OX7-SAP References

OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) – discontinued

38 entries found for : it-02

In vivo effects in mice of an anti-T cell immunotoxin.

Marcucci F, Lappi DA, Ghislieri M, Martineau D, Siena S, Bregni M, Soria M, Gianni AM (1989) In vivo effects in mice of an anti-T cell immunotoxin. J Immunol 142:2955-2960.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Reversal of object recognition memory deficit in perirhinal cortex-lesioned rats and primates and in rodent models of aging and alzheimer’s diseases.

Masmudi-Martín M, Navarro-Lobato I, López-Aranda MF, Browning PGF, Simón A-M, López-Téllez JF, Jiménez-Recuerda I, Martîn-Montañez E, Pérez-Mediavilla A, Frechilla D, Baxter MG, Khan ZU (2020) Reversal of object recognition memory deficit in perirhinal cortex-lesioned rats and primates and in rodent models of aging and alzheimer's diseases. Neuroscience 448:287-298. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.08.039

Objective: To determine if Object Recognition Memory (ORM) can be restored.

Summary: Memory-deficient rats were generated by induction of lesions to the perirhinal cortex (PRh) through an injection of OX7-SAP. Expression of regulator of G-protein signaling 14 of 414 amino acids (RGS14414) restored ORM in memory-deficient PRh-lesioned rats and nonhuman primates. This treatment was sufficient for full recovery of ORM in rodent models of aging and Alzheimer’s disease.

Usage: Rats were injected with OX7-SAP (0.9 mg in 1ml) in the PRh of the brain.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

RGS14414 treatment induces memory enhancement and rescues episodic memory deficits.

Masmudi‐Martin M, Navarro‐Lobato I, López‐Aranda MF, Delgado G, Martín‐Montañez E, Quiros‐Ortega ME, Carretero‐Rey M, Narváez L, Garcia‐Garrido MF, Posadas S, López‐Téllez JF, Blanco E, Jiménez‐Recuerda I, Granados‐Durán P, Paez‐Rueda J, López JC and Khan ZU (2019) RGS14414 treatment induces memory enhancement and rescues episodic memory deficits. FASEB J 33:11804-11820. doi: 10.1096/fj.201900429RR

Objective: To investigate the effect of the promotion of neuronal arborization through the expression of the regulator of G-protein signaling 14 of 414 amino acids (RGS14414).

Summary: In addition to showing the potential of RGS14414 for rescuing memory deficits, our results suggest that a boost in circuit activity could facilitate memory enhancement and the reversal of memory deficits.

Usage: 0.9 mg in 1 ml was injected into the PRh.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. IT-02)

Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: twenty years of research and new directions.

Baxter MG, Bucci DJ (2013) Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: twenty years of research and new directions. Behav Neurosci 127(5):611-618 . doi: 10.1037/a0033781

Summary: This review covers twenty years of basal forebrain cholinergic lesioning. The initial use of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) is discussed, as well as other immunotoxins such as GAT-1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32) and OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02). The findings generated by the use of 192-IgG-SAP and how those data have helped forward the understanding of how the cholinergic system functions in the basal forebrain are detailed. The authors also discuss new directions in the field.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), GAT1-SAP (Cat. #IT-32)

Cutting Edge: memory regulatory t cells require IL-7 and not IL-2 for their maintenance in peripheral tissues.

Gratz IK, Truong HA, Yang SH, Maurano MM, Lee K, Abbas AK, Rosenblum MD (2013) Cutting Edge: memory regulatory t cells require IL-7 and not IL-2 for their maintenance in peripheral tissues. J Immunol 190(9):4483-4487. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300212

Summary: Recently a new class of regulatory T cells (mTregs) were found that persist in non-lymphoid tissues and are involved in suppressing autoimmune responses. In order to examine the roles that IL-2 and IL-7 play in the development and regulation of mTregs, the authors used genetic deletion, adoptive T-cell transfer, and in vivo neutralization techniques. 5 μg of intravenous OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) per mouse was used to deplete CD90.1-positive cells during the adoptive transfer experiment. It was found that IL-7 is essential for the steady-state maintenance of mTregs in skin.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Chronic treadmill exercise in rats delicately alters the Purkinje cell structure to improve motor performance and toxin resistance in the cerebellum.

