SSP-SAP References

Cat #IT-11, see also SP-SAP


Gross C (2021) PARVing the Way to Cap Translation for Seizure Control. Epilepsy Curr 21(5):360-362. doi: 10.1177/15357597211027010

Summary: Loss of GABAergic interneurons leads to spontaneous recurrent seizures that persist over months if the amount and spatial spread of initial inhibitory neuron loss is sufficient.

Dose: Intrahippocampal injections of SSP-SAP (0.4 ng/10 nL) were performed using a 0.5-μL Neuros Syringe lowered into four hippocampal sites along both the transverse and longitudinal hippocampal axes bilaterally.

See: Chun E et al. Targeted hippocampal GABA neuron ablation by Stable Substance P-saporin causes hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy in rats. Epilepsia 60(5):e52-e57, 2019.

Ming X, Prasad N, Thulasi V, Elkins K, Shivamurthy VKN (2021) Possible contribution of cerebellar disinhibition in epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 118:107944. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107944

Summary: The authors hypothesize that loss of inhibition from the cerebellum can lead to cortical activation and seizures. An animal study showed microinjection of SSP-SAP produced a selective ablation of hippocampal inhibitory interneurons in vivo and a highly focal disinhibition. These results also demonstrate that the ‘‘epileptic” pathophysiology produced by experimental status epilepticus or head trauma can be replicated by focal interneuron loss, without involving principal cell loss and other interpretive confounds inherent in the use of global neurologic injury models.
Dose: Work by Martin and Sloviter, 2001 is referenced.  Also see, Chun E, Bumanglag AV, Burke SN, Sloviter RS. Targeted hippocampal GABA neuron ablation by Stable Substance P-saporin causes hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy in rats. (2019) Epilepsia 60(5):e52-e57. doi: 10.1111/epi.14723


Chen X-J, & Sun Y-G. Central circuit mechanisms of itch. (2020) Nature Comm 11(1):3052. 10.1038/s41467-020-16859-5

Review: The authors summarize the progress in elucidating the neural circuit mechanism of itch at spinal and supraspinal levels.

Chun E (2020) Structural and Functional Consequences of Targeted Hippocampal Gaba Neuron Ablation by Stable Substance P-Saporin in Rats. Morehouse School of Medicine.

Summary: See: Chun E, Bumanglag AV, Burke SN, Sloviter RS. Targeted hippocampal GABA neuron ablation by Stable Substance P-saporin causes hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy in rats. (2019) Epilepsia 60(5):e52-e57. doi: 10.1111/epi.14723

Díaz HS, Andrade DC, Toledo C, Pereyra KV, Schwarz KG, Díaz-Jara E, Lucero C, Arce-Álvarez A, Schultz HD, Silva JN, Takakura AC, Moreira TS, Marcus NJ, Del Rio R. Episodic stimulation of central chemoreceptor neurons elicits disordered breathing and autonomic dysfunction in volume overload heart failure. (2020) Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 318(1):L27-L40. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00007.2019

Objective:  To determine the role of the central chemoreflex in the development of respiratory and autonomic dysfunction in volume overload heart failure (HF).
Summary:  Episodic hypercapnic stimulation triggers ventilatory plasticity and elicits cardiorespiratory  abnormalities in HF that are largely dependent on retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) chemoreceptor neurons.
Dose:  Bilateral injections of SSP-SAP, 0.6 ng/30 nL, into the RTN were administered to destroy chemoreceptor neurons.

Driessen AK, McGovern AE, Behrens R, Moe AAK, Farrell MJ, Mazzone SB (2020) A role for neurokinin 1 receptor expressing neurons in the paratrigeminal nucleus in bradykinin‐evoked cough in guinea‐pigs. J Physiol 598(11):2257-2275. doi: 10.1113/JP279644

Objective: This study aimed to assess the involvement of paratrigeminal neurokinin 1 receptor neurons in the regulation of cough, breathing and airway defensive  responses.
Summary: These findings warrant further investigations into targeting the jugular ganglia and paratrigeminal nucleus as a therapy for treating cough in disease.
Dose: Targeted toxin lesions across three sites of the paratrigeminal nucleus (200nl per injection site).


