27 entries found for : it-28
Nelson TS, Taylor BK (2021) Targeting spinal neuropeptide Y1 receptor-expressing interneurons to alleviate chronic pain and itch. Prog Neurobiol 196:101894. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101894
Summary: Intrathecal administration of NPY-SAP reduced several operant and cognitive measures of Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced allodynia, including responsiveness to cold temperatures, feeding interference, and an escape task, but did not interfere with systemic morphine-induced analgesia. (Wiley et al.) Similar to the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, NPY-SAP dose-dependently reduced the development of mechanical allodynia (hindpaw withdrawal response to von Frey filaments), mechanical hyperalgesia (response to blunt pin), and cold allodynia (hindpaw withdrawal response duration to acetone droplet evaporation). (Nelson et al.) Together, these directed lesion studies support the idea that the Y1-IN subpopulation of dorsal horn neurons is necessary for the maintenance of both mechanical and cold modalities of nociceptive transmission in chronic pain states.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
- Wiley RG et al. Neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nocifensive reflex responses to heat and formalin. Neuroscience 161:139-147, 2009.
- Nelson TS et al. Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Sci Rep 9(1):7248, 2019.
Ritter S, Li A-J, Wang Q (2019) Hindbrain glucoregulatory mechanisms: Critical role of catecholamine neurons in the ventrolateral medulla. Physiol Behav 208:112568. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112568
Objective: To explore circuitry and potential glucose-sensing mechanisms that contribute to the functions of glucoregulatory catecholamine neurons in the ventrolateral medulla
Summary: Selective lesion of hindbrain catecholamine neurons abolishes glucoprivic elicitation of key counterregulatory responses. Selective chemogenetic activation of specific catecholamine populations elicits these responses.Related Products: Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Marvizon JC, Chen W, Fu W, Taylor BK (2019) Neuropeptide Y release in the rat spinal cord measured with Y1 receptor internalization is increased after nerve injury. Neuropharmacology 158:107732. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107732
Summary: NPY is released from dorsal horn interneurons or primary afferent terminals by electrical stimulation and by activation of TRPV1, PKA or NMDA receptors in. Release evoked by noxious and tactile stimuli increases after peripheral nerve injury. Ablation of Y1-expressing dorsal horn neurons with NPY-saporin produced antinociception (Lemons and Wiley) and reduced mechanical and cold hypersensitivity in the spared nerve injury model (Nelson et al.), suggesting that they are pro-nociceptive neurons.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Nelson TS, Fu W, Donahue RR, Corder GF, Hökfelt T, Wiley RG, Taylor BK (2019) Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Sci Rep 9(1):7248. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43493-z
Objective: To test the relevance of the NPYY1 spinal population to the development and/or maintenance of acute and neuropathic pain.
Summary: This neuroanatomical and behavioral characterization of Y1R-expressing excitatory interneurons provides compelling evidence for the development of spinally-directed Y1R agonists to reduce chronic neuropathic pain.
Usage: Selectively ablated Y1R-expressing interneurons while sparing the central terminals of primary afferents. Rats received intrathecal injections of either NPY-SAP or control Blank-SAP (1000 ng each).Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28), Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21)
Diaz-delCastillo M, Woldbye DPD, Heegaard AM (2018) Neuropeptide Y and its involvement in chronic pain. Neuroscience 387:162-169. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.08.050
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Israel MR, Morgan M, Tay B, Deuis JR (2018) Toxins as tools: Fingerprinting neuronal pharmacology. Neurosci Lett 679:4-14. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.02.001
Summary: This review article provides an overview of the experimental techniques used to assess the effects that toxins have on neuronal function, as well as discussion on toxins that have been used as tools, with a focus on toxins that target voltagegated and ligand-gated ion channels.Related Products: IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10), NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Young J (2016) Hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep: How the brain controls our passions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Donahue RR, Corder GF, Mcnamara KC, Wiley RG, Taylor BK (2011) Transmission of neuropathic pain by spinal neurons expressing the NPY Y1 receptor. Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts 179.16. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.
