8 entries found for : it-34
Keimpema E, Zheng K, Barde SS, Berghuis P, Dobszay MB, Schnell R, Mulder J, Luiten PG, Xu ZD, Runesson J, Langel U, Lu B, Hokfelt T, Harkany T (2014) GABAergic terminals are a source of galanin to modulate cholinergic neuron development in the neonatal forebrain. Cereb Cortex 24(12):3277-3288. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht192
Summary: In this work the authors sought to clarify the role of galanin during brain development. Several different techniques were used including the use of Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34) on primary cell cultures from the fetal forebrains of rats. Cultured basal forebrain neurons were exposed to 5 ng/ml of Galanin-SAP for 8 hours, and cell death was assessed after 72 hours. Cholinergic cells were killed by Galanin-SAP, indicating that these neurons can use extracellular galanin-2 receptors to facilitate development.
Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)
Lemons LL, Wiley RG (2011) Galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception. Neuropeptides 45(6):377-383. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2011.08.002
Summary: This work examines the mociceptive role of galanin receptor-1-expressing neurons found in the superficial dorsal horn. 500 ng of galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34) was injected into the lumbar intrathecal space of rats; blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The rats were then tested in a series of thermal nociception models. Lesioned animals were less sensitive to heat, suggesting that loss of the gal1r-expressing excitatory interneurons disrupted the pain transmission pathway.
Lemons LL, Chatterjee K, Wiley RG (2010) Neuropeptide receptor co-expression in superficial dorsal horn: Effects of galanin-saporin, neuropeptide y-saporin and dermorphin-saporin. Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts 585.5/XX19. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: We have previously shown that the role of specific neurons in behavioral processes can be fruitfully studied using targeted toxins. Toxins composed of a targeting neuropeptide coupled to the ribosomal-inactivating toxin, saporin, are used to selectively destroy superficial dorsal horn neurons expressing the cognate peptide receptors followed by assessment of changes in pain behavior. In the present study, we sought to compare the anatomic effects of three closely related targeted toxins, each with different nocifensive behavioral effects. Rats were given single lumbar intrathecal injections of either galanin-saporin (Gal-sap), neuropeptide Y-saporin (NPY-sap), or dermorphin-saporin (Derm-sap). Lumbar spinal cord sections from each rat were stained for each of the three receptors, GalR-1, Y1R and MOR (mu opiate) using standard immunoperoxidase technique. Each toxin produced a significant decrease in staining for its cognate receptor. Gal-sap animals showed no change in either MOR or Y1R staining. NPY-sap rats showed decreased staining for both GalR1 and MOR, and Derm-sap rats were assessed for changes in expression of GalR1 and Y1R. These findings suggest overlaps between the populations of neurons that express the GalR1, Y1R, and MOR. Specifically, Y1R-expressing neurons also express GalR1 and MOR, probably by separate subpopulations of Y1R neurons. The results also suggest either that Gal-sap only kills neurons that do not express either of the other two receptors, or some of the observed loss of receptors after NPY-sap is due to secondary (transsynaptic) effects. Double- and triple-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry will be used to directly visualize receptor co-expression patterns and targeted toxin effects. These results will be valuable in interpreting the unique nocifensive behavioral effects of each of these targeted toxins.
Moore JT, Mccarren HS, Beck SG, Kelz MB (2010) Lesioning of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus alters isoflurane-induced hypnosis in a time-dependent fashion. Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts 300.28/KKK36. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Despite 160 years of clinical use, the neural mechanisms through which general anesthetics act remain unknown. One possibility is that anesthetics exert their hypnotic effects by acting on the endogenous arousal neural circuitry, including the wake-promoting orexinergic neurons of the hypothalamus and the sleep-promoting GABAergic and galaninergic neurons of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). We have previously demonstrated that orexinergic neurons play an essential role during emergence from general anesthesia but not during anesthetic induction (Kelz et al., 2008). Here, we present evidence that the VLPO exerted a modulatory role in the induction of anesthetic hypnosis. We used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to analyze the activity of VLPO neurons in brain slices of mice sacrificed after two hours of anesthetic exposure. Whereas anesthetic exposure produced a decrease in the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in most brain areas, this was not true for the VLPO: exposure to the volatile anesthetics isoflurane or halothane produced a rapid, dose-dependent increase in the number of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the VLPO, implying that hypnotic doses of volatile anesthetics increased the firing rates of VLPO neurons. To determine whether activation of the VLPO was necessary for anesthetic-induced hypnosis, galanin-saporin was used to produce targeted lesions of VLPO neurons. Six days following surgery, the bilaterally lesioned mice were more resistant to induction with isoflurane than control animals in a loss of righting reflex assay. However, 24 days following surgery the lesioned animals were more sensitive to isoflurane than controls. This time-dependent effect was likely due to the build-up of sleep debt--which is known to reduce the anesthetic dose needed to induce hypnosis--as a result of the insomnia-producing VLPO lesions (Lu et al., 2000). These findings are consistent with the VLPO playing a key role in the induction of volatile anesthetic-induced hypnosis, though formal proof will require acute manipulations of VLPO activity that do not produce a sleep debt confound.
Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)
Wiley RG, Kline IV RH, Lemons LL (2009) Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in nocifensive reflex responses to heat. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 170.17/X19. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Spinal intrathecal (i.t.) galanin has been reported to be antinociceptive in some situations. Using lumbar i.t injections of galanin, coupled to the ribosomal inactivating peptide, saporin, to selectively destroy spinal dorsal horn cells that express galanin receptors, we sought to determine the role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in reflex nocifensive hotplate behavior. Rats were injected into lumbar CSF with either 500 ng or 750 ng Gal-sap or saline, then tested over several weeks on the hotplate at 44o, 47o and 52oC. Gal-sap increased hindpaw withdrawal latencies only to 44oC and decreased the amount of responding on both 44o and 47oC hotplates. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) twenty minutes before 44°C hotplate testing slightly increased initial response latency and significantly decreased responding of the control rats. The antinociceptive effect of morphine in the Gal-sap rats was approximately additive with the antinociceptive effect of Gal-sap. Mustard oil applied to the dorsal hindpaws significantly increased responding on the 44°C hotplate in control rats, but produced less of an increase in Gal-sap rats. Topical capsaicin to hindpaw plantar skin reduced control, but not Gal-sap, responses on the 44°C hotplate. These results suggest a role for galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in modulation of nociception that is unique, different from several other types of dorsal horn neurons and suggests a strategy for augmenting opiate drug effect.
Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)
Lemons LL, Wiley RG (2009) Role of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons in operant nocifensive responses. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 170.18/X20. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Selective destruction of galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons using the targeted cytotoxin, galanin-saporin (gal-sap), reduced reflex nocifensive hotplate responses, particularly at 44° C (see adjacent poster). The antinociceptive effect of gal-sap was additive with morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) in reducing hotplate responses. While these findings are provocative, inferences about analgesia also require information on cerebral processing of nociceptive information, such as obtained from operant nocifensive responses. We therefore sought to determine the effects of lumbar intrathecal gal-sap on nocifensive operant responses. Thirteen Long Evans female rats were injected with either 500 ng gal-sap or 500 ng blank-sap and tested on the escape test at several temperatures. The escape task consists of a two-chambered box; one side is dark with a thermal floor while the other side is brightly lit with a room temperature shelf. Gal-sap treated rats escaped from the thermal plate to the escape shelf less than controls. The difference was particularly striking at 25°, 38°, 44°, 45°, and 47°C. Morphine effects on escape responses was tested at 44°C. Thirty minutes before testing, rats were injected subcutaneously with either 0, 0.5, 1.5 or 4.5 mg/kg morphine. The testing was done over four days such that every rat was tested at each dosage in a counterbalanced fashion. 1.5mg/kg of morphine significantly reduced the escape duration of the blank-sap control rats, but not the gal-sap rats. The 4.5mg/kg dosage completely eliminated escape responding in both control and gal-sap rats. In summary, Gal-sap rats showed reduced nocifensive reflex responding on the hotplate tests, which was further reduced in essentially additive fashion by 5mg/kg of morphine. The Gal-sap treated rats also showed reduced escape behaviors at 44°C in the operant escape test, but were less sensitive to 1.5 mg/kg of morphine than the control rats. These results differ from the effects of NPY-saporin and dermorphin-saporin, cytotoxins also targeted at dorsal horn interneurons, suggesting that selective destruction of galanin receptor-expressing superficial dorsal horn neurons is analgesic and that galanin-receptor-expressing dorsal horn interneurons play a unique role in nociceptive processing.