Huang TY, Lin LS, Cho KC, Chen SJ, Kuo YM, Yu L, Wu FS, Chuang JI, Chen HI, Jen CJ (2012) Chronic treadmill exercise in rats delicately alters the Purkinje cell structure to improve motor performance and toxin resistance in the cerebellum. J Appl Physiol 113(6):889-895. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01363.2011

Summary: It is known that exercise can improve motor performance, but the cellular changes that occur in the cerebellum in response to exercise are not understood. Rats were subject to exercise training and a rotarod test was used to evaluate performance. After training some animals were given a 2 μg injection of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) into the lateral ventricle. In sedentary rats OX7-SAP administration reduced rotarod performance as well as eliminated 60% of Purkinjie cells. Rats given exercise training exhibited much milder injury in the cerebellum as a result of the lesion and maintained a higher level of rotarod performance than the sedentary group.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Intraneural OX7-saporin for neuroma-in-continuity in a rat model.

Mavrogenis AF, Pavlakis K, Stamatoukou A, Papagelopoulos PJ, Theoharis S, Zetahang Z, Soucacos PN, Zoubos AB (2013) Intraneural OX7-saporin for neuroma-in-continuity in a rat model. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 23(3):263-272. doi: 10.1007/s00590-012-0996-x

Summary: The authors created a model of neuroma-in-continuity to explore the effect of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) on the neuroma. The left common peroneal, tibial or sciatic nerves were crushed, then at three and six weeks, the nerve cut distal to the site of nerve crush. Pressure microinjection of 2 μl of natural saline or 2 μl of the OX7-SAP was done at the nerve stump 2 days later. Sacrifice was done after 3 weeks. In all control specimens a neuroma-in-continuity was observed. In 19 of the 24 OX7-SAP specimens, histology showed inhibition of neuroma-in-continuity formation.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

The cerebellum harbors a circadian oscillator involved in food anticipation.

Mendoza J, Pevet P, Felder-Schmittbuhl MP, Bailly Y, Challet E (2010) The cerebellum harbors a circadian oscillator involved in food anticipation. J Neurosci 30:1894-1904. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5855-09.2010

Summary: The authors report on a circadian oscillator in the cerebellum that is sensitive to feeding cues. Mice received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.12, 0.25, or 0.50 µg of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02). Lesioned animals displayed attenuated food-anticipatory activity, and less locomotor activity after fasting, indicating that Purkinje cells in the cerebellum are involved in the circadian connection to feeding.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate.

Bukowski RK, Duffy TE, Ryu V, Covasa M, Czaja K, Ritter RC (2009) Attenuated CCK-induced satiation and increased weight gain following destruction of abdominal vagal afferents by intravagal OX7-saporin conjugate. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 870.5/DD2. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy attenuates reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK) and other GI satiation signals. However, abdominal vagotomy also is associated with mild to moderate reductions of food intake and body weight gain. These sequels of vagotomy may be due to surgical trauma, gastroesphageal dysmotility or, perhaps, hypersensitivity of residual or regenerating afferent vagal fibers and terminals. In an attempt to selectively destroy the abdominal vagal afferents and their cell bodies, we injected the abdominal vagal trunks with OX7-saporin (OX7), a conjugate of the ribosomal toxin, saporin, and a monoclonal antibody against Thy1. This conjugate has been shown to destroy vagal afferent cell bodies in the ipsilateral nodose ganglion following unilateral injection into a cervical vagal trunk. In our study rats received an IP injection of fast blue (FB) which retrogradely labeled cell bodies of abdominal vagal afferents, enabling us to verify their destruction. OX7 was injected into both dorsal and ventral abdominal vagal trunks using a picospritzer and capillary pipettes. Beginning two weeks after OX7, the rats were tested for reduction of food intake by IP injection of CCK-8 (4ug/kg). Subsequently, nodose ganglia from the treated rats and their controls were examined to determine the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons remaining in the ganglia. Successful destruction of nodose neurons varied between animals. However, in OX7-treated rats the number of FB-labeled nodose neurons was reduced by approximately 60%, compared to vehicle injected controls. While CCK injection significantly reduced food intake in control rats, CCK-induced reduction of intake by the OX7 treated group was significantly attenuated. Interestingly, the OX7-treated rats did not exhibit the chronically reduced body weight that is typical of surgically vagotomized rats. In fact OX7 rats actually gained more weight than control rats over the 30 period following vagal injections. Our data indicate that immunotoxic destruction of the abdominal vagal innervation mimics surgical vagotomy in its attenuation of CCK-induced satiation, but does not cause sustained reduction of body weight.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance.

