3 entries found for : it-56
Wiley RG (2015) Nociceptive effects of neurotensin(NTS)- and somatostatin(SST)-toxin conjugates applied to the lumbar dorsal horn in rats. Neuroscience 2015 Abstracts 418.11/O12. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago IL.
Summary: Intrathecal injections of NTS or SST have been reported to be anti-nociceptive, and in the case of SST, analgesic in humans. Preliminary experiments in our lab previously showed that lumbar intrathecal injection of the excitatory neuropeptide, NTS, or the inhibitory neuropeptide, SST, conjugated to the ribosome inactivating protein, saporin (sap), produced compulsive scratching/biting of hindquarters resulting in loss of fur and skin. This was thought likely due to pain and/or itching from selective loss of superficial dorsal horn nociceptive inhibitory interneurons expressing NTS receptors. Subsequent experiments using lumbar intrathecal injections of NTS-cholera toxin A chain conjugate resulted in prolonged anti-nociception on hotplate, tail flick and von Frey testing, that was not reversed by naloxone and lasted several days, likely due to sustained activation of the same neurons. The present study sought to determine if the lesions produced by NTS-sap or SST-sap alter nociceptive responses. In the present study, rats, under isoflurane anesthesia, were injected intrathecally using temporarily-placed subarachnoid catheters over the lumbar enlargement with 10 ul of sterile preservative-free normal saline containing either 300-400 ng of NTS-sap, 1 ug of SST-sap or 1 ug blank-sap (control) from Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA. Catheters were flushed with an additional 10 ul of saline. After post-surgical recovery, the rats were then observed for scratching/biting their hindquarters, nocifensive responses on the hotplate, von Frey mechanical probing of the hindpaws, and on operant thermal escape. 4 of 11 NTS-saporin rats and 5 of 9 SST-saporin rats, but none of 9 blank-saporin rats began scratching within 8-47 days after toxin conjugate injection. Hotplate nocifensive reflex testing at 44.5°C and 47°C showed no significant difference between the groups. Von Frey, operant thermal escape testing and anatomic studies are in progress to further specify the functional effects of the toxin conjugate injections and to identify the dorsal horn neurons being destroyed. The results to date are interpreted as consistent with a possibly unique role for NTS and/or SST receptor-expressing superficial dorsal horn inhibitory interneurons in nociception and/or itch. Excitatory/activating moieties such as cholera toxin A subunit targeted by conjugation to NTS or SST may offer a novel approach to enhance inhibition in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons and to produce analgesia by a non-opioid mechanism.
Wiley RG, Lappi DA (2011) Selective activation of dorsal horn inhibitory interneurons produces anti-nociception. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 804.14. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.
Summary: Intrathecal injections of the excitatory neuropeptide neurotensin are antinociceptive in rats. Lumbar intrathecal injections of the cytotoxic conjugate, neurotensin-saporin (NTS-sap), cause rats to engage in intense scratching, licking and biting of their hindquarters. This observation was interpreted as indicating the rats were experiencing discomfort presumably because NTS-sap selectively destroys nociceptive inhibitory interneurons expressing neurotensin receptors in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord resulting in decreased inhibitory input to nociceptive projection neurons. Based on this finding, we made the excitatory conjugate, neurotensin-cholera toxin A subunit (NTS-CTA) which we hypothesized would tonically activate the same nociceptive inhibitory interneurons and produce anti-nociception/analgesia. Two separate groups of Long Evans hooded female rats were injected, under general anesthesia, with 500 ng of NTS-CTA, produced by Advanced Targeting Systems, San Diego, CA using temporarily positioned subarachnoid catheters which were removed after 15 mins. For the next 72-96 hours, rats showed: 1 - normal spontaneous behavior including grooming, ambulation, defecation and urination; 2 - decreased nocifensive responses on the hotplate at 44C - 47C; 3 - increased hindpaw mechanical withdrawal thresholds; and, 4 - prolonged tail flick response latencies. Systemic naloxone (0.8-2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) did not reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NT-CTA. Hotplate responses completely returned to baseline within 7 days. These data are interpreted as showing that intrathecal NTS-CTA is reversibly anti-nociceptive by a naloxone-insensitive (non-opioid) mechanism. The likely mechanism of NTS-CTA action is hypothesized to involve tonic activation of NTS receptor-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord that increases inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons. This strategy may prove useful in treating intractable pain and may be generally useful in the study and manipulation of other populations of inhibitory (or excitatory) interneurons using various neuropeptide-CTA conjugates in such fields as epilepsy, learning and memory, etc. Ongoing work is aimed at identifying the neurons activated by NTS-CTA, testing NTS-CTA in operant pain tests, testing nociceptive effects of other neuropeptide-CTA conjugates and evaluating ways to produce more prolonged activation of the target neurons.
Wiley RG, Lemons LL, Chatterjee K (2010) Targeting inhibitory neurons in the superficial dorsal horn: Neurotensin-saporin (NTS-sap) and neurotensin-cholera toxin A subunit (NTS-CTA). Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts 585.2/XX16. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Neurotensin (NTS) and high affinity neurotensin receptors (NTSR-1) are found in the superficial dorsal horn, primarily lamina II. Intrathecal NTS has been reported to be anti-nociceptive, naloxone does not block the anti-nociceptive effects of intrathecal NTS and NTS acting at the NTSR-1 is excitatory. Based on these facts, we hypothesized that intrathecal neurotensin produces anti-nociception by exciting inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects, on modified thermal plate responses, of lumbar intrathecal injections of NTS-saporin, that is expected to selectively kill NTSR-1-expressing dorsal horn neurons, and NTS-Cholera toxin A subunit (NTS-CTA), that is expected to excite the same neurons. NTS-sap (200-625 ng) produced sustained, remarkable, vigorous scratching of hindquarters, often to the exclusion of any other activity. 12-15 ng of NTS-sap produced no scratching and increased lick/guard responding on the 44 C hotplate. Lumbar intrathecal injections of NTS-CTA (500 ng) produced profound decrease in lick/guard responding on the 44.5 C hotplate that lasted for 100-150 hours. This unique pattern of effects is consistent with the hypothesis that NTSR-1-expressing lamina II dorsal horn neurons are both inhibitory and anti-nociceptive. These results also are consistent with the intrathecal injections of NTS-CTA producing sustained excitation of these inhibitory interneurons resulting in inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons. This strategy of exciting NTSR-1-expressing inhibitory interneurons of the superficial dorsal horn is a novel approach to achieve non-opioid-mediated analgesia which may prove valuable in treating refractory chronic pain.