)
Objective: To investigate the involvement of AT2R in NADPH oxidase (NOX)-mediated microglia activation.
Summary: AT2R, via PP2A-mediated inhibition of PKC, prevents the NOX activation, ROS generation, and subsequent pro-inflammatory activation of microglia.
Dose: Immunoblotting: membranes were incubated with respective primary antibodies AT1R (1:1000), AT2R (1:500). Immunocytochemistry: AT1R (1:100), AT2R (1:100).
Im E-J, Lee C-H, Moon P-G, Rangaswamy GG, Lee B, Lee JM, Lee J-C, Jee J-G, Bae J-S, Kwon T-K, Kang K-W, Jeong M-S, Lee J-E, Jung H-S, Ro H-J, Jun S, Kang W, Seo S-Y, Cho Y-E, Song B-J, & Baek M-C. Sulfisoxazole inhibits the secretion of small extracellular vesicles by targeting the endothelin receptor A. (2019) Nature Commun, 10 (1):1387. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09387-4
Objective: To identify a direct protein target of SFX in cancer cells.
Summary: Using data from the BindingDB, SEA identified four proteins as target candidates, which are: endothelin receptor type A, kynurenine 3-monooxygenase, carbonic anhydrase 13, and angiotensin II type 1a receptor.
Dose: Western blot (1:1000).
Ji J, Tao P, & He L. Kangxianling decoction prevents renal fibrosis in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy and inhibits Ang II-induced ECM production in glomerular mesangial cells. (2019) J Pharmacol Sci 139(4):367-372. doi: 10.1016/j.jphs.2019.03.003
Objective: To investigate effects of Kangxianling decoction on renal fibrosis in a rat model of 5/6 Nephrectomy (5/6 N) in vivo and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated rat glomerular mesangial cells (HBZY-1) in vitro.
Summary: Kangxianling Decoction could reduce renal fibrosis, accompanied by inhibiting the production of ECM proteins and JNK, along with downregulation of TGF-β, Ang II.
Dose: Western blot analysis (1:100).
Kim E, Hwang S-H, Kim H-K, Abdi S, & Kim HK. Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, Alleviates Mechanical Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Inflammatory Cytokines in the Dorsal Root Ganglia. (2019) Mol Neurobiol 56(11):7408-7419. doi: 10.1007/s12035-019-1616-0
Objective: To assess losartan’s analgesic effect on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) in rats and its mechanism of action in dorsal root ganglion (DRG).
Summary: The mechanical thresholds, protein levels of inflammatory cytokines, and cellular location of AT1R and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) in the DRG were assessed with behavioral testing, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
Dose: Western blot (1:100).
Ortgies DH, García-Villalón ÁL, Granado M, Amor S, Rodríguez EM, Santos HDA, Yao J, Rubio-Retama J, & Jaque D. Infrared fluorescence imaging of infarcted hearts with Ag2S nanodots. (2019) Nano Res 12:749–757. doi: 10.1007/s12274-019-2280-4
Objective: To investigate the potential application of functionalized Ag2S nanodots for accurate imaging of damaged myocardium tissues after a myocardial infarction induced by either partial or global ischemia.
Summary: NIR-II images generated by ATII-functionalized Ag2S nanodots contain valuable information about the location and extension of damaged tissue in the myocardium allowing for a proper identification of the occluded artery as well as an indirect evaluation of the damage level.
Dose: Assessment of AT1R protein content in ischemic and non-ischemic hearts by Western blot (1:1000).
Soares DdS, Pinto GH, Lopes A, Caetano DSL, Nascimento TG, Andrades ME, Clausell N, Rohde LEP, Leitão SAT, & Biolo A. Cardiac hypertrophy in mice submitted to a swimming protocol: influence of training volume and intensity on myocardial renin-angiotensin system. (2019) Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 316(6):R776-R782. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00205.2018
Objective: To analyze the cardiac hypertrophy phenotype and the classical and alternative RAS axes in the myocardium of mice submitted to swimming exercises of varying volume and intensity for the development of cardiac hypertrophy.
Summary: Increasing exercise volume and intensity did not induce a pathological hypertrophy phenotype, but instead improved the oxidative capacity, and this process might have the participation of the RAS alternative axis.
Dose: incubation at 4°C with anti-AT1R diluted in TTBS buffer with 5% non-fat 220 milk 1:800).
Suwannasual U, Lucero J, Davis G, McDonald JD, & Lund AK. Mixed Vehicle Emissions Induces Angiotensin II and Cerebral Microvascular Angiotensin Receptor Expression in C57Bl/6 Mice and Promotes Alterations in Integrity in a Blood-Brain Barrier Coculture Model. (2019) Toxicol Sci 170(2):525-535. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfz121
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that inhalation exposure to a mixture of gasoline and diesel vehicle engine emissions (MVE) results in altered central nervous system microvascular integrity mediated by Ang II-AT1 signaling.
Summary: Inhalation exposure to traffic-generated pollutants results in altered BBB integrity, mediated through Ang II-AT1 signaling and inflammation, which is exacerbated by a high-fat diet.
Dose: Antibody was used in immunofluorescent staining of cerebral tissue. Brain sections (10 mm) were prepared for AT1 receptor (1:1000).
Xu X, Pan J, Li X, Cui Y, Mao Z, Wu B, Xu H, Zhou W, Liu Y. Inhibition of Methamphetamine Self-Administration and Reinstatement by Central Blockade of Angiotensin II Receptor in Rats. (2019) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 369(2):244-258. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.255729
Objective: To explore the role of central angiotensin II receptor (ATR) in drug taking and seeking behavior associated with methamphetamine (METH) use disorder.
Summary: The AT1R-PLCβ-CREB signaling pathway was found to be associated with the effect of AT1R on the drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior involving METH use disorder.