Huang T-Y, Lin L-S, Chen H-I, Jen C (2009) Chronic treadmill exercise improves cerebellar functions: Alterations in mitochondrial protein expression, rotarod performance, and toxin resistance. Neuroscience 2009 Abstracts 660.18/CC34. Society for Neuroscience, Chicago, IL.

Summary: The effects of exercise on cerebellar functions were studied. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into exercise and sedentary groups. For exercise groups, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of treadmill exercise at moderate intensity. In some groups, rats were administered with OX7-saporin, a cerebellar Purkinje cell toxin, into the lateral ventricle during the 5th week of training. At the end of training period, they were tested for rotarod performance. Brain tissues were obtained for measurement of mitochondria-related protein, including Mfn2, OPA1, Drp1 and CcOx-IV. The morphology of Purkinje cells was also examined by two photon microscopy. Our results showed that exercise training improve rotarod performance, and increased cerebellar protein levels of Mfn2 and OPA1 (mitochondrial fusion proteins) but not Drp1 (mitochondrial fission protein) or CcOx-IV (a mitochondrial complex IV marker). The dendritic field of Purkinje cells was significant modified in exercise groups. OX7-saporin application impaired the rotarod performance and decreased cerebellar Purkinje cell number only in sedentary rats. In summary, chronic exercise enlarged dendritic field of Purkinje cells and improved cerebellar function, including the rotarod performance, the mitochondrial fusion protein expression, and the resistance to toxin insult.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Role of layer 6 of V2 visual cortex in object-recognition memory.

Lopez-Aranda MF, Lopez-Tellez JF, Navarro-Lobato I, Masmudi-Martin M, Gutierrez A, Khan ZU (2009) Role of layer 6 of V2 visual cortex in object-recognition memory. Science 325:87-89. doi: 10.1126/science.1170869

Summary: The authors examined the role of the V2 visual cortex in visual memory. Working with the prediction that object-recognition memory (ORM) control is centered in the V2 visual cortex, rats received 0.9 µg injections of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) into this area. Treatment with OX7-SAP eliminated virtually all neurons in layer 6 of area V2 of the visual cortex without damaging the hippocampus. The results indicate that this area of the visual cortex is important for ORM formation, but not storage.

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Recent progress in research on ribosome inactivating proteins.

Ng TB, Wong JH, Wang H (2009) Recent progress in research on ribosome inactivating proteins. Curr Protein Pept Sci 1323:94-108. doi: 10.2174/138920310790274662

Summary: This review discusses recent literature on ribosome inactivating proteins including the use of saporin-based conjugates in neuroscience and cancer research. Brief descriptions of research done using 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12), anti-SERT-SAP (Cat. #IT-23), SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11), anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14), and other conjugates are provided along with basic information about ribosome inactivating proteins.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12), Anti-SERT-SAP (Cat. #IT-23), SSP-SAP (Cat. #IT-11), Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14)

Inhibition within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ameliorates environmental exploration deficits due to cerebellum lesions in an animal model for autism.

