192-IgG-SAP References

Cat #IT-01


Chen L, Ke Y, Ma H, Gao L, Zhou Y, Zhu H, Liu H, Zhang F, Zhou W (2021) Fluoxetine and Ketamine Reverse the Depressive but Not Anxiety Behavior Induced by Lesion of Cholinergic Neurons in the Horizontal Limb of the Diagonal Band of Broca in Male Rat. Front Behav Neurosci 15:602708. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.602708

Summary: A lesion of horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca (HDB) cholinergic neurons and followed hippocampus damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. Dose: Injections of 192 IgG-SAP were made bilaterally into the HDB in a volume of 0.5 µL per side with a concentration of 0.5 µg/µL.

Cromwell HC (2021) Characterizing the Neural Substrate of Reward with the Use of Specific Brain Lesions. In: Fakhoury M. (eds) The Brain Reward System. Neuromethods, vol 165. Humana, New York, NY 165. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-1146-3_3

Summary: This review is focused on experimental lesions and work using the rodent model examining the neural substrates of reward processing. Saporin is listed as a neurotoxin used to target selective neuronal populations with success. See Pappas BA, Sherren N (2003) Neonatal 192 IgG-saporin lesion of forebrain cholinergic neurons: focus on the life span? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27(4):365-376. doi: 10.1016/s0149-7634(03)00067-8

da Costa C, Soares JI, Lukoyanov NV (2021) Forebrain cholinergic plasticity in rats with chronic epilesy induced by status epilepticus. 14th U.PORTO Young Researchers Meeting

Summary: This poster had the following aims: 1) Evaluate the GABAergic population in the MS/DB in a chronic epilepsy model of kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. 2) Assess the GABAergic and cholinergic interconnectivity in the MS/DB in a chronic epilepsy model of kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. Results showed that outcomes were improved in rats receiving 192-IgG-SAP treatment as compared to Sham.  Mortality: Sham – 50%; SAP – 0%.Recurrent motor seizures: Sham – 83%; SAP – 40%. Recurrent motor + EEG seizures: Sham – 100%; SAP – 50%.
Dose: 192-IgG-SAP was used to produce a moderate, but significant loss of septohippocampal cholinergic cells and to suppress their plasticity.

Dezawa S, Nagasaka K, Watanabe Y, & Takashima I (2021) Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (Meynert) induce enhanced somatosensory responses and tactile hypersensitivity in rats. Exp Neurol 335:113493. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113493

Summary: The authors used 192-IgG-SAP to produce a selective cholinergic lesion in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) of rats and investigated whether the NBM lesion led to tactile hypersensitivity in the forepaw. Results suggest that neuronal loss in the NBM diminishes acetylcholine actions in the S1, thereby enhancing the cortical representation of sensory stimuli, which may in turn lead to behavioral hypersensitivity.
Dose: The lesion group received injection of 0.3 μL of 192-IgG-SAP into the left nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM).

Dinh HT, Nishimaru H, Le QV, Matsumoto J, Setogawa T, Maior RS, Tomaz C, Ono T, Nishijo H (2021) Preferential Neuronal Responses to Snakes in the Monkey Medial Prefrontal Cortex Support an Evolutionary Origin for Ophidiophobia. Front Behav Neurosci 15:653250. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.653250

Summary: Ophidiophobia (snake phobia) is one of the most common specific phobias. Noninvasive imaging studies of patients with specific phobia reported that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and amygdala are activated during the presentation of phobogenic stimuli. Attentional bias to specific animals promotes anxiety and phobia. The mPFC is reported to be involved in attentional allocation to various salient visual stimuli. The findings suggest that the rACC focuses attention on snakes, and promotes aversive conditioning to snakes, which may lead to anxiety and ophidiophobia.
Dose: Prior work has demonstrated that lesions of the cortical cholinergic system of the basal forebrain impair performance in attentional tasks. 192-IgG-SAP (50 or 100 ng) was infused into the PFC of rats. (Dalley et al., 2004).

Dobryakova YV, Zaichenko MI, Spivak YS, Stepanichev MY, Markevich VA, Bolshakov AP (2021) Overexpression of Nerve Growth Factor in the Hippocampus Induces Behavioral Changes in Rats with 192IgG-Saporin-Induced Cholinergic Deficit. Neurochem J 15:273-281. doi: 10.1134/S1819712421030028

Summary: Degeneration of septal cholinergic neurons caused by the immunotoxin 192-IgG-SAP produces a model of the pathological state that occurs in Alzheimer’s Disease. This study investigated whether overexpression of NGF in the hippocampus, where septal neurons send their projections, may reduce the consequences of this damage. Data suggest that NGF overexpression in the hippocampus of rats may partly compensate some 192 IgG-SAP-induced impairments related to cholinergic deficit.
Dose: 192-IgG-SAP  or an equivalent volume of PBS (4 mcg/site) was administered bilaterally into the ventricles.

Kucinski A, Sarter M (2021) Reduction of falls in a rat model of PD falls by the M1 PAM TAK-071. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 238(7):1953-1964. doi: 10.1007/s00213-021-05822-x

Summary: In addition to the disease-defining motor symptoms, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) exhibit gait dysfunction, postural instability, and a propensity for falls. the muscarinic M1-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) TAK-071 improves the attentional performance of rats with BF cholinergic losses. The authors previously developed a rodent model of PD falls by demonstrating that rats with dual basal forebrain cholinergic and mediodorsal striatal dopamine losses (“DL rats”) exhibit a heightened fall rate when required to traverse dynamic surfaces. This study tested the hypotheses that TAK-071 reduces fall rates in DL rats.
Dose: Rats received bilateral infusions of 192-IgG-SAP (200 ng/μL; 0.8 μL/hemisphere) or an equal volume of artificial cerebral spinal fluid into the nucleus basalis and substantia innominata of the basal forebrain.

Llorente-Ovejero A, Martínez-Gardeazabal J, Moreno-Rodríguez M, Lombardero L, González de San Román E, Manuel I, Giralt MT, Rodríguez-Puertas R (2021) Specific Phospholipid Modulation by Muscarinic Signaling in a Rat Lesion Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. ACS Chem Neurosci 12(12):2167-2181. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00169

Summary: Using a rat model of BFCN lesion, this study evaluated the lipid composition and muscarinic signaling in brain areas related to cognitive processes. Results suggest that the modulation of specific lipid metabolic routes could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy to potentiate cholinergic neurotransmission and preserve cell membrane integrity in AD.
Dose: 192-IgG-SAP was administered via intraparenchymal infusion to selectively eliminate BFCN in the NBM.

Ma X, Fu S, Yin Y, Wu Y, Wang T, Xu G, Liu M, Xu Y, Tian J, Jiang G (2021) Aberrant Functional Connectivity of Basal Forebrain Subregions with Cholinergic System in Short-term and Chronic Insomnia Disorder. J Affect Disord 278:481-487. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.103

Summary: Previous animal studies have identified the cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) as a crucial structure in sleep-wake cycle modulation and lesion or inactivation of the BF has been found to increase delta electroencephalogram activity, disturb behavioral arousal, and reduce sleep. They reference:  Kaur S, Junek A, Black MA, Semba K (2008) J Neurosci 28:491-504. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1585-07.2008.  Kaur et al. used 192-IgG-SAP to lesion the CBF to examine the role of these neurons in sleep behavior.

Madrid LI, Jimenez-Martin J, Coulson EJ, Jhaveri DJ (2021) Cholinergic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent functions. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 134:105969. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2021.105969

Summary: In this review, the authors appraise the evidence linking the contribution of cholinergic signalling to the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent functions.
Dose:  A hallmark feature of all basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is the expression of high levels of the p75 neurotrophin receptor  which can be precisely targeted using 192-IgG-SAP. Administration of 192-IgG-SAP (icv, 2.5 µg, Mohapel et al., 2005) resulted in significant impairment in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. In contrast, a study which lesioned MS cholinergic neurons in mice reported no effect on baseline proliferation in the hippocampus. Mice received 3.6 µg of mu p75-SAP into each lateral ventricle (Ho et al., 2009). Although the number of surviving neurons was similar in both lesioned and control animals, most of the progenitor cells in the lesioned animals could not survive without cholinergic input.

McMahon D, O’Reilly MA, Hynynen K (2021) Therapeutic Agent Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Focused Ultrasound. Annu Rev Biomed Eng 23:89-113. doi: 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-062117-121238

Summary: Review of the use of focused ultrasound, in combination with circulating microbubbles, can be used to transiently and noninvasively increase cerebrovascular permeability with a high level of spatial precision. For minutes to hours following sonication, drugs can be administered systemically to extravasate in the targeted brain regions and exert a therapeutic effect, after which permeability returns to baseline levels.
Dose: Shin et al. 2019, reported improved spatial memory following FUS+MB exposure in a rat model of cholinergic neuron degeneration. 192-IgG-SAP was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricle (4  μl at a concentration of 0.63  μg/μl at a rate of 1 μl/min).

Moschonas EH, Leary JB, Memarzadeh K, Bou-Abboud CE, Folweiler KA, Monaco CM, Bondi CO (2021) Disruption of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons after traumatic brain injury does not compromise environmental enrichment-mediated cognitive benefits. Brain Res 1751:147175. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147175

Objective:  To determine if basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are important mediators of environmental entrichment (EE)-induced benefits after traumatic brain injury.
Summary:  These data show that despite significant medial septal ChAT+ cell loss, the EE-mediated benefit in cognitive recovery is not compromised.
Dose:  0.22 μg/1.0 μL 192-IgG-SAP was infused over 5 min at a rate of 0.2 μL/min.

