Melanopsin-SAP References

Cat #IT-44


Garrett AM, Khalil A, Walton DO, & Burgess RW. DSCAM promotes self-avoidance in the developing mouse retina by masking the functions of cadherin superfamily members. (2018). Proc Natl Acad Sci, 115 (43):E10216-E10224.

Summary: focus on DSCAM (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1) self-avoidance function in the mouse retina. DSCAM and members of the cadherin superfamily have also emerged as key contributors to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disease, Down syndrome and intellectual disability.

Ostrin LA, Strang CE, Chang K, Jnawali A, Hung L-F, Arumugam B, Frishman LJ, Smith EL, & Gamlin PD. Immunotoxin-Induced Ablation of the Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in Rhesus Monkeys. (2018). Front Neurol, 9 1000.

Objective:  To develop and validate a targeted ipRGC immunotoxin to ultimately examine the role of ipRGCs in macaque monkeys.
Summary:  Findings demonstrated that Melanopsin-SAP was specific for ipRGCs, and induced a graded reduction in the PLR (pupillary light reflex), as well as in ipRGC-driven pupil response with concentration.
Dose:  Solutions of 0.316, 1, 3.16, 10, and 50 μg delivered intravitreally.

Potter H, Alenciks E, Frazier K, Porter A, & Fraley GS. Immunolesion of Melanopsin Neurons Causes Gonadal Regression in Pekin Drakes (Anas Platyrhynchos Domesticus). (2018). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 256 16-22.

Objective:  Examine effects of loss of melanopsin in drakes.
Summary:  Loss of melanopsin in PMM elicits decrease in GnRH mRNA expression, gonadal regression, and sex behaviors in drakes.
Dose:  To specifically lesion melanopsin-receptive neurons, 3 μl of an anti-melanopsin-saporin conjugate (MSAP, 100 ng/ul) was injected into the lateral ventricle (n = 10). Control drakes were injected with 3 μl of equimolar unconjugated anti-melanopsin and saporin (SAP, n = 10).


Huang L, Yuan T, Tan M, Xi Y, Hu Y, Tao Q, Zhao Z, Zheng J, Han Y, Xu F, Luo M, Sollars PJ, Pu M, Pickard GE, So KF, & Ren C. A retinoraphe projection regulates serotonergic activity and looming-evoked defensive behaviour. (2017). Nat Commun, 8 14908. 2017/04/01. PMC5381010 

Objective:  To investigate how the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and superior colliculus work in concert to extract and translate visual threats into defensive behavioural responses.
Summary:  A dedicated population of RGCs signals rapidly approaching visual threats and their input to the DRN controls a serotonergic self-gating mechanism that regulates innate defensive responses.
Dose:Mice received bilateral intraocular injection (2 μg per eye) made between Streptavidin-Saporin and a biotinylated CTB antibody, or Anti-Melanopsin-SAP (2 μg per eye).  For detection of melanopsin, retinas were incubated for 3 days at 4 °C with anti-melanopsin (1:600).

Zhang J, Wang H, Wu S, Liu Q, Wang N.  (2017) Regulation of Reentrainment Function Is Dependent on a Certain Minimal Number of Intact Functional ipRGCs in rd Mice. J Ophthalmol 2017:6804853. doi: 10.1155/2017/6804853


Ren C, Luan L, Wui-Man Lau B, Huang X, Yang J, Zhou Y, Wu X, Gao J, Pickard GE, So KF, Pu M. (2013) Direct Retino-Raphe Projection Alters Serotonergic Tone and Affective Behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology 38(7):1163-1175 (Targeting Trends 13q2)


See: Society for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


Do MTH, Yau K (2010) Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Physiol Rev 90(4):1547-1581. (Targeting Trends 11q1)


Ingham ES, Gunhan E, Fuller PM, Fuller CA.  (2009) Immunotoxin-induced ablation of melanopsin retinal ganglion cells in a non-murine mammalian model. J Comp Neurol 516:125-140. doi: 10.1002/cne.22103


Goz D, Studholme K, Lappi DA, Rollag MD, Provencio I, Morin LP (2008) Targeted destruction of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells with a saporin conjugate alters the effects of light on mouse circadian rhythms. PLoS ONE 3:e3153. (Targeting Trends 09q1)