Acton D, Ren X, DiCostanzo S, Dalet A, Bourane S, Bertocchi I, Eva C, Goulding M. Spinal Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Form an Essential Excitatory Pathway for Mechanical Itch. (2019) Cell Reports, 28 (3):625-639.e6 . doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.06.033

Objective:  To determine the central pathway for mechanical itch.
Summary:  NPY-Y1 signaling regulates the transmission of innocuous tactile information by establishing biologically relevant thresholds for touch discrimination and mechanical itch reflexes.  neither the evoked nor spontaneous scratching seen following activation of Y1Cre neurons was affected by ablation of the GRPR+ neurons.  NK1R+ neuron ablation failed to modulate mechanically evoked itch.
Dose:  P28 mice were given a single intrathecal (i.t.) injection of either Bombesin-SAP (400 ng in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline) to ablate GRPR+ cells or SSP-SAP to ablate NK1r+ neurons (100 ng in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline). Littermate controls received Blank-SAP (equal mass in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline).

Araldi D, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. Role of Nociceptor Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Hyperalgesic Priming. (2019) J Neurosci 39(33):6414-6424. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0966-19.2019

Objective:  To evaluate the hypothesis that hyperalgesia and priming induced by opioids are mediated by similar nociceptor mechanisms.
Summary:  Treatment with isolectin B4 (IB4)-saporin or SSP-SAP (which deplete IB4+ and peptidergic nociceptors, respectively), or their combination, prevented systemic LDM-induced hyperalgesia, but not priming.  HDM-induced priming, but not analgesia, was markedly attenuated in both saporin-treated groups.
Dose:  IB4-SAP was diluted in saline and a dose of 3.2 μg in a volume of 20 μl administered intrathecally.  SSP-SAP was diluted in saline and a dose of 100 ng in a volume of 20 μl was administered intrathecally.

Chun E, Bumanglag AV, Burke SN, Sloviter RS. Targeted hippocampal GABA neuron ablation by Stable Substance P-saporin causes hippocampal sclerosis and chronic epilepsy in rats. (2019) Epilepsia 60(5):e52-e57. doi: 10.1111/epi.14723

Objective: Hippocampal GABA neurons were targeted for selective elimination to determine whether a focal hippocampal GABAergic defect in an otherwise normal brain can initiate cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.
Summary:  Hippocampal GABAergic dysfunction is epileptogenic and can produce the defining features of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy.
Dose:  Intrahippocampal injections of SSP-SAP (0.4 ng/10 nL) were performed using a 0.5-μL Neuros Syringe lowered into four hippocampal sites along both the transverse and longitudinal hippocampal axes bilaterally.

Díaz HS, Andrade DC, Toledo C, Lucero C, Arce-Álvarez A, Del Rio R. Episodic stimulation of central chemoreflex elicits long-term breathing disorders and autonomic imbalance in heart failure rats. (2019) Eur Respir J, 54 (suppl 63):OA4936. doi: 10.1183/13993003.congress-2019.OA4936

Objective: To determine the role of CC in the development of cardiorespiratory dysfunction in a HF model.
Summary: Rats were exposed to pisodic hypercapnic stimulation (EHS) The effects of EHS in rats with heart failure were attenuated by SSP-SAP treatment.
Dose: Selective destruction of chemoreceptor neurons within the retrotapezoid nucleus (RTN) was performed via SSP-SAP injections (0.6 ng/30 nL).

Guyenet PG, Stornetta RL, Souza GMPR, Abbott SBG, Shi Y, Bayliss DA.. The Retrotrapezoid Nucleus: Central Chemoreceptor and Regulator of Breathing Automaticity. (2019) Trends Neurosci 42(11):807-824. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2019.09.002

Summary:  This review describes the neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), their transcriptome, developmental lineage, and anatomical projections.  The authors also review their contribution to CO2 homeostasis and to the regulation of breathing automaticity during sleep and wake.
Dose:  Local injection of SSP-SAP to kill RTN neurons.

Souza G, Stornetta R, Stornetta D, Abbott S, Guyenet P. Contribution of retrotrapezoid nucleus and carotid bodies to asphyxia‐induced arousal in rats. (2019) FASEB J, 33 (S1):733.6. doi: 10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.733.6

Objective: To determine whether the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is implicated in CO2-induced arousal.
Summary: The authors confirm the importance of the CBs to hypoxia-induced arousal and demonstrate that arousal to hypercapnia is selectively reduced after RTN lesion.
Dose: RTN was nearly completely destroyed with microinjections of SSP-SAP (2.4 ng).