Nazmuddin M, Philippens IHCHM, van Laar T (2021) Electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis of meynert: a systematic review of preclinical and clinical data. Sci Rep 11(1):11751. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-91391-0

Summary: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the NBM (nucleus basalis of Meynert) in animal studies and the effects on behavioral and neurophysiological aspects are systematically reviewed. Translation of these outcomes to current clinical practice is hampered by the fact that mainly animals with an intact NBM were used, and most animals were stimulated unilaterally. Lee et al. (2016) addressed both of these issues using 192-IgG-SAP to lesion the NBM, which was stimulated thereafter.
Dose: Lee et al. lesioned the basal forebrain of rats through bilateral injections totaling 5 μg of 192-IgG-SAP into the lateral ventricle.

Osterlund Oltmanns JR, Schaeffer EA, Blackwell AA, Pietrucha SA, Yang H, Tasi S, Kartje GL, Wallace D (2021) Effects of age on sexually dimorphic food protection behavior associated with hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation. Neuroscience 2021 Abstracts P210/07. Society for Neuroscience, Virtual

Soma S, Suematsu N, Sato AY, Tsunoda K, Bramian A, Reddy A, Takabatake K, Karube F, Fujiyama F, Shimegi S (2021) Acetylcholine from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis facilitates the retrieval of well-established memory. Neurobiol Learn Mem. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2021.107484

Summary: The authors tested the effect of a cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, on the retrieval of memory after a long no-task period in extensively trained rats. The results suggest that acetylcholine released from the NBM contributes to the retrieval of well-established memory developed by a daily routine.
Dose: Cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) were lesioned with 192-IgG-SAP. NBM-lesioned rats showed severely impaired task initiation and performance. These abilities recovered as the trials progressed, though they never reached the level observed in rats with intact NBM. Saline with or without 192-IgG-SAP (0.3 μg in 1 μL, per site) was bilaterally injected into 2 sites of the NBM.

Sun S, Ding Z, Yang X, Zhao X, Zhao M, Gao L, Chen Q, Xie S, Liu A, Yin S, Xu Z, Lu X (2021) Nanobody: A Small Antibody with Big Implications for Tumor Therapeutic Strategy. Int J Nanomedicine 16:2337-2356. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S297631

Summary: This Journal Club commentary focuses on the publication by Peng W, Wu Z, Song K, Zhang S, Li Y, XuM (2020) Regulation of sleep homeostasis mediator adenosine by basal forebrain glutamatergic neurons. Science 369(6508):eabb0556. The author refers to work with 192-IgG-SAP published by Blanco-Centurion et al. in 2006.
Dose: The author refers to work with 192-IgG-SAP published by Blanco-Centurion et al. in 2006. This group investigated whether basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are involved in adenosine regulation of sleep. 6 µg of 192-IgG-SAP was administered to the lateral ventricle of rats. See Blanco-Centurion C, Xu M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Gerashchenko D, Shiromani AM, Salin-Pascual RJ, Hof PR, Shiromani PJ (2006) Adenosine and sleep homeostasis in the basal forebrain. J Neurosci 26(31):8092–8100

Takeuchi Y, Nagy AJ, Barcsai L, Li Q, Ohsawa M, Mizuseki K, Berényi A (2021) The Medial Septum as a Potential Target for Treating Brain Disorders Associated With Oscillopathies. Front Neural Circuits 15:701080. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2021.701080

Summary: The medial septum (MS) may be a potential target for treating neurological and psychiatric disorders with abnormal oscillations (oscillopathies) to restore healthy patterns or erase undesired ones. The time-targeted strategy for the MS stimulation may provide an effective way of treating multiple disorders.
Dose: 192-IgG-SAP. The MS cholinergic neurons along with theta oscillations are known to be essential for memory because selective lesion of the cholinergic neurons resulted in spatial memory impairments (150 ng; Easton et al., 2011)  (5.04 μg icv; Jeong et al., 2014). Orexin-SAP. The enhanced gamma oscillations and altered PPI and auditory gating created by psychoactive drugs in rats were mediated by GABAergic neurons in the MS because they were abolished by ablation of these neurons by Orexin-SAP (140 ng total bilateral; Ma et al., 2012). mu p75-SAP. Anxious environment-induced type 2 theta oscillation and associated anxiety were shown to be dependent on the MS cholinergic neurons because lesion of MS cholinergic neurons reduced them (0.65 or 1.3 µg, bilateral; Nag et al., 2009).

Wang Y, Tan B, Wang Y, Chen Z (2021) Cholinergic Signaling, Neural Excitability, and Epilepsy. Molecules 26(8):2258. doi: 10.3390/molecules26082258

Summary: In this review, the authors briefly describe the distribution of cholinergic neurons, muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system and their relationship with neural excitability and epilepsy. intraventricular administration of 192-IgG-SAP, which inhibits cholinergic projection to the hippocampus and cortex respectively, facilitates seizure induced by amygdala kindling
Dose: Ferencz et al. used 192-IgG-SAP (2.5 μg icv) to investigate the effect of eliminating cholinergic projections to the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex on the induction of epilepsy through electrical stimulation of the rat brain. They determined that the loss of specific projections to the amygdala accelerates development of seizures. See Ferencz I, Leanza G, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia M, Lindvall O (2000) Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats. Eur J Neurosci 12:2107-2116.


Audira G, Ngoc Anh NT, Ngoc Hieu BT, Malhotra N, Siregar P, Villalobos O, Villaflores OB, Ger TR, Huang JC, Chen KH, Hsiao CD. Evaluation of the Adverse Effects of Chronic Exposure to Donepezil (An Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor) in Adult Zebrafish by Behavioral and Biochemical Assessments. (2020) Biomolecules 10(9):1340. doi: 10.3390/biom10091340

Objective:  The authors use zebrafish to conduct a deeper analysis of the potential adverse effects of DPZ on the short-term memory and behaviors of normal zebrafish by performing multiple behavioral and biochemical assays.
Summary:  Chronic waterborne exposure to DPZ can severely induce adverse effects on normal zebrafish in a dose-dependent manner.
See: Cutuli D, De Bartolo P, Caporali P, Tartaglione AM, Oddi D, D’Amato FR, Nobili A, D’Amelio M, Petrosini L (2013) Neuroprotective effects of donepezil against cholinergic depletion. Alzheimers Res Ther 5(5):50. doi: 10.1186/alzrt215

Dobryakova YV, Stepanichev MY, Markevich VA, & Bolshakov AP. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA3 to CA1 synapses may be induced in vivo by activation of septal cholinergic inputs. (2020) Int J Neurosci. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1822834

Easton A, Barros M, Lever C. Acetylcholine and Spontaneous Recognition Memory in Rodents and Primates. (2020) Curr Top Behav Neurosci 45:29-45. doi: 10.1007/7854_2020_132

Review of lesioning designed to specifically target cells that express acetylcholine as a transmitter.

Giannoni P, Fossati S, Claeysen S, Marcello E, eds (2020) Identification of Multiple Targets in the Fight against Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Aging Neurosci 12:169. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2020.00169

IT-01 192-IgG-SAP and IT-16 mu p75-SAP
Summary: A collection of 20 articles that depict a broad representation of the most impactful advances in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) comprehension and therapeutic openings.

Holloway Z, Koburov R, Hawkey A, Levin ED (2020) Measuring attention in rats with a visual signal detection task: Signal intensity vs. signal duration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 199:173069. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2020.173069

Summary: Drug-induced effects have been used to demonstrate the construct validity of operant attention tasks, as well as to assess the pharmacological systems that underlie cognitive processes, such as attention, short-term memory and reaction time, either by interrupting or enhancing performance. The authors reference: McGaughy J, Sarter M (1998) Sustained attention performance in rats with intracortical infusions of 192 IgG-saporin-induced cortical cholinergic deafferentation: effects of physostigmine and FG 7142. Behav Neurosci 112:1519-1525. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.112.6.1519

Parikh V, Bangasser DA. Cholinergic Signaling Dynamics and Cognitive Control of Attention. (2020) In: Shoaib M., Wallace T. (eds) Behavioral Pharmacology of the Cholinergic System. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol 45:71-87. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/7854_2020_133

Summary: A plethora of studies conducted in rodents demonstrated that selective lesions of BF cholinergic neurons and their cortical inputs produced by the immunotoxin 192-IgG-SAP impair performance in various tasks of attention.

Sun MJ, Tang Y (2020) Extracellular levels of the sleep homeostasis mediator, adenosine, are regulated by glutamatergic neurons during wakefulness and sleep. Purinergic Signal 16(4):475-476. doi: 10.1007/s11302-020-09758-3

Summary: Blanco-Centurion et al. investigated the role of cholinergic neurons in the BF by administering 192–IgG–SAP to lesion them, but surprisingly the results indicated that adenosine from cholinergic neurons in BF are not essential to sleep induction. See: Blanco-Centurion C, Xu M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Gerashchenko D, Shiromani AM, Salin-Pascual RJ, Hof PR, Shiromani PJ (2006) Adenosine and sleep homeostasis in the basal forebrain. J Neurosci 26(31):8092–8100.

Volobueva MN, Dobryakova YV, Manolova AO, Stepanichev MY, Kvichansky AA, Gulyaeva NV, Markevich VA, Bolshakov AP. Intracerebroventricular Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Alters the State of Microglia in the Neocortex. (2020) Neurochem J, 14 (1):37-42. doi: 10.1134/S1819712420010213

Objective: The effect of icv immunotoxin administration on the state of microglia in tissues adjacent to the ventricle (striatum and parietal cortex) and remotely located but receiving innervation from the medial septal region and diagonal band of Broca (entorhinal cortex and olfactory bulbs).
Summary:  1.5 months after the administration of immunotoxin, microglia are activated only in the neocortical areas, not in the striatum or olfactory bulbs.
Dose:  Injected bilaterally at a dose of 4 μg in each ventricle.