Walker BR, Diefenbach KS, Parikh TN (2007) Inhibition within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ameliorates environmental exploration deficits due to cerebellum lesions in an animal model for autism. Behav Brain Res 176(1):109-120. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2006.08.008

Summary: In this work the authors use environmental exploration deficits in rats as a model for autism. Animals received 2 µg of either OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) or 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) into each ventricle. Only the OX7-SAP treated rats displayed a reduction in exploration behavior, and the anticonvulsant muscimol restored exploration behavior to control levels. This system may have use in controlling behavior deficits seen in autism.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer’s Disease: Effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats.

Traissard N, Herbeaux K, Cosquer B, Jeltsch H, Ferry B, Galani R, Pernon A, Majchrzak M, Cassel JC (2007) Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer's Disease: Effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 32(4):851-871. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1301116

Summary: Two characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are cholinergic dysfunction in the basal forebrain, and neuronal damage in the entorhinal cortex. Using 5 µg intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), and 2.3 µg icv injections of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), locomotor activity, working, and reference memory of rats were examined. Although 192-IgG-SAP lesions caused limited deficits, rats receiving both lesions exhibited several behaviors associated with AD. The authors suggest that combining these lesions may be a more accurate model for AD than 192-IgG-SAP alone.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Purkinje cell loss by OX7-saporin impairs acquisition and extinction of eyeblink conditioning.

Nolan BC, Freeman JH (2006) Purkinje cell loss by OX7-saporin impairs acquisition and extinction of eyeblink conditioning. Learn Mem 13(3):359-365. doi: 10.1101/lm.168506

Summary: Adaptive adjustments to movements depend on cerebellar learning. This work examines the effect of a global depletion of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex on delay eyeblink conditioning in rats. 15 µg of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) was infused into the left lateral ventricle 2 weeks prior to training. Purkinje cell loss in the anterior lobe and lobule HVI correlated with impaired acquisition and extinction of delay eyeblink conditioning, indicating an important role for these cells.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Purkinje cell loss by OX7-saporin impairs excitatory and inhibitory eyeblink conditioning.

Nolan BC, Freeman JH Jr (2005) Purkinje cell loss by OX7-saporin impairs excitatory and inhibitory eyeblink conditioning. Behav Neurosci 119(1):190-201. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.119.1.190

Summary: Although the contributions of the cortical cerebellum to eyeblink-conditioned excitation have been extensively investigated, involvement in inhibition of this reflex is unclear. After intracerebroventricular infusions of 15.0 µg of OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), rats displayed impaired retention and savings of preinfusion excitatory conditioning, indicating that the Purkinje cells that were eliminated by OX7-SAP are essential for maintenance of excitatory eyeblink conditioning. Inhibition is not prevented by loss of these Purkinje cells, suggesting that extracerebellar structures play a critical role in this process.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Loss of cortical acetylcholine enhances amphetamine-induced locomotor activity.

Mattsson A, Pernold K, Ogren SO, Olson L (2004) Loss of cortical acetylcholine enhances amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. Neuroscience 127(3):579-591. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.05.038

Summary: The authors have recently shown that cholinergic denervation of the basal forebrain in rats leads to an increased motor response to d-amphetamine, a hallmark of schizophrenia. In the present study 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) was injected into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis or the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca, and OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) was injected intracerebroventricularly. The dopaminergic hyper-reactivity was induced by lesions to the cortex cerebri, but not by damage to the cerebellum or hippocampus.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Inhibition within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ameliorates social deficits due to specific acetylcholine (ACh) or Purkinje cell lesions