Souza GMPR, Stornetta RL, Stornetta DS, Abbott SBG, Guyenet PG. Contribution of the Retrotrapezoid Nucleus and Carotid Bodies to Hypercapnia- and Hypoxia-induced Arousal from Sleep. (2019) J Neurosci 39(49):9725-9737. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1268-19.2019

Objective: To examine the contribution of two lower brainstem nuclei that could be implicated in CO2 and hypoxia-induced arousal.
Summary:  RTN, a brainstem nucleus that mediates the effect of brain acidification on breathing, also contributes to arousal elicited by CO2 but not hypoxia.
Dose:  To ablate the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), SSP-SAP was administered (2.4 ng) through bilateral injections via a dorsal craniotomy.

Wercberger R, Basbaum AI. Spinal cord projection neurons: a superficial, and also deep, analysis. (2019) Curr Opin Physiol 11:109-115. doi: 10.1016/j.cophys.2019.10.002

Summary:  Modern approaches to map complex neural circuits require knowledge of the molecular language that defines cell type specificity.  However, with few exceptions, NK1R remains the marker consistently used to define projection neurons and even to interrogate their contribution to pain and itch:
   (Mantyh et al., 1997, Science 278:275–279.)  The first of two studies demonstrating that SP-SAP-mediated ablation of dorsal horn NK1R-expressing neurons reduces injury-induced hyperalgesia.
   (Carstens et al. 2010, Neuroreport. 21:303–308.)  In this paper SP-SAP-mediated ablation of dorsal horn NK1R-expressing neurons reduced pruritogen-evoked scratching.


Araldi D, Ferrari LF, & Levine JD. Role of Gpcr (Mu-Opioid)-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (Epidermal Growth Factor) Crosstalk in Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesic Priming (Type Ii). (2018). Pain 2018/02/16.

Objective:  To determine the the mechanisms mediating the induction of opioid-induced hyperalgesia and the prolongation of prostaglandinE2-induced hyperalgesia in type II hyperalgesic priming.
Summary:  Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the induction of type II hyperalgesic priming, a form of neuroplasticity in the peripheral terminal of the primary afferent nociceptor, may provide useful information for the design of drugs with improved therapeutic profiles to treat neuroplasticity induced by chronic use of opioids.
Dose:  SSP-SAP was prepared in saline (5 ng/mL), and 20 mL was injected intrathecally into rats, 14 days before nociceptive tests.

Ferrari LF, Khomula EV, Araldi D, Levine JD. CD44 Signaling Mediates High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan-Induced Antihyperalgesia. (2018) J Neurosci 38(2):308-321. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2695-17.2017

Objective:  To study the role of  the cognate hyaluronan receptor, CD44, signaling in anti-hyperalgesia induced by high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMWH).
Summary:    These results demonstrate the central role of CD44 signaling in HMWH-induced anti-hyperalgesia, and establish it as a therapeutic target against inflammatory and neuropathic pain.
Dose:  Both IB4-SAP and SSP-SAP were diluted in saline to doses previously shown to deplete nonpeptidergic (3.2 mcg/rat for IB4-SAP) and peptidergic (100 ng/rat for SSP-SAP) fibers.  The toxins were administered intrathecally, in a volume of 20 mcl, 14 d before intradermal injection of LMWH on the dorsum of the hindpaw.  Treatment with either conjugate, or a combination of the two, did not significantly affect mechanical nociceptive threshold.

Lénárd L, László K, Kertes E, Ollmann T, Péczely L, Kovács A, Kállai V, Zagorácz O, Gálosi R, Karádi Z.  (2018) Substance P and neurotensin in the limbic system: Their roles in reinforcement and memory consolidation. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 85:1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.09.003

Summary: A specific neurotoxin, SSP-SAP can cause selective ablation of NK1 receptor expressing cells. This lesion in the BLA of rats resulted in anxiogenic effect, while in the CeA had no effect in EPM test (Truitt et al., 2009).

Souza G, Kanbar R, Stornetta DS, Abbott SBG, Stornetta RL, & Guyenet PG. Breathing Regulation and Blood Gas Homeostasis after near Complete Lesions of the Retrotrapezoid Nucleus in Adult Rats. (2018). J Physiol2018/04/19.

Objective:  To test how important the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake.
Summary:  Near complete RTN destruction in rats virtually eliminates the CRC but HVR persists and sighing and the state-dependence of breathing are unchanged. Under normoxia, RTN lesions cause no change in VE but alveolar ventilation is reduced by at least 21%, probably because of increased physiological dead volume. RTN lesions do not cause sleep apnea during SWS, even under hyperoxia.
Dose:  A total of 6 microinjections (120 nl/injection; 3 rostrocaudally aligned injections per side) were made 100-200 μm below the lower edge of the facial motor nucleus 2 mm lateral to the midline.  Experimental rats received either 0.6 ng, 1.2 ng, or 2.4 ng of SSP-SAP per injection.

