Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP References

Cat #IT-12


Ahn J, Christy DJ, Horner K (2021) The Role of the Patch Compartment of Striatum in Reward-Driven Behaviors. Neuroscience 2021 Abstracts P747/06. Society for Neuroscience, Virtual


Eidson LN, Murphy AZ. Inflammatory mediators of opioid tolerance: Implications for dependency and addiction. (2019) Peptides 115:51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2019.01.003

Objective:  To determine what mediates opioid tolerance and alterations in glutamate homeostasis.
Summary:  Site-specific lesions of PAG MOR-containing neurons using Dermorphin-SAP significantly reduce the antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine suggesting that PAG MOR is critical for morphine action.
Dose:  Rats were injected with 3 pmol of Dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12) into the PAG. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control.  (See Loyd et al. J Neurosci 28(52):14007-14017, 2008.

Jenrette TA, Logue JB, Horner KA. Lesions of the Patch Compartment of Dorsolateral Striatum Disrupt Stimulus-Response Learning. (2019) Neuroscience 415:161-172. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.07.033

Objective:  To investigate whether enhanced activation of the patch compartment contributes to habitual behavior.
Summary:  The dorsolateral patch compartment may mediate habit formation by altering information flow through basal ganglia circuits.
Dose:  A volume of 2 ul of Dermorphin-SAP (17 ng/ul or an equivalent amount of unconjugated SAP (as a control) was infused bilaterally, at a rate of 0.5 ul/min.


Shumilov K, Real MÁ, Valderrama-Carvajal A, & Rivera A. Selective ablation of striatal striosomes produces the deregulation of dopamine nigrostriatal pathway. (2018). PLoS One, 13 (8):e0203135.

Objective:  To increase knowledge in the role of the striosomal projection onto the dopamine neurons of the SNc and its impact on the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway.
Summary:  Results highlight the key function of the striosomes for maintenance of the striatal dopamine tone and contribute to the understanding of their involvement in some neurological disorders such as Huntington’s disease.
Dose:  Unilateral intrastriatal 2-μl injections of Dermorphin-SAP (17 μg/μl in saline) were performed to induce the selective ablation of MOR-expressing neurons in the striosomal compartment.


Ye J-H, Fu R, He W. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus and alcohol addiction (2017) Oncotarget 8:18624-18625. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15822

Summary: The authors discuss their work with Dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12) and their demonstration that damage of RMTg MOR-expressing GABAergic neurons by Dermorphin-SAP increased the intake and preference for alcohol, boosted the expression and slowed down the extinction of alcohol conditioned place preference, and increased locomotion. Microinjection of DS into the RMTg substantially reduced the number of RMTg cells. Importantly, the rats that received DS injection elevated their alcohol intake and preference compared to those that received an injection of Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21), which did not cause neuronal damage.


Fu R, Chen X, Zuo W, Li J, Kang S, Zhou LH, Siegel A, Bekker A, Ye JH. (2016) Ablation of mu opioid receptor-expressing GABA neurons in rostromedial tegmental nucleus increases ethanol consumption and regulates ethanol-related behaviors. Neuropharmacology 107:58-67. PMID: 26921770 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Harasawa I, Johansen JP, Fields HL, Porreca F, Meng ID. (2016) Alterations in the rostral ventromedial medulla after the selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Pain 157(1):166-173. PMID: 26335909 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Horner KA, Murray R, Logan MC. (2016) Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce cocaine-induced repetitive behaviors. Targeting Trends 17(1).


Cetas J, McFarlane R, Kronfeld K, Smitasin P, Liu J, Raskin J. Brainstem opioidergic system is involved in early response to experimental SAH. (2015) Transl Stroke Res 6:140-147. doi: 10.1007/s12975-014-0378-2

Objective:  To determine the cause of poor long-term outcomes after Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).
Summary:  Failure of the RVM μ-opioid receptor cells to initiate the compensatory CBF response sets the stage for acute and delayed ischemic injury following SAH.
Dose:  To lesion medullary neurons expressing the μ-opioid receptor, Dermorphin–SAP was microinjected as a bilateral dose of 0.5 pmol in 500 nL per side (1 pmol in 1 μL total dose and injection volume). Blank–SAP or vehicle was injected in equal volumes and dose as controls.

Murray RC, Logan MC, Horner KA. (2015) Striatal patch compartment lesions reduce stereotypy following repeated cocaine administration. Brain Res Epub(Targeting Trends 15q3)

Navratilova E, Xie JY, Meske D, Qu C, Morimura K, Okun A, Arakawa N, Ossipov M, Fields HL, Porreca F. (2015) Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain. J Neurosci 35(18):7264-7271. PMID: 25948274 (Targeting Trends 16q1)


Carr FB, Geranton SM, Hunt SP. (2014) Descending controls modulate inflammatory joint pain and regulate CXC chemokine and iNOS expression in the dorsal horn. Mol Pain 10:39. (Targeting Trends 14q3)

Murray RC, Gilbert YE, Logan AS, Hebbard JC, Horner KA. (2014) Striatal patch compartment lesions alter methamphetamine-induced behavior and immediate early gene expression in the striatum, substantia nigra and frontal cortex. Brain Struct Funct 219(4):1213-1229. (Targeting Trends 13q3)


Sikandar S, Bannister K, Dickenson AH. Brainstem facilitations and descending serotonergic controls contribute to visceral nociception but not pregabalin analgesia in rats. ( 2012 ) Neurosci Lett  519(1):31-36 . doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.05.009

Summary: Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are classified as ON, OFF, or NEUTRAL based on firing patterns in response to noxious somatic stimulation. ON cells express μ-opioid receptors, and are therefore a target for dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12). The authors injected the RVM of rats with 3 pmol of dermorphin-SAP; Saporin (Cat. #PR-01) was used as a control. Results show the μ-opioid receptor population is not needed for the function of analgesics through the serotonergic system.