Parikh T, Lee S, Walker BR (2003) Inhibition within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ameliorates social deficits due to specific acetylcholine (ACh) or Purkinje cell lesions. Neuroscience 2003 Abstracts 423.18. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: Previously, we demonstrated that enhancement of GABA transmission, or blockade of ionotropic glutamate within rat brainstem structures, which mediate limbic-motor seizure control, attenuated behavioral deficits, which were similar to those seen in human patients with autism, due to developmental cerebellum lesions. Evidence suggests that within autism spectrum disorders, there is a decrease in cholinergic neurons in the forebrain and/or a loss of purkinje cells in the cerebellum which might account for these behavioral deficits. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that specific lesions to the rat ACh system or reduction of purkinje cells in the rat cerebellum would lead to specific alterations of social behavior. Furthermore, alterations in GABA and glutamate transmission within the NTS would correct these social deficits. We examined the effect of ACh or purkinje cell lesions on social behavior in rats by recording social interactions before and after bilateral saporin injections (192-IgG or OX-7; 2 µg/side). As compared to preinjection behavior, saporin injections decreased social interaction of adult rats. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA agonist muscimol (256 pmol) into the mNTS at least 10 minutes prior to behavioral testing returned the amount of social investigation of the lesioned animals to pre-saporin levels. These findings suggest that specific neuronal populations are responsible for mediating social behavior in rats, and that there is a functional connection between those systems and the brainstem structures utilized for seizure control.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Purkinje cell depletion by ox7-saporin impairs eyeblink conditioned excitation and inhibition in rats.

Nolan BC, Freeman JH (2003) Purkinje cell depletion by ox7-saporin impairs eyeblink conditioned excitation and inhibition in rats. Neuroscience 2003 Abstracts 87.3. Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans, LA.

Summary: The role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned excitation has been demonstrated by studies that used lesions, inactivation, and electrical stimulation (e.g., Attwell, Rahman, & Yeo, 2001, J Neurosci, 21, 5715-5722). However, very little evidence exists concerning the role of the cerebellar cortex in conditioned inhibition. Moreover, there are multiple blink control zones in the cerebellar cortex (Hesslow, 1994, J Physiol, 476, 229-244), which complicates the interpretation of studies that use localized lesions. In the current study, rats were infused with the immunotoxin OX7-saporin into the lateral ventricles to selectively destroy Purkinje cells throughout the cerebellar cortex (Angner, et.al, 2000, Neurotox, 21, 395-404). The OX7- saporin method provides advantages relative to other methods, including the ability to deplete Purkinje cells after initial training. In Experiment 1, rats were given saline or OX7-saporin prior to excitatory conditioning training, which was established using a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a periorbital shock unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats given OX7-saporin had nearly complete Purkinje cell loss and acquisition of excitatory conditioning was severely impaired. In Experiment 2, rats were first trained with excitatory conditioning procedures, followed by infusion of either saline or OX7-saporin. After a two-week post-infusion period, the rats were given reacquisition training. After reacquiring excitatory conditioning, the rats were trained using a feature-negative discrimination procedure consisting of trials with CS-US pairings and trials with a non-reinforced tone-light compound stimulus. Rats treated with OX7-saporin showed a significant impairment in reacquisition and acquisition of conditioned inhibition. The results suggest that Purkinje cells are critically involved in the acquisition of both conditioned excitation and inhibition in rats.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Targeted toxins in pain.

Wiley RG, Lappi DA (2003) Targeted toxins in pain. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 55(8):1043-1054. doi: 10.1016/s0169-409x(03)00102-9

Summary: The authors discuss the use of 'molecular neurosurgery' in the study of nociception. Applications using targeted toxins, which include immunotoxins, protein-toxin conjugates, or peptide-toxin conjugates, are illustrated. The authors describe the use of these molecules as research tools, as well as their potential for therapeutics. A helpful table is included that lists neuronal surface markers and class of cells targeted for each targeted toxin. Reagents discussed: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14), IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01), ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15), Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), Anti-DAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-25), SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07), Dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12), Orexin-SAP (Cat. #IT-20), CRF-SAP (Cat. #IT-13), and acetylated LDL-SAP (Cat. #IT-08).