Summary: Endogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts at Y receptors in the dorsal spinal cord to exert a tonic inhibitory control of chronic allodynia (Solway et al, PNAS 108:7224-9, 2011). In this and the adjacent presentation, we tested the hypothesis that NPY does this by inhibiting Y1 receptors on pain transmission neurons or on central terminals of primary afferent neurons. We selectively lesioned cells expressing the NPY receptors in the dorsal horn with intrathecal administration of the NPY-conjugated ribosomal toxin, NPY-saporin. NPY-saporin significantly reduced the population of Y1 receptors in the lumbar dorsal horn by over 50%. Neither NK1 receptors in the dorsal horn, nor neuronal counts in the DRG were affected, suggesting a specific effect on Y1+, NK1- neurons in the dorsal horn, while sparing Y1+ central presynaptic terminals. Fourteen days later, we ligated the tibial and common peroneal branches of the sciatic nerve (spared nerve injury, SNI), and evaluated the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia on post-SNI days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. When compared to saporin controls, NPY-saporin (1000 ng) decreased mechanical allodynia (von Frey threshold), cold allodynia (paw withdrawal response to application of a drop of acetone) and mechanical hyperalgesia (paw response to blunt pin). This effect began three days after SNI and lasted until forty two days after SNI. When injected in uninjured rats, NPY-saporin did not disrupt motor coordination (accelerating rotarod), baseline heat or mechanical thresholds, or animal activity levels. We conclude that Y1-expressing cells in the dorsal horn exert a tonic facilitatory control of neuropathic pain, and partially mediate the inhibitory actions of NPY.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Wiater MF, Mukherjee S, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Rooney EM, Simasko SM, Ritter S (2011) Circadian integration of sleep-wake and feeding requires NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(5):R1569-R1583. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00168.2011
Summary: Feeding and sleep/wake states interact rhythmically across the circadian cycle. It is suspected that the mediobasal hypothalamic area (MBH) is the site where these rhythms are integrated. The authors administered bilateral 24-ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the arcuate nucleus in order to eliminate NPY receptor-expressing neurons in the MBH of rats. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The results indicate that these neurons are required for the interaction of feeding and sleep/wake timing.
Bartness TJ, Keen-Rhinehart E, Dailey MJ, Teubner BJ (2011) Neural and hormonal control of food hoarding. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(3):R641-R655. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00137.2011
Summary: Hoarding of food is a commonly found behavior in humans and animals. This review discusses the neuronal and hormonal processes involved in the control of food hoarding. Several aspects of food hoarding are examined, including the role of food deprivation, environment, levels of hormones like leptin, ghrelin, and levels of peptides such as cholecystokinin. One experiment discussed injected NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the arcuate nucleus of rats, which changed food hoarding responses to deprivation.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Lemons LL, Chatterjee K, Wiley RG (2010) Neuropeptide receptor co-expression in superficial dorsal horn: Effects of galanin-saporin, neuropeptide y-saporin and dermorphin-saporin. Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts 585.5/XX19. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: We have previously shown that the role of specific neurons in behavioral processes can be fruitfully studied using targeted toxins. Toxins composed of a targeting neuropeptide coupled to the ribosomal-inactivating toxin, saporin, are used to selectively destroy superficial dorsal horn neurons expressing the cognate peptide receptors followed by assessment of changes in pain behavior. In the present study, we sought to compare the anatomic effects of three closely related targeted toxins, each with different nocifensive behavioral effects. Rats were given single lumbar intrathecal injections of either galanin-saporin (Gal-sap), neuropeptide Y-saporin (NPY-sap), or dermorphin-saporin (Derm-sap). Lumbar spinal cord sections from each rat were stained for each of the three receptors, GalR-1, Y1R and MOR (mu opiate) using standard immunoperoxidase technique. Each toxin produced a significant decrease in staining for its cognate receptor. Gal-sap animals showed no change in either MOR or Y1R staining. NPY-sap rats showed decreased staining for both GalR1 and MOR, and Derm-sap rats were assessed for changes in expression of GalR1 and Y1R. These findings suggest overlaps between the populations of neurons that express the GalR1, Y1R, and MOR. Specifically, Y1R-expressing neurons also express GalR1 and MOR, probably by separate subpopulations of Y1R neurons. The results also suggest either that Gal-sap only kills neurons that do not express either of the other two receptors, or some of the observed loss of receptors after NPY-sap is due to secondary (transsynaptic) effects. Double- and triple-label fluorescent immunohistochemistry will be used to directly visualize receptor co-expression patterns and targeted toxin effects. These results will be valuable in interpreting the unique nocifensive behavioral effects of each of these targeted toxins.