Reynolds J, Bilsky EJ, Meng ID. (2011) Selective ablation of mu-opioid receptor expressing neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla attenuates stress-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Life Sci 89(9-10):313-319. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


See: Society for Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts


Cao F, Chen SS, Yan XF, Xiao XP, Liu XJ, Yang SB, Xu AJ, Gao F, Yang H, Chen ZJ, Tian YK (2009) Evaluation of side effects through selective ablation of the mu opioid receptor expressing descending nociceptive facilitatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla with dermorphin-saporin. Neurotoxicology 30(6):1096-1106. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

Lawhorn C, Smith DM, Brown LL (2009) Partial ablation of mu-opioid receptor rich striosomes produces deficits on a motor-skill learning task. Neuroscience 163(1):109-119. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Zhang W, Gardell S, Zhang D, Xie JY, Agnes RS, Badghisi H, Hruby VJ, Rance N, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Porreca F, Lai J (2009) Neuropathic pain is maintained by brainstem neurons co-expressing opioid and cholecystokinin receptors. Brain 132:778-787. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts


Bee LA, Dickenson AH (2008) Descending facilitation from the brainstem determines behavioural and neuronal hypersensitivity following nerve injury and efficacy of pregabalin. Pain 140:209-223. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Kline RHt, Wiley RG (2008) Spinal mu-opioid receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception and morphine antinociception. J Neurosci 28:904-913. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Likhtik E. (2008) Selective lesions of amygdala intercalated neurons using the Dermorphin-SAP immunotoxin reveal their role in extinction of conditioned fear. Targeting Trends 9(4).

Likhtik E, Popa D, Apergis-Schoute J, Fidacaro GA, Pare D (2008) Amygdala intercalated neurons are required for expression of fear extinction. Nature 454(7204):642-645. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Loyd DR, Wang X, Murphy AZ (2008) Sex differences in micro-opioid receptor expression in the rat midbrain periaqueductal gray are essential for eliciting sex differences in morphine analgesia. J Neurosci 28:14007-14017. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2008 Abstracts


Shank EJ, Seitz PK, Bubar MJ, Stutz SJ, Cunningham KA (2007) Selective ablation of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area increases spontaneous locomotor activity. Behav Neurosci 121:1224-1233. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts


Vera-Portocarrero LP, Yie JX, Kowal J, Ossipov MH, King T, Porreca F (2006) Descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains visceral pain in rats with experimental pancreatitis. Gastroenterology 130(7):2155-164. (Targeting Trends 06q3)

Vera-Portocarrero LP, Zhang ET, Ossipov MH, Xie JY, King T, Lai J, Porreca F (2006) Descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains nerve injury-induced central sensitization. Neuroscience 140(4):1311-1320. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Wiley RG. (2006) Targeted Toxins in Pain. Targeting Trends 7(2).

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2006 Abstracts


Lappi DA (2005) Targeted Toxins from Here to There. Targeting Trends 6(3):1, 6.

Zhang RX, Wang L, Liu B, Qiao JT, Ren K, Berman BM, Lao L (2005) Mu opioid receptor-containing neurons mediate electroacupuncture-produced anti-hyperalgesia in rats with hind paw inflammation. Brain Res 1048(1-2):235-240. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2005 Abstracts


See also: Society for Neuroscience 2004 Abstracts


Gardell LR, Vanderah TW, Gardell SE, Wang R, Ossipov MH, Lai J, Porreca F (2003) Enhanced evoked excitatory transmitter release in experimental neuropathy requires descending facilitation. J Neurosci 23(23):8370-8379. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2003 Abstracts


Burgess SE, Gardell LR, Ossipov MH, Malan Jr TP, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Porreca F (2002) Time-dependent descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla maintains, but does not initiate, neuropathic pain. J Neurosci 22(12):5129-5136. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

Tokuno H, Chiken S, Kametani K, Moriizumi T (2002) Efferent projections from the striatal patch compartment: anterograde degeneration after selective ablation of neurons expressing mu-opioid receptor in rats. Neurosci Lett 332(1):5-8. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

See also: IASP 2002 Abstracts and Society for Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts


Lappi D. (2001) Dermorphin-SAP Kills MOR-Positive Cells. Targeting Trends 2(3).

Porreca F, Burgess SE, Gardell LR, Vanderah TW, Malan TP, Jr, Ossipov MH, Lappi DA, Lai J (2001) Inhibition of neuropathic pain by selective ablation of brainstem medullary cells expressing the m-opioid receptor. J Neurosci 21(14):5281-5288. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2001 Abstracts


Lappi DA, Wiley RG (2000) Entering through the doors of perception: characterization of a highly selective Substance P receptor-targeted toxin. Neuropeptides 34(5):323-328.


Attila M, Salvadori S, Balboni G, Bryant SD, Lazarus LH. Synthesis and receptor binding analysis of dermorphin hepta-, hexa- and pentapeptides. (1993) Int J Pept Prot Res 42:550-559. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3011.1993.tb00363.x


Montecucchi PC, de Castiglione R, Piani S, Gozzini L, Erspamer V. Amino acid composition and sequence of dermorphin, a novel opiate-like peptide from the skin of Phyllomedusa sauvagei. (1981) Int J Pept Prot Res 17(3):275-283. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3011.1981.tb01993.x