Dobryakova YV, Volobueva MN, Manolova AO, Medvedeva TM, Kvichansky AA, Gulyaeva NV, Markevich VA, Stepanichev MY, Bolshakov AP. Cholinergic Deficit Induced by Central Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Is Associated With Activation of Microglia and Cell Loss in the Dorsal Hippocampus of Rats (2019) Front Neurosci, 13:146. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00146

Objective: To study the histopathology of the hippocampus and the responses of microglia and astrocytes using immunohistochemistry and neuroglial gene expression.
Summary:  Cholinergic degeneration in the medial septal area induced by intracerebroventricular administration of 192IgG-saporin results in an increase in the number of microglial cells and neuron degeneration in the dorsal hippocampus.
Dose:  192-IgG-SAP was injected bilaterally into both ventricles (i.c.v.) at a dose of 4 μg/site.

Hernández-Melesio MA, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Jiménez-Capdeville ME, Martínez-Lazcano JC, Santoyo-Pérez ME, Quevedo-Corona L, Gerónimo-Olvera C, Sánchez-Mendoza A, Ríos C, & Pérez-Severiano F. Nitric oxide donor molsidomine promotes retrieval of object recognition memory in a model of cognitive deficit induced by 192 IgG-saporin. (2019) Behav Brain Res, 366:108-117. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2019.03.031

Objective: To analyze the potential of a NO donor (molsidomine, MOLS) to prevent the recognition memory deficits resulting from the septal cholinergic denervation by 192 IgG-SAP in rats.
Summary: Results showed that 192-IgG-SAP reduced the immunoreactivity of cholinergic septal neurons (41%), compared with PBS-receiving control rats (p < 0.05).
Dose:  The injection reached the medial septum (MS) structure with 192-IgG-SAP diluted in PBS solution (0.22 μg in 1μl) or PBS as control,
both at 0.25 μl/min, allowing diffusion for 3 min, AP+0.6, L 0.0, V−7.0 from Bregma.

Koshy Cherian A, Kucinski A, Wu R, deJong IEM, Sarter M. Co-treatment with rivastigmine and idalopirdine reduces the propensity for falls in a rat model of falls in Parkinson’s disease. (2019) Psychopharmacology 236:1701–1715. doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-5150-y

Objective: The authors used a longer and more taxing rotating beam apparatus to determine the potential therapeutic efficacy of idalopirdine when combined with rivastigmine.
Summary: The results extend the prediction that the combined treatment with idalopirdine and an AChE inhibitor improves complex movement control and reduces propensity for falls in patients with movement disorders.
Dose: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons situated in the nucleus basalis and substantia innominata were targeted with 192-IgG-SAP in aCSF infused bilaterally (200 ng/μL; 0.8 μL/hemisphere).

Kucinski A, Kim Y, Sarter M. Basal forebrain chemogenetic inhibition disrupts the superior complex movement control of goal-tracking rats. (2019) Behav Neurosci 133(1):121-134. doi: 10.1037/bne0000290

Dose: Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons situated in the nucleus basalis and substantia innominata were targeted with 192-IgG-SAP in aCSF infused bilaterally (200 ng/μL; 0.8 μL/hemisphere).

Phillips K. Micro- and Macro-Psychological Analyses of Attention and the Role of Cholinergic Systems (2019) PhD Dissertation, University of Michigan.

Objective:  To determine the validity of behavioral tasks used to reveal neurobehavioral and neurocognitive mechanisms of attention.
Summary:  The opposing cognitive-motivational styles of sign-trackers and goal-trackers, while originating in different approaches to food and drug cues, provide us with a crucial insight into the individual differences and specific vulnerabilities for attentional processing and performance.
Dose:  Bilateral bolus infusions of 192-IgG-SAP (0.8 μl/hemisphere).

Shin J, Kong C, Lee J, Choi BY, Sim J, Koh CS, Park M, Na YC, Suh SW, Chang WS, & Chang JW. Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening improves adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function in a cholinergic degeneration dementia rat model. (2019) Alzheimers Res Ther 11(1):110. doi: 10.1186/s13195-019-0569-x

Objective:  To investigate the decrease of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Summary:  This work studied the effect of FUS on AHN in a cholinergic degeneration rat model of dementia.
Dose:  192-IgG-SAP was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricle (4 μl at a concentration of 0.63 μg/μl at a rate of 1 μl/min).

Soares JI, Da Costa C, Ferreira MH, Andrade PA, Maia GH, & Lukoyanov NV. Partial depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic cells reduces seizure susceptibility, but does not mitigate hippocampal neurodegeneration in the kainate model of epilepsy. (2019) Brain Res 1717:235-246. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.027

Objective:  To examine how the inhibition of epilepsy-related cholinergic plasticity may be reflected in seizure susceptibility and/or in the development of chronic epilepsy and its neurological consequences.
Summary:  These data suggest that seizure-induced plasticity of cholinergic cells may indeed enhance seizure susceptibility and contribute to epileptogenic processes.  They do not support the hypothesis that epilepsy-related hypertrophy of cholinergic neurons may potentiate hippocampal cell loss and respective behavioral impairments.
Dose:  Bilateral lesions of cholinergic cells were made by infusing 0.5 μl of SAP (0.08 μg/μl saline solution) into the hippocampus.

Veening-Griffioen DH, Ferreira GS, van Meer PJK, Boon WPC, Gispen-de Wied CC, Moors EHM, Schellekens H. Are some animal models more equal than others? A case study on the translational value of animal models of efficacy for Alzheimer’s disease. (2019) Eur J Pharmacol 859:172524. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172524

Verkhratsky A, Parpura V, Rodriguez-Arellano J, & Zorec R. Astroglia in Alzheimer’s Disease. (2019) In: Verkhratsky A, Ho M, Zorec R, Parpura V (eds) Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1175:273-324. Springer, Singapore. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-9913-8_11

IT-01:  192-IgG-SAP and IT-03:  Anti-DBH-SAP
Summary:  A review of the tools for creating animal models of Alzheimer’s Disease.  192-IgG-SAP binds selectively and irreversibly to low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor interrupting cholinergic neuronal protein synthesis was employed.  Anti-DBH-SAP binds dopamine-β-hydroxylase, which is not only localized mainly in the cytosol, but also at the plasma membrane surface of noradrenergic neurons.  Anti-DBH-SAP produced specific and dose-dependent depletions of locus coeruleus neurons, with no effects on other cholinergic, dopaminergic or serotonergic neuronal populations.  The possibility to induce a partial or total noradrenergic loss (by varying the injected dose) makes this immunotoxic approach an ideal model to study events within the noradrenergic projection system, as they occur during age-related demise of locus coeruleus in humans.


Burk JA, Blumenthal SA, Maness EB. Neuropharmacology of attention (2018) Eur J Pharmacol 835:162-168. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.08.008

Objective:  This review focuses on the knowledge gained about neurotransmitter systems with respect to attentional processing, with emphasis on the functions mediated within the medial prefrontal cortex.
Summary:  Future research needs to facilitate a better comprehension of the neural circuitry engaged by different subcategories of attention. Such information will be useful in allowing for more targeted treatments for conditions characterized by attentional deficits.
Dose:  Several citations using 192-IgG-SAP;. The specific role of ACh in attentional function can be examined  with lesions to cholinergic inputs to the mPFC, using the immunotoxin 192 immunoglobulin G (IgG) saporin. Increases in mPFC ACh efflux related to attention are no longer present following cholinergic lesions. These cholinergic lesions lead to severe deficits in performance on both sustained attention and 5CSRTT-related tasks.

Cho JS, Lee J, Jeong DU, Kim HW, Chang WS, Moon J, Chang JW. Effect of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Dementia Rat Model via Microglial Mediation: a Comparison between Stem Cell Transplant Methods (2018) Yonsei Med J 59:406-415. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2018.59.3.406

Objective:  To study the therapeutic effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) in a dementia rat model using either intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections and analyze their mechanisms of therapeutic action.
Summary:  ICV and IV injections of pMSCs facilitate the recovery of cholinergic neuronal populations and cognitive behavior. This recovery likely occurs through paracrine effects that resemble microglia function rather than direct differentiation of injected pMSCs into cholinergic neurons.
Dose:  Dementia modeling was established by bilateral ventricle infusion of 192 IgG-SAP to lesion cholinergic neurons.  8 μL of 192 IgG-saporin (0.63 μg/μL) were bilaterally injected into the lateral ventricle at a rate of 1 μL/min and was left to diffuse for 5 min after injection.  Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze and subsequent immunostaining analyses.

Dobryakova YV, Kasianov A, Zaichenko MI, Stepanichev MY, Chesnokova EA, Kolosov PM, Markevich VA, Bolshakov AP. Intracerebroventricular Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Alters Expression of Microglia-Associated Genes in the Dorsal But Not Ventral Hippocampus (2018) Front Mol Neurosci 10:429. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00429

Objective:  To analyze the postponed consequences of cholinergic deficit in different parts of the hippocampus.
Summary: Disturbance of memory-associated behavior after administration of 192-IgG-SAP is associated with upregulation of microglia-associated genes in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus.
Dose: Rats received bilateral i.c.v.infusions of 192-IgG-SAP (4 mcg/site).

Hegarty DM, David LL, Aicher SA. Lacrimal Gland Denervation Alters Tear Protein Composition and Impairs Ipsilateral Eye Closures and Corneal Nociception (2018) Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 59:5217-5224. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25267

Objective:  To evaluate spontaneous and evoked ocular sensory responses in rats after denervation of the lacrimal gland, as well as protein changes in tears that may mediate functional changes.
Summary:  Denervation of the lacrimal gland causes long-lasting hypoalgesia, impairs the blink response, and alters tear proteins.
Dose:  192-IgG-SAP (5 μL, 0.5 μg/μL) was microinjected into the left extraorbital lacrimal gland.  In a separate group, 192-IgG-SAP was applied directly and unilaterally to the corneal surface.