Wiater MF, Mukherjee S, Dinh TT, Rooney E, Li A-J, Simasko SM, Ritter S (2010) The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus controls the circadian distribution of sleep and feeding. Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts 648.16/H17. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Integration of daily sleep and feeding rhythms is incompletely understood. We examined the role of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) in these processes using Arc microinjections of the targeted toxin, NPY-saporin (NPY-sap), or control blank-saporin (B-sap). NPY-sap targets and destroys NPY receptor-expressing neurons. We monitored 24 hr feeding over a 30-day period beginning 2 wks after the Arc injections, and used EEG recordings to assign vigilance states. Vigilance was divided into rapid-eye movement sleep (REMS), non-REMS (NREMS) and wake. NPY-sap lesioned rats were hyperphagic , consuming up to 225% of pre-injection baseline. They rapidly became obese. While in the sleep-monitoring chambers, their body weight change per week ranged from 56 ± 9 g to 40.5 ± 4.5g, compared to 6 ± 0.4 g/wk for B-sap rats. Their circadian pattern of food intake was severely disrupted, such that intake in light and dark periods were approximately equal (43% of their total intake was consumed in the light period vs. 25% in B-sap controls). Sleep patterns were also significantly disrupted in the NPY-sap animals. The occurrence of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) was inverted in phase, occurring mainly at night, rather than during the day. NonREMS was distributed equally across day and night, instead of occurring predominantly during the day. However, 24-hr total REMS and NREMS time was normal. B-sap controls had normal sleep patterns, with NREMS and REMS occurring predominantly in the light phase. To determine if the change in sleep pattern was due to the change in feeding patterns, we restricted access to food to the dark period for 4 days. NPY-sap treated animals doubled their food intake in the dark period. However, sleep patterns were not changed compared to the ad libitum feeding period in either NPY-sap or B-sap rats. After 7 days of ad libitum feeding, we restricted food access to the light period for 4 days. Again, NPY-sap animals doubled their intake during the feeding period, this time during the light phase, and sleep patterns were not changed in either group by the restricted feeding. By 100 days post-lesion, the NPY-sap animals were still obese, but the patterning and amount of their food intake were becoming similar to controls. However, when evaluated again, sleep patterns were still altered to the same degree as observed early post-lesion. These results confirm the importance of NPY-receptive Arc neurons in controlling food intake. They also reveal an unexpected role for the Arc in the timing of both NREMS and REMS that appears to be independent of the patterning of food intake.
Lyons AM, Thiele TE (2010) Neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin alters anxiety-like behavior when injected into the central nucleus of the amygdala or basomedial hypothalamus in BALB/cJ mice. Peptides 31(12):2193-2199. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2010.09.009
Summary: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus is known to modulate feeding behavior. In this work the authors used bilateral 48 ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the central amygdala or basomedial hypothalamus (BMH) of rats to investigate the role of NPY in anxiety. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. Injections into the amygdala increased anxiety-like behavior, while injections into the BMH reduced anxiety-like behavior. BMH injections also initiated an increase of NPY-1 receptor expression in the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala.
Dailey MJ, Bartness TJ (2010) Arcuate nucleus destruction does not block food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging and hoarding. Brain Res 1323:94-108. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.01.078
Summary: While some aspects of food intake are understood, mechanisms controlling hoarding of food have not been identified. This work investigates the role of NPY in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) in hoarding. Siberian hamsters received 48 ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the Arc; blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. In lesioned animals food deprivation-induced hoarding was increased 100%, but baseline foraging and food hoarding was unchanged.