Strichartz G, Khasabov S, Barr T, Wang J, & Simone D. Modulation of chronic post-thoracotomy pain by NK-1 neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla is not paralleled by changes spinal MAPKinase activation. (2018) J Pain, 19 (3):S14.. doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2017.12.065

Objective:  To evaluate SSP-SAP in treatment of tactile hypersensitivity for Chronic Post-Thoractotomy Pain (CPTP).
Summary:  SSP-SAP 3 weeks before thoracotomy and rib retraction (TRR) was able to completely prevent CPTP, assayed by tactile hypersensitivity.
Dose:  Ablation of Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)- expressing neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), by micro-injection of the specific neurotoxin SSP-SAP.

Vetter I. Toxins in Neurobiology: New tools from old molecules. (2018) Neurosci Lett 679:1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.05.008

Review Editorial: The selective ablation of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons by SP-SAP revealed a key role for the preBötzinger complex in the generation of respiratory rhythm.  Toxin-mediated neuronal ablation may also find therapeutic applications, such as the treatment of severe refractory pain in terminally ill patients by intrathecal SP-SAP which causes selective loss of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn.


Fu C, Xue J, Wang R, Chen J, Ma L, Liu Y, Wang X, Guo F, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Wang S. (2017) Chemosensitive Phox2b-Expressing Neurons Are Crucial for Hypercapnic Ventilatory Response in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius. J Physiol 595(14):4973-89. PMID: 28488367

Dose:   Two protocols were applied for SSP-SAP injections.  In immunostaining experiments, to determine how many Phox2b-containing cells were destroyed, a total volume of 100 nl of PBS containing 6 ng of SSP-SAP (3 ng in 50 nl; 2 injections) was injected into one side of the NTS and the contralateral NTS was used as a control (no injection).  For in vivo experiments, to determine whether loss of Phox2b cells led to impaired HCVR, bilateral injections with a total volume of 200 nl of PBS containing 6 ng (1.5 ng in 50 nl per injection; 2 injections per side) or 12 ng (3 ng in 50 nl per injection; two injections per side) of toxin into NTS.  Breathing was studied in conscious, freely moving mice treated with SSP-SAP and Blank-SAP.
Objective:  To investigate whether paired-like homeobox 2b  (Phox2b)-expressing NTS neurons are recruited in hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR)  and whether these neurons exhibit intrinsic chemosensitivity.
Summary:  Respiratory deficits caused by injection of SSP-SAP into the NTS are attributable to proportional lesions of CO2/H+-sensitive Phox2b-expressing neurons.

Yaksh TL, Fisher C, Hockman T, Wiese A. (2017) Current and Future Issues in the development of spinal agents for the management of pain. Curr Neuropharmacol 15(2):232-259. PMID: 26861470 (Targeting Trends 16q2)


Araldi D, Ferrari LF, Levine JD. (2016) Gi-Protein Coupled 5-HT1B/D Receptor Agonist Sumatriptan Induces Type I Hyperalgesic Priming. Pain 157(8):1773-82.PMID: 27075428 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Gritsch S, Bali KK, Kuner R, Vardeh D. (2016) Functional characterization of a mouse model for central post-stroke pain. Molecular Pain 12:1744806916629049. PMID: (Targeting Trends 16q3)


Akiyama T, Nguyen T, Curtis E, Nishida K, Devireddy J, Delahanty J, Carstens MI, Carstens E. (2015) A central role for spinal dorsal horn neurons that express neurokinin-1 receptors in chronic itch. Pain 156(7):1240-1246. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Kras JV, Weisshaar CL, Pall PS, Winkelstein BA. (2015) Pain from intra-articular NGF or joint injury in the rat requires contributions from peptidergic joint afferents. Neurosci Lett 604:193-198. PMID: 26240991 (Targeting Trends 15q4)