Káradóttir RT, Kuo CT. Neuronal Activity-Dependent Control of Postnatal Neurogenesis and Gliogenesis (2018) Annu Rev Neurosci 41:139-161. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-072116-031054

Lee S, Cho W, Lee Y, Han J. Impact of Chronic Stress on the Spatial Learning and GR-PKAc-NF-κB Signaling in the Hippocampus and Cortex in Rats Following Cholinergic Depletion. (2018) Mol Neurobiol 55:3976-3989. doi: 10.1007/s12035-017-0620-5

Objective:  Examine the effects of chronic stress on cognitive status and GR-PKAc-NF-κB signaling in rats with a loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex.
Summary:  The activation of NF-κB induced by cholinergic depletion appears to be aggravated by chronic stress, and this might explain the increased susceptibility of patients with Alzheimer’s disease to stress since activation of NF-κB is associated with stress.
Dose:  Male Sprague-Dawley rats received injections of 192 IgG-SAP  dissolved in sterile 0.01 M PBS) at a concentration of 0.25 μg/μl.

Lelkes Z, Abdurakhmanova S, Porkka-Heiskanen T. Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for mediation of the arousing action of glutamate (2018) J Sleep Res 27:e12605. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12605

Objective:  Discover to what extent the cholinergic versus non‐cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate.
Summary:  Destruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons did not abolish the wake‐enhancing action of NMDA. Thus, the cholinergic basal forebrain structures are not essential for the mediation of the arousing action of glutamate.
Dose:  0.23 μg 192 IgG‐SAP was administered into the basal forebrain.

Li J, Rao D, Gibbs RB. Effects of Cholinergic Lesions and Cholinesterase Inhibitors on Aromatase and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Different Regions of the Rat Brain (2018) Neurosci 384:203-213. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.05.033

Objective:  To determine if effects of cholinergic inputs on synaptic plasticity and neuronal function are mediated by effects on local estrogen production or ER expression.
Summary: Selectively destroying cholinergic projections to the hippocampus had little effect on ARO and ER expression in many regions of the rat brain.
Dose:  Rats received intraseptal injections of 2.0 ml (0.2 mg/ml) or icv injections of 0.4 mcg.  Lesions resulted in loss of ChAT-positive cells in the septum, and ChAT activity in the hippocampus.  Septal infusions eliminated most of the ChAT-IR cells in MS; ChAT activity in hippocampus also significantly decreased.  ChAT activity in the frontal cortex was not significantly affected.

Ljubojevic V, Luu P, Gill PR, Beckett L-A, Takehara-Nishiuchi K, De Rosa E. Cholinergic modulation of frontoparietal cortical network dynamics supporting supramodal attention (2018) J Neurosci 38:3988-4005. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2350-17.2018

Objective:  To examine whether neurochemical acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to a state of readiness for target detection, by engaging frontoparietal cortical attentional networks independent of modality.
Summary:  ACh supported alerting attention to an impending presentation of either visual or olfactory targets. Enhanced stimulus detection was associated with an anticipatory increase in power in the beta oscillation range prior to the target’s appearance within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as increased synchrony.  In beta, this was also detected between the prefrontal cortex and PPC.  ACh may act, in a supramodal manner, to prepare frontoparietal cortical attentional networks for target detection.
Dose:  The ACh-NBM-lesioned rats received an injection of 0.2 μl of 0.3 μg/μl 192 IgG-SAP

Pitchers KK, Sarter M, Robinson TE. The hot ‘n’ cold of cue-induced drug relapse (2018) Learn Mem 25:474-480. doi: 10.1101/lm.046995.117

Seel S, Eacott M, Langston R, Easton A. Cholinergic input to the hippocampus is not required for a model of episodic memory in the rat, even with multiple consecutive events. (2018) Behav Brain Res 354:48-54. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.06.001

Summary: The authors use 192-IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-01) to examine episodic memory. Continual trials versions of an episodic memory task are unimpaired by cholinergic lesions of the medial septum. In contrast continual trial versions of a location-context (where-which) task are impaired in the same animals. The results replicate the effects of lesions on one-trial a day versions of the same tasks. Increasing the amount of interference between trials by increasing the overlap of features in consecutive events has no effect on the behavioural outcome of these lesions. The result is interpreted in light of models of acetylcholine function centered around pattern separation.

Solari, N, Hangya, B. Cholinergic modulation of spatial learning, memory and navigation. (2018) Eur J Neurosci  48: 2199– 2230. doi: 10.1111/ejn.14089

Staib JM, Della Valle R, & Knox DK. Disruption of medial septum and diagonal bands of Broca cholinergic projections to the ventral hippocampus disrupt auditory fear memory. (2018) Learn Mem 152:71-79. doi: 10.1016/j.nlm.2018.05.009

Objective:  To determine which efferent projections are critical for contextual fear memory discrimination and extinction memory.
Summary:  The results of this study suggest that MS/vDBB cholinergic neurons are critical for fear and extinction memory.
Dose:  192-IgG saporin was infused into all brain regions at a concentration of 0.2 μg/μL dissolved in 0.2 M  PBS. The total volume of each injection was 0.5 μL.  Sham surgeries were accomplished using the same volume (0.5 μL) of PBS.

Zhuravin IA, Dubrovskaya NM, Tumanova NL, DS V, NN N. Ontogenetic and Phylogenetic Approaches for Studying the Mechanisms of Cognitive Dysfunctions (2018) In: Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry – Advances and Perspectives: InTech:714-741. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.73666

Summary:  The effectiveness of the studies of the pathogenesis of AD and search for the strategies of its prevention and treatment depend on appropriate modeling of the pathological conditions in the brain leading to AD. Traditionally, the main focus on designing animal models of AD was related to the identification of brain areas and mediator systems related to memory.  One model employed injections of a monoclonal antibody against growth factor receptor conjugated with saporin (192 IgG-saporin), which also resulted in the loss of cholinergic neurons and cognitive disorder.


Alam M, McGinty D. Acute effects of alcohol on sleep are mediated by components of homeostatic sleep regulatory system: An Editorial Highlight for ‘Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuates sleepiness and adenosine after alcohol consumption’ on page 710. (2017) J Neurochem 142(5):620-623. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14100

Gelfo F, Cutuli D, Nobili A, De Bartolo P, D’Amelio M, Petrosini L, Caltagirone C. (2017) Chronic Lithium Treatment in a Rat Model of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Depletion: Effects on Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration. J Alzheimers Dis 56(4):1505-18. PMID: 28222508

Objective:  To evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a chronic lithium treatment in preventing the damage that a basal forebrain cholinergic neurodegeneration provokes.
Summary:  The chronic lithium treatment significantly rescued memory performances but did not modulate ChAT availability and caspase-3 activity. The present findings support the lithium protective effects against the cognitive impairment that characterizes the brain cholinergic depletion.
Dose:  Neurodegeneration was induced by injecting the immunotoxin 192 IgG-SAP in the medial septum (0.5 ug/side) and nucleus basalis magnocellularis (0.4 ug/side).

Jeong DU, Lee J, Chang WS, Chang JW. (2017) Identifying the Appropriate Time for Deep Brain Stimulation to Achieve Spatial Memory Improvement on the Morris Water Maze. BMC Neurosci 18(1):29. PMID: 28264667

Kucinski A, de Jong IEM, & Sarter M. Reducing Falls in Parkinson’s Disease: Interactions between Donepezil and the 5-Ht6 Receptor Antagonist Idalopirdine on Falls in a Rat Model of Impaired Cognitive Control of Complex Movements. (2017). Eur J Neurosci, 45 (2):217-231. PMID: 27469080

Objective:  To assess the effects of treatment on MCMCT performance and attention in DL rats. The combined treatment of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) was use because it has been reported to exhibit synergistic pro-cholinergic activity in rats and improved cognition in patients with moderate Alzheimer’s disease.
Summary:  This treatment may reduce fall propensity in patients.
Dose: 192-IgG-SAP aCSF infused bilaterally (120 ng/uL; 0.5 uL/hemisphere).

Lecrux C, Sandoe CH, Neupane S, Kropf P, Toussay X, Tong XK, Lacalle-Aurioles M, Shmuel A, Hamel E. (2017) Impact of Altered Cholinergic Tones on the Neurovascular Coupling Response to Whisker Stimulation. J Neurosci 37(6):1518-31. PMID: 28069927 (Targeting Trends 17q1)

Llorente-ovejero A, Manuel I, Giralt MT, & Rodríguez-puertas R. Increase of Cortical Endocannabinoid Signaling in a Rat Model of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Dysfunction. (2017). Neuroscience, 362 206-218.

Objective:  To evaluate the eCB signaling in relation to the memory impairment induced in adult rats following a specific cholinergic lesion of the basal forebrain.
Summary:  CB1 receptors present in presynaptic GABAergic terminals in the hippocampus are down regulated, but not those in cortical glutamatergic synapses.
Dose:   192-IgG-SAP was dissolved in aCSF under aseptic conditions to a final concentration of 130 ng/ml.  aCSF or 192-IgG-SAP was bilaterally injected (1 ml/hemisphere) at a constant rate of 0.2 ml/min.

Martínez-Gardeazabal J, González de San Román E, Moreno-Rodríguez M, Llorente-Ovejero A, Manuel I, Rodríguez-Puertas R. (2017) Lipid Mapping of the Rat Brain for Models of Disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 1859(9 PtB):1548-1557. PMID: 28235468 (read summary)

Objective:  To map the spatial distribution of different lipid species in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using IMS to find a possible relationship between anatomical localization and physiology. The data obtained were subsequently applied to a model of neurological disease, the 192IgG-saporin lesion model of memory impairment.
Summary:  The specific distribution of different lipids supports their involvement not only in structural and metabolic functions but also as intracellular effectors or specific receptor ligands and/or precursors. Moreover, the specific localization in the CNS described here will enable us to analyze lipid distribution to identify their physiological conditions in rat  models of neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Dose:  192 IgG-SAP in aCSF (135 ng/1 μl/hemisphere; 0.25 μl/min) was administered.