Li A-J, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2009) Leptin-saporin injection into the arcuate nucleus lesions NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons and produces hyperphagia, obesity and changes in diurnal feeding patterns in rats. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 374.5/EE116. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.
Summary: Leptin-saporin (Lep-SAP), a conjugate of leptin with a ribosomal inactivating toxin, saporin (Advanced Targeting Systems), is a novel toxin designed to destroy leptin receptor-expressing cells selectively in vitro. However, its lesioning properties in vivo are currently unknown. Here, we injected Lep-SAP into the arcuate nucleus (Arc), to examine its effects on feeding behavior and on leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in this area. Immunohistochemical studies showed unilateral injection of Lep-SAP into the Arc dramatically reduced numbers of NPY-Y1- and α-MSH- positive neurons compared to the contralateral side injected with SAP control. Real-time PCR revealed only 11-21% of Agrp and Pomc expression remaining in the Arc after Lep-SAP injection into this region. Rats injected bilaterally with Lep-SAP were unresponsive to central leptin administration and showed dramatic increases in feeding, body weight and light-phase feeding, compared pre-injection baseline. Two weeks after injection, total daily feeding was increased by 75%, light phase feeding by 359% and dark phase feeding by 33%. Control SAP injections did not produce these changes. Clock gene expression in homogenates of whole hypothalamus and liver were quantified at ZT 5-7. Bmal1 expression in hypothalamus and liver of Lep-SAP rats was decreased, while hepatic Per1 expression was increased compared to control. Results demonstrate that Lep-SAP effectively lesions Arc leptin receptor-expressing NPY/AGRP and POMC neurons in vivo, and that rats with this lesion are hyperphagic and obese, possibly due to enhanced hunger drive, lack of responsiveness to leptin and/or changes in circadian control of feeding behavior.
Wiley RG, Lemons LL, Kline IV RH (2009) Neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nocifensive reflex responses to heat and formalin. Neuroscience 161:139-147. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.12.017
Summary: This work examines the effect of lumbar intrathecal administration of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28), and the role of Y1 NPY receptor-expressing neurons (Y1R) in response to thermal and chemical stimulation. Rats received 500 ng or 750 ng intrathecal injections of NPY-SAP. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. Lesioned animals displayed a specific loss of Y1R in the dorsal horn, as well as reduced nocifensive reflex responses.
Wiley RG, Moore SA, Kline IV RH (2008) Analysis of inhibitory phase of formalin test: Effects of specific neural lesions. Neuroscience 2008 Abstracts 772.4/MM19. Society for Neuroscience, Washington, DC.
Summary: The formalin test has been widely used as a model of persistent pain. The 90 mins of formalin-induced nocifensive responding can be divided into two phases (phase 1, first ~10 mins; phase 2, last ~60 mins) separated by a period of reduced responding (interphase, IP), that has received relatively little attention. Behavioral inhibition during the IP of the formalin test has been associated with electrophysiological evidence of inhibition of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons (Henry et al, Pain, 82:57, 1999), probably due, at least in part, to local spinal mechanisms. Behavioral inhibition during IP has been shown to be enhanced by morphine and suppressed by naloxone. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of selective depletion of specific dorsal horn interneurons known to be involved in nociception, i.e. neurons expressing NPY1R, GalR1 or MOR, or selective destruction of cerebral noradrenergic neurons or spinal cord projecting 5-HT neurons on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior, with particular attention to IP. Type-selective lesions were produced by lumbar intrathecal injection of NPY-saporin, galanin-saporin or dermorphin-saporin, respectively. Cerebral noradrenergic neurons and spinally projecting 5-HT neurons were destroyed using the immunotoxins, antiDBH-saporin (intracerebroventricular) or antiSERT-saporin (lumbar intrathecal), respectively. Partial loss of dorsal horn interneurons expressing NPY1R or GalR1 decreased nocifensive responding during IP and phase 2 of the formalin test, while partial loss of MOR-expressing dorsal horn interneurons increased nocifensive responding during IP and during phase 2. Both antiDBH-sap and antiSERT-sap decreased responding during IP, without effects on either phase 1 or 2. These results suggest that the apparent anti-nociception during IP and phase 2 produced by loss of NPY1R- and GalR1-expressing dorsal horn neurons is due to increased inhibition over excitation/facilitation of nociceptive projection neurons, whereas depletion of MOR-expressing interneurons produces the opposite effect. The apparent enhanced nociception during IP, but not phase I and II, produced by antiDBH-sap and antiSERT-sap suggests that these neural systems serve to enhance the excitability of nociceptive projection neurons during the formalin IP. Electrophysiologic and pharmacologic studies of formalin IP in selectively lesioned animals combined with the above behavioral findings may reveal new insights into endogenous modulation of nocifensive motor responses and/or nociception.