Related Products: Galanin-SAP (Cat. #IT-34)
Wiley RG, Moore SA, Kline IV RH (2008) Analysis of inhibitory phase of formalin test: Effects of specific neural lesions. Neuroscience 2008 Abstracts 772.4/MM19. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.
Summary: The formalin test has been widely used as a model of persistent pain. The 90 mins of formalin-induced nocifensive responding can be divided into two phases (phase 1, first ~10 mins; phase 2, last ~60 mins) separated by a period of reduced responding (interphase, IP), that has received relatively little attention. Behavioral inhibition during the IP of the formalin test has been associated with electrophysiological evidence of inhibition of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons (Henry et al, Pain, 82:57, 1999), probably due, at least in part, to local spinal mechanisms. Behavioral inhibition during IP has been shown to be enhanced by morphine and suppressed by naloxone. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of selective depletion of specific dorsal horn interneurons known to be involved in nociception, i.e. neurons expressing NPY1R, GalR1 or MOR, or selective destruction of cerebral noradrenergic neurons or spinal cord projecting 5-HT neurons on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior, with particular attention to IP. Type-selective lesions were produced by lumbar intrathecal injection of NPY-saporin, galanin-saporin or dermorphin-saporin, respectively. Cerebral noradrenergic neurons and spinally projecting 5-HT neurons were destroyed using the immunotoxins, antiDBH-saporin (intracerebroventricular) or antiSERT-saporin (lumbar intrathecal), respectively. Partial loss of dorsal horn interneurons expressing NPY1R or GalR1 decreased nocifensive responding during IP and phase 2 of the formalin test, while partial loss of MOR-expressing dorsal horn interneurons increased nocifensive responding during IP and during phase 2. Both antiDBH-sap and antiSERT-sap decreased responding during IP, without effects on either phase 1 or 2. These results suggest that the apparent anti-nociception during IP and phase 2 produced by loss of NPY1R- and GalR1-expressing dorsal horn neurons is due to increased inhibition over excitation/facilitation of nociceptive projection neurons, whereas depletion of MOR-expressing interneurons produces the opposite effect. The apparent enhanced nociception during IP, but not phase I and II, produced by antiDBH-sap and antiSERT-sap suggests that these neural systems serve to enhance the excitability of nociceptive projection neurons during the formalin IP. Electrophysiologic and pharmacologic studies of formalin IP in selectively lesioned animals combined with the above behavioral findings may reveal new insights into endogenous modulation of nocifensive motor responses and/or nociception.
Wiley RG, Kline IV, RHLappi DA (2004) Intrathecal galanin-saporin and NPY-saporin reduce nocifensive responses to noxious heat and formalin. Neuroscience 2004 Abstracts 292.15. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Although the precise circuitry of the dorsal horn underlying nociception is not fully understood, there is evidence that regulation of the excitability of nociceptive projection neurons is influenced/modulated by excitatory interneurons. The present study sought to determine if selectively destroying presumed excitatory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn would alter nocifensive responses to noxious thermal or chemical stimuli. The strategy chosen was to inject saporin (sap) conjugates of either galanin (GAL) or neuropeptide Y(NPY) into the lumbar subarachnoid space and then test rats on the hotplate and observe the nocifensive responses to hindpaw formalin injection. After hotplate testing for 2 weeks, staining for c-fos expression in the dorsal horn was performed 2 hrs after hindpaw formalin injection. Lumbar intrathecal injection of 500 ng of either GAL-sap or NPY-sap produced no obvious change in appearance, body weight or spontaneous activity of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both toxins reduced responses on the 44 C hotplate but not at 52 C. Nocifensive responses to the 47 C hotplate also were reduced but not as strikingly as at 44 C. Responses to hindpaw formalin were remarkably different. Toxin-injected rats held the injected foot close to the body, off the floor, throughout the 90 minute observation period but otherwise ignored the injected paw. Unlike controls, toxin-injected rats did not shake, lick or bite the injected hindpaw and showed normal exploratory behavior. These results are interpreted as showing that these two toxins likely destroy excitatory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn resulting in decreased excitability of nociceptive projection neurons, and therefor reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal and chemical stimuli.