Related Products: CTB-SAP (Cat. #IT-14), IB4-SAP (Cat. #IT-10), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), ME20.4-SAP (Cat. #IT-15), Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), Anti-DAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-25), SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07), Dermorphin-SAP / MOR-SAP (Cat. #IT-12), Orexin-B-SAP (Cat. #IT-20), CRF-SAP (Cat. #IT-13), Acetylated LDL-SAP (Cat. #IT-08)

The effects of cerebellar damage on maze learning in animals.

Lalonde R, Strazielle C (2003) The effects of cerebellar damage on maze learning in animals. Cerebellum 2(4):300-309. doi: 10.1080/14734220310017456

Summary: Traditionally the cerebellum has been associated with motor control, but recent work has suggested that it plays a role in cognitive functions such as spatial learning as well. This study discusses the effects of cerebellar mutations in mice, and OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) lesions in rats on water maze learning models. Results indicate that the cerebellum plays a role in working memory and the procedural aspect of maze learning, as well as being an important element of motor control.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Selective joint denervation promotes knee osteoarthritis in the aging rat.

Salo PT, Hogervorst T, Seerattan RA, Rucker D, Bray RC (2002) Selective joint denervation promotes knee osteoarthritis in the aging rat. J Orthop Res 20(6):1256-1264. doi: 10.1016/S0736-0266(02)00045-1

Summary: Noting that mice lose joint afferents with aging, and that this loss precedes osteoarthritis development, the authors investigated the effects of denervating the knee joints of young rats. Injection of 10 µl OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) into the knee joint space produced severe degenerative cartilage changes as well as a significant reduction in the number of joint afferents. These changes indicate that joint denervation predisposes a joint to osteoarthritic changes more severe than those found with aging alone.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum.

Berchtold NC, Kesslak JP, Cotman CW (2002) Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum. J Neurosci Res 68(5):511-521. doi: 10.1002/jnr.10256

Summary: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances neuron function and plasticity. The authors lesioned rats with medial septal injections of 192-Saporin (Cat #IT-01, 375 ng in 0.5 µl PBS) or OX7-SAP (Cat #IT-02, 12.5 or 25 ng in 0.5 µl PBS). 192-Saporin affected the sedentary, but not exercise-induced levels of BDNF. OX7-SAP reduced levels in both groups in a dose-dependent manner.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Lack of effect of moderate Purkinje cell loss on working memory.

Wrenn CC, Wiley RG (2001) Lack of effect of moderate Purkinje cell loss on working memory. Neuroscience 107(3):433-445. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00326-8

Summary: When 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01) is injected intracerebroventricularly, some p75-expressing cerebellar Purkinje cells are eliminated along with cholinergic neurons. To verify that the effects of basal forebrain lesions on working memory were not caused by loss of these Purkinje cells the authors compared doses of 1 µg OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) and either 2 µg or 4 µg of 192-Saporin injected into the lateral ventricle. The data show that although similar amounts of Purkinje cells were eliminated by OX7-SAP and the lower dose of 192-Saporin, no working memory deficits resulted. Only the 4-µg dose of 192-Saporin produced working memory deficits, they conclude that this is not due to Purkinje cell loss, but the loss of cholinergic neurons.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Neuronal lesioning with axonally transported toxins.

Wiley RG, Kline IV RH (2000) Neuronal lesioning with axonally transported toxins. J Neurosci Methods 103:73-82. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0270(00)00297-1

Summary: Functional neuroanatomy studies have long utilized lesioning. Given the complexity of heterogeneous neuron populations conventional lesioning methods have proved relatively crude, and have provided limited information. Wiley and Kline detail some of the immunotoxins utilizing saporin as well as neuropeptide-saporin conjugates that have found use in recent neurological research. These products include SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07), which eliminates neurons expressing the neurokinin 1 receptor, 192-Saporin (Cat. #IT-01), which eliminates neurons expressing the p75 receptor in rats, anti-DBH-SAP (Cat #IT-03), which destroys noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons, and OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), which is a suicide transport agent targeting all rat neurons. The authors also discuss some of the protocols and methods utilized with these compounds.