Li AJ, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2008) Hyperphagia and obesity produced by arcuate injection of NPY-saporin do not require upregulation of lateral hypothalamic orexigenic peptide genes. Peptides 29(10):1732-1739. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2008.05.026
Summary: It has already been shown that lesioning NPY receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and basomedial hypothalamus produces obesity in rats. The authors examined the contribution of orexigenic peptides, orexins, and melanocortin-concentrating hormone to the lesion effects. Rats received bilateral 24 ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the dorsal border of the Arc. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control. The data suggest that obesity produced by NPY-SAP lesion is different than dietary obesity or obesity associated with leptin or leptin receptor deficiency.
Kline IV RH, Lemons LL, Wiley RG (2007) Antinociceptive effects of lumbar intrathecal neuropeptide y-saporin. Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts 821.5/FF20. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Spinal intrathecal (i.t.) neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to be antinociceptive in the rat. Using lumbar i.t. NPY, coupled to the ribosomal inactivating protein, saporin, to selectively destroy spinal dorsal horn cells that express NPY receptors, we sought to determine the effect of this lesion on nocifensive behaviors in the hotplate and formalin tests and on NPY1R staining in the lumbar dorsal horn. Twenty Sprague Dawley male rats were injected i.t. with either saline or 500ng NPY-sap and then were tested on the hotplate for 30 days. Fifteen Long Evans female rats were injected i.t. with either saline or NPY-sap (500ng or 750ng) and then tested on the hotplate for two weeks followed by hindpaw formalin injection. In order to assess responses mediated by C or A-delta thermal nociceptors, hotplate testing used three temperatures: 44C (600 sec trial duration), 47C (200 sec trials), and 52C (first response or 30 sec). In male rats, lumbar i.t. NPY-sap increased hindpaw withdrawal latencies to 44, 47 and 52C, with the greatest effect on 44C. NPY-sap also reduced the total amount of hindpaw lick/guard responding (duration and number of responses) on the 44 and 47C hotplates. Female rats injected with 750ng of NPY-sap showed a decrease in the number of hindpaw lick/guard events on the 44C hotplate. Female rats also showed a decrease in the total number of hindpaw lick/guard events during the interphase (7-21min) and phase II (22-90min) of the formalin test. Additionally operant thermal place preference testing (45C vs 12C) was compared to hotplate reflex testing. Selectivity of NPY-sap was assessed by immunocytochemistry for cells expressing NPY1R and non-selectivity was assessed by staining for NK-1R. Based on the above findings we conclude that selective destruction of dorsal horn NPY1R-expressing neurons produces decreased thermal nociception to a range of noxious heat and also decreases responses to persistent noxious chemical stimulation during the formalin test. In summary, reduced nocifensive behaviors after NPY-sap were more prominent when assessing responses elicited by input from predominately C fiber activation (44C and formalin). This study was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Li A-J, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2007) Destruction of NPY receptor expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus causes obesity and hyperphagia without increasing lateral hypothalamic orexigenic peptide gene expression. Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts 524.20/BBB20. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: NPY-SAP, a conjugate of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the ribosomal inactivating toxin, saporin (SAP), is a compound that selectively lesions NPY receptor-expressing neurons. Previously we showed that injection of NPY-SAP into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) induces hyperphagia and obesity in rats. To further investigate the mechanisms responsible for NPY-SAP-induced obesity, we injected NPY-SAP or blank-saporin (B-SAP) control into the ARC and subsequently examined the expression of two orexigenic neuropeptide genes in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), which is densely innervated by ARC neurons. Our hypothesis was that loss of leptin-sensitive neurons in the ARC in the NPY-SAP injected rats would lead to increased expression of orexigenic neurons elsewhere in the hypothalamic feeding circuitry. Body weight gain and food intake were dramatically increased in the NPY-SAP group. In addition, expression of NPY and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA was significantly reduced in the ARC of obese rats, indicating a loss of NPY receptor-expressing NPY and CART neurons in this region. In contrast, NPY and CART gene expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus was unchanged in NPY-SAP rats, indicating that the NPY-SAP-induced lesion was limited to the ARC. However, contrary to our hypothesis, expression of the orexigenic neuronpeptides, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) or prepro-orexin mRNA in LHA was not enhanced, but was slightly reduced in the NPY-SAP rats. These results indicate that an enhancement of MCH or orexin expression in the LHA is not necessary for the hyperphagia and obesity observed after NPY-SAP lesions in the ARC. Supported by PHS grant #DK 40498.
Sparrow AW, Lowery EG, Thiele TE (2007) Amygdalar neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling modulates stress-induced reductions of food intake in Balb/cJ mice. Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts 270.10/X24. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: The existing literature suggests that NPY signaling in the amygdala modulates anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption in rodents, but does not modulate food intake. On the other hand, NPY signaling within the hypothalamus controls food intake but does not influence anxiety-like behavior. Based on these observations, the current study tested the hypothesis that attenuation of NPY signaling within the amygdala would increase anxiety-like behavior and augment stress-induced increases of ethanol consumption while at the same time have no effect of feeding behavior. To address this hypothesis, male Balb/cJ were given bilateral injection (48 ng/5-min/side) into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of NPY conjugated to the neurotoxin saporin (NPY-SAP) or saporin alone (Blank-SAP). NPY-SAP is a ribosome inactivating neurotoxin that targets and kills cells expressing NPY receptors. After recovery, mice were first tested for anxiety-like behavior using the zero maze test. They were then given access to 8% (v/v) ethanol versus water in a two-bottle test. After ethanol intake stabilized, half the NPY-SAP and Blank-SAP mice were subjected to a 5-min forced swim stress sessions, once a day over 5-days. Ethanol, water and food consumption were measured for 4-weeks following the forced swim procedures. At the end of the experiment, ethanol was removed for two-weeks and all mice were given a 24-hour open-field locomotor activity test. The results showed that mice treated with NPY-SAP in the CeA spent significantly less time in the open portion of the zero maze reflecting elevated anxiety-like behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither neurotoxin treatment nor stress condition altered ethanol intake. Interestingly, NPY-SAP treated mice that experienced forced swim stress consumed significantly less food than non-stressed NPY-SAP treated mice and stress and non-stressed mice treated with the Blank-SAP. Reduced feeding by NPY-SAP stressed mice was not associated with reduced body weight, suggesting possible alterations of energy metabolism. Further, reduced feeding was not attributable to reductions of activity. This study provides novel evidence that amygdalar NPY signaling modulates feeding/energy balance in mice with a history of stress exposure.