Cordier D, Gerber A, Kluba C, Bauman A, Hutter G, Mindt TL, Mariani L. (2014) Expression of Different Neurokinin-1 Receptor (NK1R) Isoforms in Glioblastoma Multiforme: Potential Implications for Targeted Therapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 29(5):221-226. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Feetham CH, Barrett-Jolley R. (2014) NK1-receptor-expressing paraventricular nucleus neurones modulate daily variation in heart rate and stress-induced changes in heart rate variability. PHY2 2(12):e12207. (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Takakura AC, Barna BF, Cruz JC, Colombari E, Moreira TS. (2014) Phox2b-expressing retrotrapezoid neurons and the integration of central and peripheral chemosensory control of breathing in conscious rats. Exp Physiol 99(3):571-585. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. (2014) Ablating Spinal NK1-Bearing Neurons Eliminates the Development of Pain and Reduces Spinal Neuronal Hyperexcitability and Inflammation From Mechanical Joint Injury in the Rat. J Pain 15(4):378-386. (Targeting Trends 14q2)


Fricks-Gleason AN, Keefe KA. (2013) Evaluating the Role of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-Containing Striatal Interneurons in Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine Neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res 24(2):288-297. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Khasabov SG, Simone DA. (2013) Loss of neurons in rostral ventromedial medulla that express neurokinin-1 receptors decreases the development of hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 250C:151-165. (Targeting Trends 13q4)

Talman WT, Lin LH. (2013) Sudden death following selective neuronal lesions in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii. Auton Neurosci 175(1-2):9-16. (Targeting Trends 13q2)


Abbott SB, Kanbar R, Bochorishvili G, Coates MB, Stornetta RL, Guyenet PG. (2012) C1 neurons excite locus coeruleus and A5 noradrenergic neurons along with sympathetic outflow in rats. J Physiol 590(12):2897-2915. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

Choi JI, Koehrn FJ, Sorkin LS. (2012) Carrageenan induced phosphorylation of Akt is dependent on neurokinin-1 expressing neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. Mol Pain 8(1):4. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Coolen LM. (2012) A pivotal role of lumbar spinothalamic cells in regulation of ejaculation via intraspinal connections. Targeting Trends 13(3).

Lin LH, Nitschke Dragon D, Talman WT. (2012) Collateral damage and compensatory changes after injection of a toxin targeting neurons with the neurokinin-1 receptor in the nucleus tractus solitarii of rat. J Chem Neuroanat 43(2):141-148. (Targeting Trends 13q2)

Mishra SK, Holzman S, Hoon MA. (2012) A nociceptive signaling role for neuromedin B. J Neurosci 32(25):8686-8695. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Staudt MD, Truitt WA, McKenna KE, de Oliveira CV, Lehman MN, Coolen LM. (2012) A Pivotal Role of Lumbar Spinothalamic Cells in the Regulation of Ejaculation via Intraspinal Connections. J Sex Med 9(9):2256-2265. (Targeting Trends 12q2)


King T, Porreca F. (2011) Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Targeting Trends 12(4).

King T, Qu C, Okun A, Mercado R, Ren J, Brion T, Lai J, Porreca F.  (2011) Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Pain 152(9):1997-2005. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.04.020

Larsson M, Broman J. (2011) Synaptic plasticity and pain: role of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Neuroscientist 17(3):256-273. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

Sorkin LS, Choi J-I, Koehrn FJ. (2011) Carrageenan evoked P-Akt in deep dorsal horn neurons is prevented by loss of neurokinin1 positive neurons in superficial dorsal horn. Targeting Trends 12(2).

Wang Y, Mu X, Liu Y, Zhang X, Wu A, Yue Y (2011) NK-1-receptor-mediated lesion of spinal post-synaptic dorsal column neurons might improve intractable visceral pain of cancer origin. Med Hypotheses 76(1):102-104. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Wilkinson KA, Fu Z, Powell FL. (2011) Ventilatory Effects of Substance P-Saporin Lesions in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Chronically Hypoxic Rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(2):R343-50. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


Zipancic I, Calcagnotto ME, Piquer-Gil M, Mello LE, Alvarez-Dolado M (2010) Transplant of GABAergic precursors restores hippocampal inhibitory function in a mouse model of seizure susceptibility. Cell Transplant 19(5):549-564. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts


Nayate A, Moore SA, Weiss R, Taktakishvili OM, Lin LH, Talman WT (2009) Cardiac damage after lesions of the nucleus tractus solitarii. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R272-279. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Ray AP, Chebolu S, Ramirez J, Darmani NA (2009) Ablation of least shrew central neurokinin NK1 receptors reduces GR73632-induced vomiting. Behav Neurosci 123:701-706. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Truitt WA, Johnson PL, Dietrich AD, Fitz SD, Shekhar A (2009) Anxiety-like behavior is modulated by a discrete subpopulation of interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience 160:284-294. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Young B, Coolen L, McKenna K (2009) Neural regulation of ejaculation. J Sex Med 6 Suppl 3:229-233. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Zhu J, Xu W, Wang J, Ali SF, Angulo JA (2009) The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice. J Neurochem 111(3):656-668. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts