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), Anti-DBH-SAP (Cat. #IT-03), SP-SAP (Cat. #IT-07)

Preferential destruction of cerebellar Purkinje cells by OX7-saporin.

Angner RT, Kelly RM, Wiley RG, Walsh TJ, Reuhl KR (2000) Preferential destruction of cerebellar Purkinje cells by OX7-saporin. Neurotoxicol 21:395-403.

Summary: Purkinje cells function as inhibitors and are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. Angner et al. eliminate these cells in rats with 1-2 µg OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02), an immunotoxin that binds the Thy 1.1 antigen. The treated rats show effects of loss of inhibitory control, including a time-dependent increase in motor activity and decreased motor coordination.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Impaired acquisition of a Morris water maze task following selective destruction of cerebellar Purkinje cells with OX7-saporin.

Gandhi CC, Kelly RM, Wiley RG, Walsh TJ (2000) Impaired acquisition of a Morris water maze task following selective destruction of cerebellar Purkinje cells with OX7-saporin. Behav Brain Res 109:37-47. doi: 10.1016/s0166-4328(99)00160-6

Summary: The cerebellum has been associated with the control of motor activity and voluntary movements. Recent data have shown the cerebellum may also play a role in “higher order” processes such as learning, language, and cognition. Using 2 µg OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02) by i.c.v. injection, Gandhi et al. selectively eliminated Purkinje cells in rat cerebellum in order to examine the ability of treated animals to complete a water maze task. Elimination of these cells significantly impaired the ability of the rats to complete the task, suggesting the cerebellum is involved in learning.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Lack of effect of intraventricular OX7-saporin on working memory in the rat.

Wrenn CC, Lappi DA, Wiley RG (1999) Lack of effect of intraventricular OX7-saporin on working memory in the rat. Neuroscience 1999 Abstracts 559.5. Society for Neuroscience, Miami, FL.

Summary: The immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (192-sap) has been shown by our laboratory and others to be a highly selective agent for the production of lesions of the rat cholinergic basal forebrain(CBF). Such lesions can be produced by either intraventricular (i.c.v.) or intraparenchymal injection of the immunotoxin and can result in cognitive deficits. One potential shortcoming of i.c.v. injection of 192-sap is that it kills cerebellar Purkinje cells in addition to killing the neurons of the CBF. Thus, it is unclear whether or not cognitive deficits that arise after i.c.v. 192-sap are due to loss of the CBF or loss of Purkinje cells. We addressed this problem by injecting rats i.c.v. with saline, 2 µg 192-sap, 4 µg 192-sap, or 1 µg OX7-saporin(OX7-sap). OX7-sap is an immunotoxin shown by our laboratory to selectively lesion Purkinje cells after i.c.v. injection. The 1 µg dose was chosen based on pilot anatomical work which showed this dose to produce Purkinje cell loss of similar pattern and extent to that produced by 4 µg of 192-sap. These rats were tested in a radial maze working memory paradigm, and it was found that the 4 µg 192-sap group made significantly more working memory errors than either the saline or OX7-sap injected groups. These data suggest that Purkinje cell loss alone is not sufficient to disrupt cognitive processes. (Supported by Departmento f Veterans Affairs and the Vanderbilt Center for Molecular Neuroscience).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Deficit in selective and divided attention associated with cholinergic basal forebrain immunotoxic lesion produced by 192-Saporin; motoric/sensory deficit associated with Purkinje cell immunotoxic lesion produced by OX7-Saporin.

Waite JJ, Wardlow ML, Power AE (1999) Deficit in selective and divided attention associated with cholinergic basal forebrain immunotoxic lesion produced by 192-Saporin; motoric/sensory deficit associated with Purkinje cell immunotoxic lesion produced by OX7-Saporin. Neurobiol Learn Mem 71(3):325-352. doi: 10.1006/nlme.1998.3884

Objective: To distinguish behavioral effects of 192-IgG-SAP due to cerebellar damage versus those due to cholinergic cell loss.