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Bugarith K, Dinh TT, Li AJ, Speth RC, Ritter S (2006) Featured Article: Basomedial hypothalamic injections of neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin selectively disrupt hypothalamic controls of food intake. Targeting Trends 7(4)
Bugarith K, Dinh TT, Li AJ, Speth RC, Ritter S (2005) Basomedial hypothalamic injections of neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin selectively disrupt hypothalamic controls of food intake. Endocrinology 146(3):1179-1191. doi: 10.1210/en.2004-1166
Summary: The authors examined the effect of 48 ng injections of NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28) into the basomedial hypothalamus (BMH) on glucoprivic feeding in rats. While there was no evidence of retrograde transport, the lesions inhibited responses to intracerebroventricular leptin and ghrelin. Neither the feeding nor the hyperglycemic response to 2-deoxy-D-glucose was affected by the lesion, indicating that these hindbrain processes do not utilize neurons in the BMH. This work also describes dosing and injection parameter studies for the use of NPY-SAP.
Bugarith KH, Li A, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2004) Injection of the targeted-toxin, neuropeptide Y-saporin (NPY-SAP), into the basomedial hypothalamus (BMH) disrupts leptin and ghrelin signaling. Neuroscience 2004 Abstracts 893.17. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: NPY-SAP, a conjugate of the peptide NPY and saporin, a ribosomal inactivating toxin, specifically lesions NPY receptor-expressing cells. We injected NPY-SAP into the BMH and examined the effects of various inhibitory (leptin, 5ug/5ul/day, icv; GLP-1, 5ug/5ul, icv, CCK, 4ug/kg, ip;) and stimulatory (ghrelin, 2ug/5ul, icv; NPY, 500ng/100nl, icv; 2-DG, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; MA, 68mg/kg, ip) peptide and metabolic signals that influence food intake. We also examined the effect of NPY-SAP on NPY, CART and AGRP mRNA expression in NPY/AGRP and POMC/CART neurons known to express the NPY receptor, and the effect of NPY and NPY Y1 receptor immunoreactivity in the arcuate (Arc) nucleus. We found that the anorectic effects of leptin and the orexigenic effects of ghrelin were abolished by NPY-SAP. The stimulation of feeding induced by NPY, 2-DG and MA, and the suppression of deprivation-induced feeding by GLP-1 and CCK were not attenuated by NPY-SAP injection. There was a profound but localized reduction of NPY Y1 receptor-, and NPY fiber and terminal immunoreactivity, and NPY, AGRP and CART mRNA expression in the Arc. NPY-SAP did not appear to be retrogradely transported in hindbrain NPY neurons with hypothalamic terminals. Leptin and ghrelin are thought to act primarily on Arc NPY/AGRP and POMC/CART neurons to mediate their ingestive effects, whereas the effects of 2-DG, MA, CCK and GLP-1 are thought to be mediated in part by mechanisms outside the Arc. Present results show that BMH injections of NPY-SAP selectively impair controls mediated by Arc neural circuitry without causing widespread disruption of other ingestive behaviors. Results also reveal important ingestive controls that do not require Arc NPY/AGRP and POMC/CART neurons.
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Wiley RG, Kline IV, RHLappi DA (2004) Intrathecal galanin-saporin and NPY-saporin reduce nocifensive responses to noxious heat and formalin. Neuroscience 2004 Abstracts 292.15. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: Although the precise circuitry of the dorsal horn underlying nociception is not fully understood, there is evidence that regulation of the excitability of nociceptive projection neurons is influenced/modulated by excitatory interneurons. The present study sought to determine if selectively destroying presumed excitatory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn would alter nocifensive responses to noxious thermal or chemical stimuli. The strategy chosen was to inject saporin (sap) conjugates of either galanin (GAL) or neuropeptide Y(NPY) into the lumbar subarachnoid space and then test rats on the hotplate and observe the nocifensive responses to hindpaw formalin injection. After hotplate testing for 2 weeks, staining for c-fos expression in the dorsal horn was performed 2 hrs after hindpaw formalin injection. Lumbar intrathecal injection of 500 ng of either GAL-sap or NPY-sap produced no obvious change in appearance, body weight or spontaneous activity of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both toxins reduced responses on the 44 C hotplate but not at 52 C. Nocifensive responses to the 47 C hotplate also were reduced but not as strikingly as at 44 C. Responses to hindpaw formalin were remarkably different. Toxin-injected rats held the injected foot close to the body, off the floor, throughout the 90 minute observation period but otherwise ignored the injected paw. Unlike controls, toxin-injected rats did not shake, lick or bite the injected hindpaw and showed normal exploratory behavior. These results are interpreted as showing that these two toxins likely destroy excitatory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn resulting in decreased excitability of nociceptive projection neurons, and therefor reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal and chemical stimuli.