Maurice T, Goguadze N. (2017) Sigma-1 (Σ1) Receptor in Memory and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Handb Exp Pharmacol 244:81-108. PMID: 28275911

Naser PV, Kuner R. (2017) Molecular, Cellular and Circuit Basis of Cholinergic Modulation of Pain. Neuroscience PMID: 28890048

Sharma R, Sahota P, Thakkar MM. (2017) Lesion of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Attenuates Sleepiness and Adenosine After Alcohol Consumption. J Neurochem 142(5):710-20. PMID: 28444769


Archer T, & Kostrzewa RM. Neuroteratology and Animal Modeling of Brain Disorders. (2016). Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 29 1-40. 2016/02/10. 

Review Summary:  In contrast to 192 IgG-SAP treatment of adult rats,which also destroys cerebellar Purkinje cells, perinatal 192 IgG-saporin spares Purkinje cells which have a lower expression of p75NGF.

Cho J, Lee J, Jeong D, Kim H, Chang W, Moon J, Chang J (2016) Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells facilitate neural and cognitive recovery in dementia rat model. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 38.10

Hulsey DR, Hays SA, Khodaparast N, Ruiz A, Das P, Rennaker RLn, Kilgard MP. (2016) Reorganization of Motor Cortex by Vagus Nerve Stimulation Requires Cholinergic Innervation. Brain Stimul 9(2):174-181. PMID: 26822960 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Jeong D, Oh J, Lee J, Lee J, Cho Z, Chang J, Chang W. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex. (2016) Yonsei Med J 57:165-172. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2016.57.1.165 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Köppen J, Stuebing S, Sieg M, Blackwell A, Blankenship P, Cheatwood J, Wallace D. Cholinergic deafferentation of the hippocampus causes non-temporally graded retrograde amnesia in an odor discrimination task. (2016) Behav Brain Res 299:97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.11.021 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Kucinski AJ, De Jong IEM, Sarter M (2016) Preventing falls in PD in a rat model of impaired cognitive control of complex movements by a pro-cholinergic combination treatment. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 835.15

Lee JE, Jeong da U, Lee J, Chang WS, Chang JW. (2016) The effect of nucleus basalis magnocellularis deep brain stimulation on memory function in a rat model of dementia. BMC Neurol 16(1):6. PMID: 26757896 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Leong CS, Maness EB, Baraki DI, Burk JA (2016) Effects of protein kinase C activation on attention deficits following loss of corticopetal cholinergic neurons. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 833.03

Maness E B-L, Leong CS, Burk JA (2016) Effects of N-desmethylclozapine on attentional performance following loss of basal forebrain corticopetal cholinergic inputs. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 833.15

Paban V, Valable S, Baril N, Gilbert V, Chambon C, & Alescio-Lautier B (2016) Neuronal and glial changes in rat hippocampal formation after cholinergic deafferentation. J Biomol Res Ther 5(3):1000147. doi: 10.4172/2167-7956.1000147

Summary: The effects of cholinergic insult were studied in the hippocampal formation of cholinergic lesioned rats at metabolic and cellular levels by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and immuno-histochemical approaches.
Dose: Cholinergic deafferentation was induced by injection of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192-IgG-SAP into the medial septum (37.5 ng/side).

Petrosini L, De Bartolo P, Cutuli D, Gelfo F. (2016) Perinatal 192 IgG-Saporin as Neuroteratogen. Curr Top Behav Neurosci 29:111-123. PMID: 26695170 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Phillips KB, Sarter M (2016) Cholinergic-dependent shifts to cue-directed behavior. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 833.11

Rajakumar R (2016) Developmental disturbances in thalamocortical connection are sufficient to produce almost all features of schizophrenia. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 845.01

Ruiz AD, Hays S, Berry A, Vallejo S, Barron L, Carrier X (2016) Enhanced motor recovery by vagus nerve stimulation requires cholinergic innervation in a rat model of ischemic stroke. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 807.20

Sharma A, Sharma R, Sahota P, Thakkar M (2016) Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are vital for sleepiness observed after alcohol consumption. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 254.12

Staib JM, Knox D (2016) The role of cholinergic input from the medial septum in cued and contextual fear extinction memory. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 262.11

Vazquez-DeRose J, Schwartz MD, Nguyen AT, Warrier DR, Gulati S, Mathew TK, Neylan TC, Kilduff TS. (2016) Hypocretin/orexin antagonism enhances sleep-related adenosine and GABA neurotransmission in rat basal forebrain. Brain Struct Funct 221(2):923-940. (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Vierck CJ, Yezierski RP, Wiley RG. (2016) Pain sensitivity following loss of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons in the rat. Neuroscience 319:23-34. PMID: 26812034 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Wang L, Conner JM, Nagahara AH, Tuszynski MH. (2016) Rehabilitation Drives Enhancement of Neuronal Structure in Functionally Relevant Neuronal Subsets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(10):2750-55. PMID: 26903653 (Targeting Trends 17q1)

Wiley RG. (2016) Cerebral cholinergic lesion reduces operant responses to unpleasant thermal stimuli. Targeting Trends 17(2).

Wiley RG, Yezierski R, Vierck CJ Jr (2016) Cerebral cholinergic mechanisms in pain: CBF lesions vs systemic scopolamine. Soc Neurosci Meeting Abstract 525.15


Aicher SA, Hermes SM, Hegarty DM. (2015) Denervation of the Lacrimal Gland Leads to Corneal Hypoalgesia in a Novel Rat Model of Aqueous Dry Eye Disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56(11):6981-6989. PMID: 26513503 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Chen Y, Pan C, Xuan A, Xu L, Bao G, Liu F, Fang J, Long D. (2015) Treatment Efficacy of NGF Nanoparticles Combining Neural Stem Cell Transplantation on Alzheimer’s Disease Model Rats. Med Sci Monit 21:3608-3615. PMID: 26590375 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Dashniani M, Kruashvili L, Rusadze Kh, Mataradze S, Beselia G. (2015) Effects of immunotoxic and electrolytic lesions of medial septal area on spatial short-term memory in rats. Georgian Med News (239):98-103. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Dashniani MG, Burjanadze MA, Naneishvili TL, Chkhikvishvili NC, Beselia GV, Kruashvili LB, Pochkhidze NO, Chighladze MR. (2015) Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats. Physiol Res Epub(Targeting Trends 15q3)

Kalinchuk AV, Porkka-Heiskanen T, McCarley RW, Basheer R. (2015) Cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain mediate biochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying sleep homeostasis. Eur J Neurosci 41(2):182-195. (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Kucinski A. (2015) Impairments in gait, posture and complex movement control in rats modeling the multi-system, cholinergic-dopaminergic losses in Parkinson’s Disease. Targeting Trends 16(1).

McHugh SB, Francis A, McAuley JD, Stewart AL, Baxter MG, Bannerman DM. (2015) Hippocampal acetylcholine depletion has no effect on anxiety, spatial novelty preference, or differential reward for low rates of responding (DRL) performance in rats. Behav Neurosci 129(4):491-501. PMID: 26214215 (Targeting Trends 15q4)


Jeong da U, Lee JE, Lee SE, Chang WS, Kim SJ, Chang JW. (2014) Improvements in memory after medial septum stimulation are associated with changes in hippocampal cholinergic activity and neurogenesis. Biomed Res Int 2014:568587. (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Ljubojevic V, Luu P, De Rosa E. (2014) Cholinergic contributions to supramodal attentional processes in rats. J Neurosci 34(6):2264-2275. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Rastogi S, Unni S, Sharma S, Laxmi TR, Kutty BM. (2014) Cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-SAPORIN alters subicular theta-gamma activity and impairs spatial learning in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 114C:117-126. (Targeting Trends 14q3)

Tai SK, Ma J, Leung LS. (2014) Medial Septal Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Isoflurane Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 120(2):392-402. (Targeting Trends 13q4)


Ariffin MZ, Chang LS, Koh HC, Low CM, Khanna S. (2013) An environment-dependent modulation of cortical neural response by forebrain cholinergic neurons in awake rat. Brain Res 1513:72-84. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Baxter MG, Bucci DJ, Gorman LK, Wiley RG, Gallagher M. (2013) Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats. Behav Neurosci 127(5):619-627. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Baxter MG, Bucci DJ. (2013) Selective Immunotoxic Lesions of Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Twenty Years of Research and New Directions. Behav Neurosci 127(5):611-618 (Targeting Trends 13q4)

Cutuli D, De Bartolo P, Caporali P, Tartaglione AM, Oddi D, D’Amato FR, Nobili A, D’Amelio M, Petrosini L. (2013) Neuroprotective effects of donepezil against cholinergic depletion. Alzheimers Res Ther 5(5):50. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Gelfo F, Petrosini L, Graziano A, De Bartolo P, Burello L, Vitale E, Polverino A, Iuliano A, Sorrentino G, Mandolesi L. (2013) Cortical Metabolic Deficits in a Rat Model of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Degeneration. Neurochem Res 38(10):2114-2123. (Targeting Trends 13q4)

Grupe M, Paolone G, Jensen AA, Sandager-Nielsen K, Sarter M, Grunnet M. (2013) Selective potentiation of (alpha4)3(beta2)2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors augments amplitudes of prefrontal acetylcholine- and nicotine-evoked glutamatergic transients in rats. Biochem Pharmacol 86(10):1487-1496. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Kruger HS, Hanganu-Opatz IL. (2013) Neonatal cholinergic lesion alters the acoustic structure of infant rat vocalization but not the early cognitive development. Dev Psychobiol 55(3):294-308. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Kucinski A, Paolone G, Bradshaw M, Albin RL, Sarter M. (2013) Modeling fall propensity in Parkinson’s disease: deficits in the attentional control of complex movements in rats with cortical-cholinergic and striatal-dopaminergic deafferentation. J Neurosci 33(42):16522-16539. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Lee YS, Danandeh A, Baratta J, Lin CY, Yu J, Robertson RT. (2013) Neurotrophic factors rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve performance on a spatial learning test. Exp Neurol 249C:178-186. (Targeting Trends 13q4)