Summary: The cholinergic basal forebrain lesion may mask some of the effects of cerebellar damage up to a threshold after which effects of Purkinje cell loss predominate when 192-IgG-SAP is administered intraventricularly.

Usage: 192-IgG-SAP (1.6, 2.6, and 3.3 ug/rat) and OX7-SAP (2.0 ug/rat) were administered by bilateral icv infusions (5 ul vol/side).

Related Products: 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01), OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Expression of blood-brain barrier characteristics following neuronal loss and astroglial damage after administration of anti-Thy-1 immunotoxin.

Krum JM, Kenyon KL, Rosenstein JM (1997) Expression of blood-brain barrier characteristics following neuronal loss and astroglial damage after administration of anti-Thy-1 immunotoxin. Exp Neurol 146:33-45. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1997.6528

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Selective ablation of rat knee joint innervation with injected immunotoxin: a potential new model for the study of neuropathic arthritis.

Salo PT, Theriault E, Wiley RG (1997) Selective ablation of rat knee joint innervation with injected immunotoxin: a potential new model for the study of neuropathic arthritis. J Orthop Res 15:622-628. doi: 10.1002/jor.1100150420

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Effects of suicide transport lesions of the striatopallidal or striatonigral pathways on striatal ultrastructure.

Roberts RC, Strain-Saloum C, Wiley RG (1995) Effects of suicide transport lesions of the striatopallidal or striatonigral pathways on striatal ultrastructure. Brain Res 710:227-237. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(95)01004-3

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Localization of mu and delta opioid receptors to anterior cingulate afferents and projection neurons and input/output model of mu regulation.

Vogt BA, Wiley RG, Jensen EL (1995) Localization of mu and delta opioid receptors to anterior cingulate afferents and projection neurons and input/output model of mu regulation. Exp Neurol 135:83-92. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1995.1069

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Differential effects of suicide transport lesions of the striatonigral or striatopallidal pathways on subsets of striatal neurons.

Roberts RC, Harrison MB, Francis SMN, Wiley RG (1993) Differential effects of suicide transport lesions of the striatonigral or striatopallidal pathways on subsets of striatal neurons. Exp Neurol 124:242-252. doi: 10.1006/exnr.1993.1194

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Cellular localization of serotonin 1A, 1B and uptake sites in cingulate cortex of the rat.

Crino PB, Vogt BA, Volicer V, Wiley RG (1990) Cellular localization of serotonin 1A, 1B and uptake sites in cingulate cortex of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 252:651-656.

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Neuronotoxic effects of monoclonal anti-Thy 1 antibody (OX7) coupled to the ribosome inactivating protein, saporin, as studied by suicide transport experiments in the rat.

Wiley RG, Stirpe F, Thorpe P, Oeltmann TN (1989) Neuronotoxic effects of monoclonal anti-Thy 1 antibody (OX7) coupled to the ribosome inactivating protein, saporin, as studied by suicide transport experiments in the rat. Brain Res 505:44-54. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(89)90114-5

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

Anti-Thy-1 immunotoxin, OX7-saporin, destroys cerebellar Purkinje cells after intraventricular injection in rats.

Davis TL, Wiley RG (1989) Anti-Thy-1 immunotoxin, OX7-saporin, destroys cerebellar Purkinje cells after intraventricular injection in rats. Brain Res 504:216-222. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(89)91360-7

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)

An immunotoxin composed of monoclonal anti-thy 1.1 antibody and a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis: potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo.

Thorpe PE, Brown ANF, Bremner JAG, Foxwell BMJ, Stirpe F (1985) An immunotoxin composed of monoclonal anti-thy 1.1 antibody and a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis: potent antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. J Natl Cancer Inst 75:151-159. doi: 10.1093/JNCI/75.1.151

Related Products: OX7-SAP (Cat. #IT-02)