Li AJ, Ritter S (2003) 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) increases NPY mRNA expression in hindbrain neurons. Neuroscience 2003 Abstracts 615.7. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.
Summary: Previous results suggest that the orexigenic peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), participates in glucoprivic feeding. NPY mRNA in the hypothalamus is increased by glucoprivation (Sergeyev et al, 2000; Fraley and Ritter, 2003) and injection of anti-NPY antibody into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) impairs glucoprivic feeding (He and Edwards, 1998). The hypothalamus is innervated by both arcuate and hindbrain NPY cell bodies. NPY innervation from the hindbrain is substantial and is derived largely or entirely from cell bodies that co-express norepinephrine or epinephrine. Selective immunotoxin lesions have demonstrated that these hindbrain catecholamine neurons are required for glucoprivic feeding (Ritter et al., 2001), as well as for glucoprivic stimulation of corticosterone secretion (Ritter et al., 2003) and suppression of estrus (I'Anson et al., 2003). However, the specific contribution of hindbrain NPY to these glucoregulatory responses has not been examined. Therefore, we examined NPY mRNA expression in hindbrain catecholamine cell groups 1.5 hr after 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG, 250 mg/kg) injection using in situ hybridization. Cell groups A1, A1/C1, the middle portion of C1 and C2, showed a basal level of NPY mRNA signal that was dramatically increased by 2DG. In rostral C1 and in C3, where basal NPY mRNA expression was below detection threshold, the hybridization signal was also significantly increased by 2DG. In cell groups A2, A5, A6 and A7, neither basal nor 2DG-stimulated NPY mRNA expression was detected. PVH microinjection of the retrogradely transported catecholamine immunotoxin, saporin conjugated to anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase, destroyed hindbrain catecholamine neurons and abolished basal and 2DG-stimulated increases in NPY expression in hindbrain cell groups. These data suggest that hindbrain NPY neurons with projections to the hypothalamus participate in glucoprivic feeding and other glucoregulatory responses.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)
Bugarith K, Ritter S, Dinh T (2001) Hyperphagia and obesity results from the injection of the immunotoxin neuropeptide Y (NPY)-saporin (NPY-sap) into the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) of rats. Neuroscience 2001 Abstracts 948.2. Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA.
Summary: NPY is a peptide implicated in the control of numerous physiological processes. A variety of G-protein coupled receptors, Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 mediate the actions of NPY. Recently a new immunotoxin, NPY-sap, has been developed that is potentially of great importance for the study of NPY function. NPY-sap is a conjugate of the peptide NPY and saporin, a plant toxin that inactivates ribosomes. The proposed mechanism of toxicity involves immunotoxin binding NPY receptors and destruction of neurons containing these receptors. In this study we injected different doses of NPY-sap or unconjugated saporin (sap) into the PVH to test the effects of this new toxin. We found that at low doses, there was no effect of NPY-sap on cytoarchitexture or immunoreactivity of select peptides in the PVH. There was also no difference in body weight between the groups. At high doses, there was histologically-detectable damage in the hypothalamus of NPY-sap animals. We also found a major difference in body weight between the NPY-sap rats and sap controls. Ten weeks after the injections, the NPY-sap rats (654.3g ± 39.04g) were much heavier than the sap rats (410.6g ± 15.29g). Further, daytime (0800 - 1700H) food intake was about twice as much in NPY-sap (9.53g ± 0.996g) as in sap (5.74g ± 0.476g) rats, with no difference in overnight (1700 - 0800H) feeding. Work is ongoing to determine the specificity of the lesion and the mechanism of action of NPY-sap.
Related Products: NPY-SAP (Cat. #IT-28)