McDougle M, Quinn D, Diepenbroek C, Singh A, de la Serre C, de Lartigue G (2021) Intact vagal gut-brain signalling prevents hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in response to high-fat high-sugar diet. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 231(3):e13530. doi: 10.1111/apha.13530
Objective: To assess the function of the vagus nerve lack specificity.
Summary: Intact sensory vagal neurons prevent hyperphagia and exacerbation of weight gain in response to a HFHS diet by promoting lipid-mediated satiation.
Dose: Rat nodose ganglia were injected bilaterally with either CCK-SAP or unconjugated saporin as a control.
Tominaga M, Kusube F, Honda K, Komiya E, Takahashi N, Naito H, Suga Y, & Takamori K. OP11: Role of spinal cholecystokinin receptor 2 in alloknesis models. (2019) Itch 4:1-62. doi: 10.1097/itx.0000000000000030
IT-31: CCK-SAP and IT-21: Blank-SAP (control)
Objective: To determine the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms that induce alloknesis via the spinal CCK2 receptor.
Summary: Ablation of spinal CCK receptor-expressing cells by i.t. injection of CCK-SAP attenuated CCK8S-induced alloknesis in comparison with Blank-SAP control mice.
Dose: Intrathecal injection.
Han W, Tellez LA, Perkins MH, Perez IO, Qu T, Ferreira J, Ferreira TL, Quinn D, Liu Z-W, Gao X-B, Kaelberer MM, Bohórquez DV, Shammah-Lagnado SJ, de Lartigue G, & de Araujo IE. A Neural Circuit for Gut-Induced Reward. (2018). Cell, 175 (3):665-678.
Objective: To determine relevant gut-brain neuronal circuitry to motivational and emotional states.
Summary: There is a critical role for the vagal gut-to-brain axis in motivation and reward.
Dose: Injected 0.5 µl of CCK-SAP (250 ng/µl) into the R-NG of VGlut2-ires-Cre mice.
Suarez AN, Hsu TM, Liu CM, Noble EE, Cortella AM, Nakamoto EM, Hahn JD, de Lartigue G, Kanoski SE. Gut vagal sensory signaling regulates hippocampus function through multi-order pathways. (2018) Nat Commun 9(1):2181. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04639-1
KIT-31: CCK-SAP, Saporin
Objective: To determine the endogenous relevance of GIderived vagal HPC communication.
Summary: Endogenous derived vagal sensory signaling promotes HPC-dependent memory function via a multi-order brainstem–septal pathway, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut–brain axis in memory control.
Dose: A 1-µl volume of CCK-SAP (250 ng/µl) or control Saporin (250 ng/µl) was injected at two sites: 0.5 µl rostral and 0.5 µl caudal to the laryngeal nerve branch.
Diepenbroek C, Quinn D, Stephens R, Zollinger B, Anderson S, Pan A, de Lartigue G. (2017) Validation and Characterization of a Novel Method for Selective Vagal Deafferentation of the Gut. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 313(4):G342-52. PMID: 28705805
Objective: To develop a new method that allows targeted lesioning of vagal afferent neurons that innervate the upper GI tract while sparing vagal efferent neurons.
Summary: CCK-SAP ablates a subpopulation of VAN in culture. In vivo, CCK-SAP injection into the NG reduces VAN innervating the mucosal and muscular layers of the stomach and small intestine but not the colon, while leaving vagal efferent neurons intact.
Dose: In vitro: each well was treated with a different dose of saporin conjugates (0, 2.4, 24, or 240 ng) for 24 h. In vivo: An equal volume (rat: 1 µl; mouse: 0.5 µl) of CCK-SAP (250 ng/µl) or Saporin (250 ng/µl) was injected at two sites rostral and caudal to the laryngeal nerve branch.
Zhang W, Gardell S, Zhang D, Xie JY, Agnes RS, Badghisi H, Hruby VJ, Rance N, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Porreca F, Lai J (2009) Neuropathic pain is maintained by brainstem neurons co-expressing opioid and cholecystokinin receptors. Brain 132:778-787. (Targeting Trends 09q3)
See also: Society for Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts
Lai J, Zhang W, Badghisi H, Hruby VJ, Porreca F. (2006) The Biologically Active Cholecystokinin (26-33) peptide, [Tyr2-SO3]CCK-8, Retains High Affinity for CCK2 Receptors after Covalent Conjugation to Saporin. Targeting Trends 7(1).
Porecca F, Hruby V, Lai J (2003) Targeting Tests: CCK-SAP in binding studies. Targeting Trends 4(3):5.
Xie Y, Vanderah TW, Ossipov MH, Lai J, Porreca F (2003) A single rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) treatment with cholecystokinin-saporin (CCK-SAP) prevents the development of opioid-induced paradoxical pain and spinal morphine antionociceptive tolerance. Soc Neurosci Mtg, New Orleans, LA, Abstract #177.4.
Zhang J, Speth RC, Simasko S, Ritter RC (2003) Hypothalamic injection of targeted toxin for cholecystokinin receptive neurons leads to increased 24 hour food intake and weight gain. Soc Neurosci Mtg, New Orleans, LA, Abstract #830.3.
Treece BR, Speth RC, Ritter RC, Burns GA (2003) Altered CCK binding in the dorsal vagal complex following cytotoxic lesion of the nodose ganglion. Soc Neurosci Mtg, New Orleans, LA, Abstract #830.5.