Lelkes Z, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Stenberg D. (2013) Cholinergic basal forebrain structures are involved in the mediation of the arousal effect of noradrenaline. J Sleep Res 22(6):721-726. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Minces VH, Alexander AS, Datlow M, Alfonso SI, Chiba AA. (2013) The role of visual cortex acetylcholine in learning to discriminate temporally modulated visual stimuli. Front Behav Neurosci 7:16. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Parent MJ, Cyr M, Aliaga A, Kostikov A, Schirrmacher E, Soucy JP, Mechawar N, Rosa-Neto P, Bedard MA. (2013) Concordance between in vivo and postmortem measurements of cholinergic denervation in rats using PET with [18F]FEOBV and choline acetyltransferase immunochemistry. EJNMMI Res 3(1):70. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Szigeti C, Bencsik N, Simonka AJ, Legradi A, Kasa P, Gulya K. (2013) Long-term effects of selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on the ascending cholinergic pathways in the rat: A model for Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res Bull 94C:9-16. (Targeting Trends 13q2)


Babalola PA, Fitz NF, Gibbs RB, Flaherty PT, Li PK, Johnson DA. (2012) The effect of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor (p-O-sulfamoyl)-tetradecanoyl tyramine (DU-14) on learning and memory in rats with selective lesion of septal-hippocampal cholinergic tract. Neurobiol Learn Mem 98(3):303-310. (Targeting Trends 13q1)

Botly LC, De Rosa E. (2012) Impaired Visual Search in Rats Reveals Cholinergic Contributions to Feature Binding in Visuospatial Attention. Cereb Cortex 22(10):2441-2453. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Brown RE, Basheer R, McKenna JT, Strecker RE, McCarley RW. (2012) Control of sleep and wakefulness. Physiol Rev 92(3):1087-1187. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Cai L, Gibbs RB, Johnson DA. (2012) Recognition of novel objects and their location in rats with selective cholinergic lesion of the medial septum. Neurosci Lett 506(2):261-265. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Kanju PM, Parameshwaran K, Sims-Robinson C, Uthayathas S, Josephson EM, Rajakumar N, Dhanasekaran M, Suppiramaniam V. (2012) Selective cholinergic depletion in medial septum leads to impaired long term potentiation and glutamatergic synaptic currents in the hippocampus. PLoS One 7(2):e31073. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

Paolone G, Lee TM, Sarter M. (2012) Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality, and performance. J Neurosci 32(35):12115-12128. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Parent M, Bedard MA, Aliaga A, Soucy JP, Landry St-Pierre E, Cyr M, Kostikov A, Schirrmacher E, Massarweh G, Rosa-Neto P. (2012) PET imaging of cholinergic deficits in rats using [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV). Neuroimage 62(1):555-561. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Savage S, Mattsson A, Olson L. (2012) Cholinergic denervation attenuates phencyclidine-induced c-fos responses in rat cortical neurons. Neuroscience 216:38-45. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

St Peters M, Sarter M. (2012) Motivation’s modulation of attention through the mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry. Targeting Trends 13(1).

Tai SK, Ma J, Ossenkopp KP, Leung LS. (2012) Activation of immobility-related hippocampal theta by cholinergic septohippocampal neurons during vestibular stimulation. Hippocampus 22(4):914-925. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

Tai SK, Leung LS. (2012) Vestibular stimulation enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation via activation of cholinergic septohippocampal cells. Behav Brain Res 232(1):174-182. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

Tolner EA, Sheikh A, Yukin AY, Kaila K, Kanold PO. Subplate neurons promote spindle bursts and thalamocortical patterning in the neonatal rat somatosensory cortex. ( 2012 ) J Neurosci  32(2):692-702 . doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1538-11.2012

Zant JC, Rozov S, Wigren HK, Panula P, Porkka-Heiskanen T. (2012) Histamine release in the basal forebrain mediates cortical activation through cholinergic neurons. J Neurosci 32(38):13244-13254. (Targeting Trends 13q1)


Angelucci F, Gelfo F, Bartolo PD, Caltagirone C, Petrosini L. (2011) BDNF concentrations are decreased in serum and parietal cortex in immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin rat model of cholinergic degeneration. Neurochem Int 59(1):1-4, 2011. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

Antonini V, Marrazzo A, Kleiner G, Coradazzi M, Ronsisvalle S, Prezzavento O, Ronsisvalle G, Leanza G. (2011) Anti-Amnesic and Neuroprotective Actions of the Sigma-1 Receptor Agonist (-)-MR22 in Rats with Selective Cholinergic Lesion and Amyloid Infusion. J Alzheimers Dis 24(3):569-586. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Easton A, Fitchett AE, Eacott MJ, Baxter MG. (2011) Medial septal cholinergic neurons are necessary for context-place memory but not episodic-like memory. Hippocampus 21(9):1021-1027. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Fuller P, Sherman D, Pedersen NP, Saper CB, Lu J. (2011) Reassessment of the structural basis of the ascending arousal system. J Comp Neurol 519(5):933-956. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Gibbs RB, Chipman AM, Nelson D. (2011) Donepezil plus estradiol treatment enhances learning and delay-dependent memory performance by young ovariectomized rats with partial loss of septal cholinergic neurons. Horm Behav 59(4):503-511. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Gil-Bea FJ, Solas M, Mateos L, Winblad B, Ramirez MJ, Cedazo-Minguez A. (2011) Cholinergic hypofunction impairs memory acquisition possibly through hippocampal Arc and BDNF downregulation. Hippocampus 21(9):999-1009. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Hernandez-Melesio MA, Gonzalez-Esquivel D, Ortiz-Plata A, Sanchez-Mendoza A, Sanchez-Garcia A, Alcaraz-Zubeldia M, Rios C, Perez-Severiano F. (2011) Molsidomine modulates the cNOS activity in an experimental model of cholinergic damage induced by 192-IgG saporin. Neurosci Lett 491(2):133-137. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Janiesch PC, Kruger HS, Poschel B, Hanganu-Opatz IL. (2011) Cholinergic Control in Developing Prefrontal-Hippocampal Networks. J Neurosci 31(49):17955-17970. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Jeong DU, Chang WS, Hwang YS, Lee D, Chang JW. (2011) Decrease of GABAergic Markers and Arc Protein Expression in the Frontal Cortex by Intraventricular 192 IgG-Saporin. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 32(1):70-78. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

Klinkenberg I, Sambeth A, Blokland A (2011) Acetylcholine and attention. Behav Brain Res 221(2):430-442. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Koenig J, Lecourtier L, Cosquer B, Pereira PM, Cassel J (2011) Spatial memory alterations by activation of septal 5HT(1A) receptors: no implication of cholinergic septohippocampal neurons. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214(2):437-454. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Lecourtier L, de Vasconcelos AP, Leroux E, Cosquer B, Geiger K, Lithfous S, Cassel JC. (2011) Septohippocampal pathways contribute to system consolidation of a spatial memory: Sequential implication of gabaergic and cholinergic neurons. Hippocampus 21(12):1277-1289. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Leung LS, Petropoulos S, Shen B, Luo T, Herrick I, Rajakumar N, Ma J. (2011) Lesion of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis enhances response to general anesthetics. Exp Neurol 228(2):259-269. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Paban V, Chambon C, Farioli F, Alescio-Lautier B. (2011) Gene regulation in the rat prefrontal cortex after learning with or without cholinergic insult. Neurobiol Learn Mem 95(4):441-452. (Targeting Trends 11q2)

Paban V, Chambon C, Manrique C, Touzet C, Alescio-Lautier B (2011) Neurotrophic signaling molecules associated with cholinergic damage in young and aged rats Environmental enrichment as potential therapeutic agent. Neurobiol Aging 32(3):470-485. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Pang KCH, Jiao X, Sinha S, Beck KD, Servatius RJ (2011) Damage of GABAergic neurons in the medial septum impairs spatial working memory and extinction of active avoidance: Effects on proactive interference. Hippocampus 21(8):835-846. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Rennie K, Frechette M, Pappas BA (2011) The effects of neonatal forebrain cholinergic lesion on adult hippocampal neurogenesi.s Brain Res 1373(10):79-90. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Savage S, Kehr J, Olson L, Mattsson A. (2011) Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation. Neuroscience 195:60-69. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

St Peters M, Demeter E, Lustig C, Bruno JP, Sarter M. (2011) Enhanced control of attention by stimulating mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry. J Neurosci 31(26):9760-9771. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

See also: International Brain Research Organization 2011 AbstractsSociety for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


Conner JM, Kulczycki M, Tuszynski MH (2010) Unique Contributions of Distinct Cholinergic Projections to Motor Cortical Plasticity and Learning. Cereb Cortex 20(11):2739-2748. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

De Bartolo P, Cutuli D, Ricceri L, Gelfo F, Foti F, Laricchiuta D, Scattoni ML, Calamandrei G, Petrosini L (2010) Does Age Matter? Behavioral and Neuro-anatomical Effects of Neonatal and Adult Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Lesions. J Alzheimers Dis 20:207-227. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

Gibbs RB (2010) Estrogen therapy and cognition: a review of the cholinergic hypothesis. Endocr Rev 31(2):224-253. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Paban V, Farioli F, Romier B, Chambon C, Alescio-Lautier B (2010) Gene expression profile in rat hippocampus with and without memory deficit. Neurobiol Learn Mem 94(1):42-56. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Sugiura A, Ohtori S, Yamashita M, Yamauchi K, Inoue G, Suzuki M, Norimoto M, Orita S, Eguchi Y, Kuniyoshi K, Ochiai N, Kishida S, Takaso M, Aoki Y, Ishikawa T, Arai G, Miyagi M, Kamoda H, Nakamura J, Takahashi K (2010) Effect of applying p75NTR saporin to a punctured intervertebral disc on calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Orthop Sci 15(3):407-413. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Thomsen MS, Hay-Schmidt A, Hansen HH, Mikkelsen JD (2010) Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain. Cereb Cortex 20(9):2092-2102. (Targeting Trends 10q4)