Darmani NA, Wang Y, Abad J, Ray AP, Thrush GR, Ramirez J (2008) Utilization of the least shrew as a rapid and selective screening model for the antiemetic potential and brain penetration of substance P and NK1 receptor antagonists. Brain Res 1214:58-72. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Takakura AC, Moreira TS, Stornetta RL, West GH, Gwilt JM, Guyenet PG (2008) Selective lesion of retrotrapezoid Phox2b-expressing neurons raises the apneic threshold in rats. J Physiol 586:2975-2991. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Wiley RG (2008) Substance P receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Lessons from the targeted cytotoxin, substance P-saporin. Pain 136:7-10. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2008 Abstracts


Truitt WA, Sajdyk TJ, Dietrich AD, Oberlin B, McDougle CJ, Shekhar A (2007) From anxiety to autism: spectrum of abnormal social behaviors modeled by progressive disruption of inhibitory neuronal function in the basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191(1):107-118. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Wiley RG, Kline RHt, Vierck CJ, Jr. (2007) Anti-nociceptive effects of selectively destroying substance P receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons using [Sar(9),Met(O(2))(11)]-substance P-saporin: Behavioral and anatomical analyses. Neuroscience 146:1333-1345. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts


Nattie E, Li A (2006) Neurokinin-1 receptor expressing neurons in the ventral medulla are essential for normal central and peripheral chemoreception in the conscious rat. J Appl Physiol 101(6):1596-1606. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Wiley RG. (2006) Targeted Toxins in Pain. Targeting Trends 7(2).

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2006 Abstracts


Lappi DA (2005) Targeted Toxins from Here to There. Targeting Trends 6(3):1, 6.

Seki S, Erickson KA, Seki M, Nishizawa O, Igawa Y, Ogawa T, de Groat WC, Chancellor MB, Yoshimura N (2005) Elimination of rat spinal neurons expressing neurokinin 1 receptors reduces bladder overactivity and spinal c-fos expression induced by bladder irritation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288(3):F466-F473. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2005 Abstracts


Yezierski RP, Yu CG, Mantyh PW, Vierck CJ, Lappi DA (2004) Spinal neurons involved in the generation of at-level pain following spinal injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett 361(1-3):232-236. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2004 Abstracts


Stornetta RL, Rosin DL, Wang H, Sevigny CP, Weston MC, Guyenet PG (2003) A group of glutaminergic interneurons expressing high levels of both neurokinin-1 receptors and somatostatin identifies the region of the pre-Bštzinger complex. J Comp Neurol 455(4):499-512. (Targeting Trends 03q2)

Truitt W. (2003) Deep Lumbar Neurons Control Ejaculation. Targeting Trends 4(1).

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2003 Abstracts


Truitt WA, Coolen LM (2002) Identification of a potential ejaculation generator in the spinal cord. Science 297(5586):1566-1569. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Wang H, Germanson TP, Guyenet PG (2002) Depressor and tachypneic responses to chemical stimulation of the ventral respiratory group are reduced by ablation of neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons. J Neurosci 22(9): 3755-3764. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

See also: IASP 2002 Abstracts and Society for Neuroscience 2002 Abstracts


Hunt SP, Mantyh PW (2001) The molecular dynamics of pain control. Nature Rev/Neurosci 2:83-91. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Martin JL, Sloviter RS (2001) Focal Inhibitory Interneuron Loss and Principal Cell Hyperexcitability in the Rat Hippocampus After Microinjection of a Neurotoxic Conjugate of Saporin and a Peptidase-Resistant Analog of Substance P. Journal Comp Neurol 436:127-152. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Sloviter R. (2001) Immunolesioning Hippocampal Inhibitory Interneurons. Targeting Trends 2(4).

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2001 Abstracts


See also: Society for Neuroscience 2000 Abstracts


Wiley RG, Lappi DA (1999) Targeting neurokinin-1 receptor-expressing neurons with [Sar9, Met(O2)11] substance P-saporin. Neurosci Lett 277(1):1-4.