Dose: Membranes were incubated at 4°C overnight (1:1000).
Zhang Z, Jiang SM, Ma YP, Dai PL, Wang YN, Zou GM, Gao HM, Yang Y, Li WG. Expression of the intrarenal angiotensin receptor and the role of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in IgA nephropathy. (2019) Mol Cell Biochem 453(1-2):103-110. doi: 10.1007/s11010-018-3435-4
Objective: To investigate the role of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the development of human kidney disease. Patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) were screened and their clinical characteristics analyzed.
Summary: Overexpression of AT1R on the mesangial cells of IgAN patients is associated with mesangial cell proliferation, glomerular segmental sclerosis, and crescent formation.
Dose: Immunohistochemistry 1:500
Zhuo X, Wu Y, Yang Y, Gao L, Qiao X, Chen T. LncRNA AK094457 promotes AngII-mediated hypertension and endothelial dysfunction through suppressing of activation of PPARγ. (2019) Life Sci 233:116745. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116745
Cops J, et al. Selective abdominal venous congestion induces adverse renal and hepatic morphological and functional alterations despite a preserved cardiac function (2018) Sci Rep 8: (1):17757.
Objective: The consequences of isolated abdominal venous congestion on morphology and function of the kidneys, liver and heart were studied in a rat model.
Summary: This study provides relevant insight in the pathophysiology of abdominal congestion on organ function.
Dose: PVDF membrane was incubated overnight at 4 °C in the presence of antibody (1/2000).
Morgan BJ, Schrimpf N, Rothman M, Mitzey A, Brownfield MS, Speth RC, & Dopp JM. Effect of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia on Angiotensin Ii Receptors in the Central Nervous System. (2018). Clinical and Experimental Hypertension1-7.
AB-N28AP: Angiotensin AT-2R and AB-N28AP: AT1R.
Dose: Antibodies were diluted in the blocking solution with 0.05% sodium azide at the following concentrations: AT1R, (1:1600) and AT2R, (1:5000).
Wang C, et al. Angiotensin II induces monocyte chemoattractant protein1 expression by increasing reactive oxygen species mediated activation of the nuclear factor kappaB signaling pathway in osteoblasts (2018) Mol Med Rep 17: (1):1166-1172.
Objective: To investigate the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 (MCP‑1) expression and the underlying mechanism in osteoblasts.
Summary: These data indicate that Ang II-enhanced ROS production and activated NF‑κB signaling via AT1R, thus upregulating MCP‑1 expression in osteoblasts.
Dose: The membranes were blocked with 5% fat‑free milk and probed with anti‑AT1R (1:600).
Zhou H, et al. Erythropoietin alleviates post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction in rats potentially through increasing the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 2 in myocardial tissues (2018) Mol Med Rep 17: (4):5184-5192.
Objective: To determine whether erythropoietin (EPO) improves post‑resuscitation myocardial dysfunction and how it affects the renin‑angiotensin system.
Summary: The present study confirmed that EPO treatment is beneficial for protecting cardiac function post‑resuscitation, and the roles of EPO in alleviating post‑resuscitation myocardial dysfunction may potentially be associated with enhanced myocardial expression of AT2R.
Dose: Western blot analysis of AT1R (1:500) in the myocardium.
Zhu Y, et al. The Effect and Mechanism of Chinese Herbal Formula Sini Tang in Heart Failure after Myocardial Infarction in Rats (2018) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 5629342.
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and mechanism of theChinese herbal formula Sini Tang (SNT) in heart failure after myocardial infarction in rats.
Summary: The Chinese herbal formula SNT could improve left ventricular systolic function in heart failure after myocardial infarction.
Dose: Western blot.
Johnson PL, Sajdyk TJ, Fitz SD, Hale MW, Lowry CA, Hay-Schmidt A, & Shekhar A. Angiotensin II’s role in sodium lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with repeated urocortin 1 injections into the basolateral amygdala: Amygdalar angiotensin receptors and panic. (2013). Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr, 44 248-256.
Summary: The presence of A-II 1 receptor in the basolateral amygdala was confirmed.
Dose: Serial coronal sections (30 μm) were cut to yield three alternate sets of sections. Sections were stored at −20 °C until immunohistochemical processing. All solutions had a pH of 7.4. Sections were incubated overnight at room temperature (1:250 to 1:500 dilution).
Premer C, Lamondin C, Mitzey A, Speth RC, Brownfield MS. (2013) Immunohistochemical Localization of AT1a, AT1b, and AT2 Angiotensin II Receptor Subtypes in the Rat Adrenal, Pituitary, and Brain with a Perspective Commentary. Int J Hypertens 2013:175428. (Targeting Trends 14q4)
Shekhar A, Johnson PL, Sajdyk TJ, Fitz SD, Keim SR, Kelley PE, Gehlert DR, DiMicco JA (2006) Angiotensin-II is a putative neurotransmitter in lactate-induced panic-like responses in rats with disruption of GABAergic inhibition in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. J Neurosci 26(36):9205-9215.
Wang G, Anrather J, Huang J, Speth RC, Pickel VM, Iadecola C (2004) NADPH oxidase contributes to angiotensin II signaling in the nucleus tractus solitarius. J Neurosci 24(24):5516-5524. (Targeting Trends 04q4)
Huang J, Hara Y, Anrather J, Speth RC, Iadecola C, Pickel VM (2003) Angiotensin II subtype 1A (AT1A) receptors in the rat sensory vagal complex: Subcellular localization and association with endogenous angiotensin. Neuroscience 122(1):21-36.
Speth RC, Grove KL, Brownfield MS (2001) Immunohistochemical localization of AT-1A and AT-1B angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat adrenal. Endocrine Soc Mtg, Denver CO, Abstract.