Aisa B, Gil-Bea FJ, Marcos B, Tordera R, Lasheras B, Del Rio J, Ramirez MJ (2009) Neonatal stress affects vulnerability of cholinergic neurons and cognition in the rat: Involvement of the HPA axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(10):1495-1505. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Antonini V, Prezzavento O, Coradazzi M, Marrazzo A, Ronsisvalle S, Arena E, Leanza G (2009) Anti-amnesic properties of (+/-)-PPCC, a novel sigma receptor ligand, on cognitive dysfunction induced by selective cholinergic lesion in rats. J Neurochem 109:744-754. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Aztiria E, Cataudella T, Spampinato S, Leanza G (2009) Septal grafts restore cognitive abilities and amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Neurobiol Aging 30:1614-1625. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Botly LC, De Rosa E (2009) Cholinergic deafferentation of the neocortex using 192 IgG-saporin impairs feature binding in rats. J Neurosci 29:4120-4130. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Cao F, Chen SS, Yan XF, Xiao XP, Liu XJ, Yang SB, Xu AJ, Gao F, Yang H, Chen ZJ, Tian YK (2009) Evaluation of side effects through selective ablation of the mu opioid receptor expressing descending nociceptive facilitatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla with dermorphin-saporin. Neurotoxicology 30(6):1096-1106. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Conner JM, Franks KM, Titterness AK, Russell K, Merrill DA, Christie BR, Sejnowski TJ, Tuszynski MH (2009) NGF is essential for hippocampal plasticity and learning. J Neurosci 29:10883-10889. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Craig LA, Hong NS, Kopp J, McDonald RJ (2009) Cholinergic depletion of the medial septum followed by phase shifting does not impair memory or rest-activity rhythms measured under standard light/dark conditions in rats. Brain Res Bull 79(1):53-62. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Craig LA, Hong NS, Kopp J, McDonald RJ (2009) Selective lesion of medial septal cholinergic neurons followed by a mini-stroke impairs spatial learning in rats. Exp Brain Res 193(1):29-42. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Cutuli D, Foti F, Mandolesi L, De Bartolo P, Gelfo F, Federico F, Petrosini L (2009) Cognitive Performances of Cholinergically Depleted Rats Following Chronic Donepezil Administration. J Alzheimers Dis 17(1):161-176. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Dashniani M, Burjanadze M, Beselia G, Maglakelidze G, Naneishvili T (2009) Spatial memory following selective cholinergic lesion of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Georgian Med News 174:77-81. (Targeting Trends 10q1)

Dashniani MG, Beseliia GV, Maglakelidze GA, Burdzhanadze MA, Chkhikvishvili N (2009) Effects of the selective lesions of cholinergic septohippocampal neurons on different forms of memory and learning process. Georgian Med News 81-85. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

De Bartolo P, Gelfo F, Mandolesi L, Foti F, Cutuli D, Petrosini L (2009) Effects of chronic donepezil treatment and cholinergic deafferentation on parietal pyramidal neuron morphology. J Alzheimers Dis 17:177-191. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Esclassan F, Coutureau E, Di Scala G, Marchand AR (2009) A cholinergic-dependent role for the entorhinal cortex in trace fear conditioning. J Neurosci 29:8087-8093. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Frechette M, Rennie K, Pappas BA (2009) Developmental forebrain cholinergic lesion and environmental enrichment: behaviour, CA1 cytoarchitecture and neurogenesis. Brain Res 1252:172-182. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Ma J, Tai SK, Leung LS (2009) Ketamine-induced deficit of auditory gating in the hippocampus of rats is alleviated by medial septal inactivation and antipsychotic drugs. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 206:457-467. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Ramanathan D, Tuszynski MH, Conner JM (2009) The basal forebrain cholinergic system is required specifically for behaviorally mediated cortical map plasticity. J Neurosci 29:5992-6000. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Robertson RT, Baratta J, Yu J, LaFerla FM (2009) Amyloid-beta expression in retrosplenial cortex of triple transgenic mice: relationship to cholinergic axonal afferents from medial septum. Neuroscience 164:1334-1346. (Targeting Trends 10q1)

Zhu J, Xu W, Wang J, Ali SF, Angulo JA (2009) The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Modulates the Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Apoptosis and Nitric Oxide Formation in Mice. J Neurochem 111(3):656-668. (Targeting Trends 09q4)


Burk JA, Lowder MW, Altemose KE (2008) Attentional demands for demonstrating deficits following intrabasalis infusions of 192 IgG-saporin. Behav Brain Res 195:231-238. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Craig LA, Hong NS, Kopp J, McDonald RJ (2008) Emergence of spatial impairment in rats following specific cholinergic depletion of the medial septum combined with chronic stress. Eur J Neurosci 27:2262-2271. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Craig LA, Hong NS, Kopp J, McDonald RJ (2008) Reduced cholinergic status in hippocampus produces spatial memory deficits when combined with kainic acid induced seizures. Hippocampus 18(11):1112-1121. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

De Bartolo P, Leggio MG, Mandolesi L, Foti F, Gelfo F, Ferlazzo F, Petrosini L (2008) Environmental enrichment mitigates the effects of basal forebrain lesions on cognitive flexibility. Neuroscience 154(2):444-453. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Dotigny F, Ben Amor AY, Burke M, Vaucher E (2008) Neuromodulatory role of acetylcholine in visually-induced cortical activation: Behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Neuroscience 154(4):1607-1618. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Fitz NF, Gibbs RB, Johnson DA (2008) Selective lesion of septal cholinergic neurons in rats impairs acquisition of a delayed matching to position T-maze task by delaying the shift from a response to a place strategy. Brain Res Bull 77:356-360. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Harati H, Barbelivien A, Cosquer B, Majchrzak M, Cassel JC (2008) Selective cholinergic lesions in the rat nucleus basalis magnocellularis with limited damage in the medial septum specifically alter attention performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task. Neuroscience 153:72-83. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Kalinchuk AV, McCarley RW, Stenberg D, Porkka-Heiskanen T, Basheer R (2008) The role of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in adenosine-mediated homeostatic control of sleep: lessons from 192 IgG-saporin lesions. Neuroscience 157:238-253. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Kaur S, Junek A, Black MA, Semba K (2008) Effects of ibotenate and 192IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis/substantia innominata on spontaneous sleep and wake states and on recovery sleep after sleep deprivation in rats. J Neurosci 28:491-504. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Laalou FZ, de Vasconcelos AP, Oberling P, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Pain L (2008) Involvement of the basal cholinergic forebrain in the mediation of general (propofol) anesthesia. Anesthesiology 108:888-896. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Mandolesi L, De Bartolo P, Foti F, Gelfo F, Federico F, Leggio MG, Petrosini L (2008) Environmental Enrichment Provides a Cognitive Reserve to be Spent in the Case of Brain Lesion. J Alzheimers Dis 15:11-28. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Martin MM, Winter SS, Cheatwood JL, Carter LA, Jones JL, Weathered SL, Wagner SJ, Wallace DG (2008) Organization of food protection behavior is differentially influenced by 192 IgG-saporin lesions of either the medial septum or the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Brain Res 1241:122-135. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

McGaughy J, Ross RS, Eichenbaum H (2008) Noradrenergic, but not cholinergic, deafferentation of prefrontal cortex impairs attentional set-shifting. Neuroscience 153:63-71. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Moreau PH, Cosquer B, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Mathis C (2008) Neuroanatomical and behavioral effects of a novel version of the cholinergic immunotoxin mu p75-saporin in mice. Hippocampus 18(6):610-622. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Moreau P-H, Cosquer B, Jeltsch H, Cassel J-C, Mathis C. (2008) Selective lesion of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in mice with the mu p75-saporin immunotoxin: Neuroanatomy and behavior. Targeting Trends 9(2).

Newman LA, McGaughy J (2008) Cholinergic Deafferentation of Prefrontal Cortex Increases Sensitivity to Cross-Modal Distractors during a Sustained Attention Task. J Neurosci 28:2642-2650. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Rostron CL, Farquhar MJ, Latimer MP, Winn P (2008) The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis: do both have a role in sustained attention? BMC Neurosci 9:16. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Tait DS, Brown VJ (2008) Lesions of the basal forebrain impair reversal learning but not shifting of attentional set in rats. Behav Brain Res 187:100-108. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Wisman LA, Sahin G, Maingay M, Leanza G, & Kirik D. Functional Convergence of Dopaminergic and Cholinergic Input Is Critical for Hippocampus-Dependent Working Memory. (2008). J Neurosci, 28 (31):7797-7807. 2008/08/01. PMC6670368

Summary:  Analysis of cholinergic alterations in PD patients may help to understand and treat the nonmotor symptoms of the disease.
Dose:  Cholinergic neurons in theNBMand the MS/vDBB were lesioned by bilateral injection of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-SAP (0.85 µl of dissolved at a concentration of 0.142 µg/µl in PBS).


Alenda A, Nunez A (2007) Cholinergic modulation of sensory interference in rat primary somatosensory cortical neurons. Brain Res 1133:158-167. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Aztiria E, Capodieci G, Arancio L, Leanza G (2007) Extensive training in a maze task reduces neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus probably as a result of stress. Neurosci Lett 416(2):133-137. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Bailey AM, Lee JM (2007) Lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis lower performance but do not block the retention of a previously acquired learning set. Brain Res 1136:110-121. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Berdiev RK, Chepurnov SA, Veening JG, Chepurnova NE, van Luijtelaar G (2007) The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats: A lesion study. Brain Res 1185:266-274. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Blanco-Centurion C, Gerashchenko D, Shiromani PJ (2007) Effects of saporin-induced lesions of three arousal populations on daily levels of sleep and wake. J Neurosci 27:14041-14048. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Chambon C, Paban V, Manrique C, Alescio-Lautier B (2007) Behavioral and immunohistological effects of cholinergic damage in immunolesioned rats: Alteration of c-Fos and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression. Neuroscience 147:893-905. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Dwyer TA, Servatius RJ, Pang KC (2007) Noncholinergic lesions of the medial septum impair sequential learning of different spatial locations. J Neurosci 27:299-303. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Emgard M, Paradisi M, Pirondi S, Fernandez M, Giardino L, Calza L (2007) Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure affects learning and vulnerability of cholinergic neurons. Neurobiol Aging 28(1):112-121. (Targeting Trends 06q2)

Ferry B, Herbeaux K, Cosquer B, Traissard N, Galani R, Cassel JC (2007) Immunotoxic cholinergic lesions in the basal forebrain reverse the effects of entorhinal cortex lesions on conditioned odor aversion in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:114-126. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Fletcher BR, Baxter MG, Guzowski JF, Shapiro ML, Rapp PR (2007) Selective cholinergic depletion of the hippocampus spares both behaviorally induced Arc transcription and spatial learning and memory. Hippocampus 17:227-234. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Gibbs RB (2007) Estradiol enhances DMP acquisition via a mechanism not mediated by turning strategy but which requires intact basal forebrain cholinergic projections. Horm Behav 52:352-359. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Gibbs RB, Johnson DA (2007) Cholinergic lesions produce task-selective effects on delayed matching to position and configural association learning related to response pattern and strategy. Neurobiol Learn Mem 88:19-32. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Hanganu IL, Staiger JF, Ben-Ari Y, Khazipov R (2007) Cholinergic modulation of spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex in vivo. J Neurosci 27:5694-5705. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Ma W, Eisenach JC (2007) Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is upregulated in a subset of primary sensory afferents after nerve injury which are necessary for analgesia from alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation. Brain Res 1127(1):52-58. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Magrassi L, Grimaldi P, Ibatici A, Corselli M, Ciardelli L, Castello S, Podesta M, Frassoni F, Rossi F (2007) Induction and survival of binucleated Purkinje neurons by selective damage and aging. J Neurosci 27:9885-9892. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Martin MM, Wallace DG (2007) Selective hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation impairs self-movement cue use during a food hoarding task. Behav Brain Res 183:78-86. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Martinez L, de Lacalle S (2007) Astrocytic reaction to a lesion, under hormonal deprivation. Neurosci Lett 415(2):190-193. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Mattsson A, Olson L, Svensson TH, Schilstrom B (2007) Cortical cholinergic deficiency enhances amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens but not in the striatum. Exp Neurol. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Myhrer T, Enger S, Aas P (2007) Anticonvulsant effects of damage to structures involved in seizure induction in rats exposed to soman. Neurotoxicology. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Percaccio CR, Pruette AL, Mistry ST, Chen YH, Kilgard MP (2007) Sensory experience determines enrichment-induced plasticity in rat auditory cortex. Brain Res 1174:76-91. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Quinlivan M, Chalon S, Vergote J, Henderson J, Katsifis A, Kassiou M, Guilloteau D (2007) Decreased vesicular acetylcholine transporter and alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic receptor density in the rat brain following 192 IgG-saporin immunolesioning. Neurosci Lett 415(2):97-101. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Ricceri L, Cutuli D, Venerosi A, Scattoni ML, Calamandrei G (2007) Neonatal basal forebrain cholinergic hypofunction affects ultrasonic vocalizations and fear conditioning responses in preweaning rats. Behav Brain Res 183:111-117. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Severino M, Pedersen AF, Trajkovska V, Christensen E, Lohals R, Veng LM, Knudsen GM, Aznar S (2007) Selective immunolesion of cholinergic neurons leads to long-term changes in 5-HT2A receptor levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Neurosci Lett 428:47-51. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Traissard N, Herbeaux K, Cosquer B, Jeltsch H, Ferry B, Galani R, Pernon A, Majchrzak M, Cassel JC (2007) Combined damage to entorhinal cortex and cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, two early neurodegenerative features accompanying Alzheimer’s disease: effects on locomotor activity and memory functions in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:851-871. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Walker BR, Diefenbach KS, Parikh TN (2007) Inhibition within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ameliorates environmental exploration deficits due to cerebellum lesions in an animal model for autism. Behav Brain Res 176(1):109-120. (Targeting Trends 07q1)


Blanco-Centurion CA, Shiromani A, Winston E, Shiromani PJ (2006) Effects of hypocretin-1 in 192-IgG-saporin-lesioned rats. Eur J Neurosci 24(7):2084-2088. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Blanco-Centurion C, Xu M, Murillo-Rodriguez E, Gerashchenko D, Shiromani AM, Salin-Pascual RJ, Hof PR,Shiromani PJ (2006) Adenosine and sleep homeostasis in the Basal forebrain. J Neurosci 26(31):8092-8100. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Cabrera SM, Chavez CM, Corley SR, Kitto MR, Butt AE (2006) Selective lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis impair cognitive flexibility. Behav Neurosci 120:298-306. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

Fitz NF, Gibbs RB, Johnson DA (2006) Aversive stimulus attenuates impairment of acquisition in a delayed match to position T-maze task caused by a selective lesion of septo-hippocampal cholinergic projections. Brain Res Bull 69(6):660-665. (Targeting Trends 06q3)

Frielingsdorf H, Thal LJ, Pizzo DP (2006) The septohippocampal cholinergic system and spatial working memory in the Morris water maze. Behav Brain Res 168(1):37-46. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Garcia-Alloza M, Zaldua N, Diez-Ariza M, Marcos B, Lasheras B, Javier Gil-Bea F, Ramirez MJ (2006) Effect of selective cholinergic denervation on the serotonergic system: implications for learning and memory. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65(11):1074-1081. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Garrett JE, Kim I, Wilson RE, Wellman CL (2006) Effect of N-METHYL-d-aspartate receptor blockade on plasticity of frontal cortex after cholinergic deafferentation in rat. Neuroscience 140(1):57-66. (Targeting Trends 06q2)

Grimaldi P, Rossi F (2006) Lack of neurogenesis in the adult rat cerebellum after Purkinje cell degeneration and growth factor infusion. Eur J Neurosci 23(10):2657-2668. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Hawkes C, Kabogo D, Amritraj A, Kar S (2006) Up-regulation of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and endosomal-lysosomal markers in surviving neurons after 192-IgG-saporin administrations into the adult rat brain. Am J Pathol 169(4):1140-1154. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Kalinchuk AV, Porkka-Heiskanen T, McCarley RW (2006) Basal forebrain and saporin cholinergic lesions: the devil dwells in delivery details. Sleep 29:1385-1387; discussion 1387-1389. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Knox D, Berntson GG (2006) Effect of nucleus basalis magnocellularis cholinergic lesions on fear-like and anxiety-like behavior. Behav Neurosci 120(2):307-312. (Targeting Trends 06q3)

Marcos B, Gil-Bea FJ, Hirst WD, Garcia-Alloza M, Ramirez MJ (2006) Lack of localization of 5-HT6 receptors on cholinergic neurons: implication of multiple neurotransmitter systems in 5-HT6 receptor-mediated acetylcholine release. Eur J Neurosci 24(5):1299-1306. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Parikh V, Sarter M (2006) Cortical choline transporter function measured in vivo using choline-sensitive microelectrodes: clearance of endogenous and exogenous choline and effects of removal of cholinergic terminals. J Neurochem 97(2):488-503. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Saenz C, Dominguez R, de Lacalle S (2006) Estrogen contributes to structural recovery after a lesion. Neurosci Lett 392(3):198-201. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Scattoni ML, Adriani W, Calamandrei G, Laviola G, Ricceri L (2006) Long-term effects of neonatal basal forebrain cholinergic lesions on radial maze learning and impulsivity in rats. Behav Pharmacol 17(5-6):517-524. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

van der Staay FJ, Bouger P, Lehmann O, Lazarus C, Cosquer B, Koenig J, Stump V, Cassel JC (2006) Long-term effects of immunotoxic cholinergic lesions in the septum on acquisition of the cone-field task and noncognitive measures in rats. Hippocampus 16(12):1061-1079. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Wiley RG. (2006) Targeted Toxins in Pain. Targeting Trends 7(2).

Willis CL, Ray DE, Marshall H, Elliot G, Evans JG, Kind CN (2006) Basal forebrain cholinergic lesions reduce heat shock protein 72 response but not pathology induced by the NMDA antagonist MK-801 in the rat cingulate cortex. Neurosci Lett 407(2):112-117. (Targeting Trends 07q1)


Castle M, Comoli E, Loewy AD (2005) Autonomic brainstem nuclei are linked to the hippocampus. Neuroscience 134(2):657-669. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Fontan-Lozano A, Troncoso J, Munera A, Carrion AM, Delgado-Garcia JM (2005) Cholinergic septo-hippocampal innervation is required for trace eyeblink classical conditioning. Learn Mem 12(6):557-563. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Gil-Bea FJ, Garcia-Alloza M, Dominguez J, Marcos B, Ramirez MJ (2005) Evaluation of cholinergic markers in Alzheimer’s disease and in a model of cholinergic deficit. Neurosci Lett 375(1):37-41. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Harrell LE, Parsons DS, Kolasa K (2005) The effect of central cholinergic and noradrenergic denervation on hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth and apoptosis-like reactivity in the rat. Brain Res 1033(1):68-77. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

Harrell LE, Parsons DS, Kolasa K (2005) Pro- and anti-apoptotic evidence for cholinergic denervation and hippocampal sympathetic ingrowth in rat dorsal hippocampus. Exp Neurol 194(1):182-190. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Hartonian I, de Lacalle S (2005) Compensatory changes in cortical cholinergic innervation in the rat following an immunotoxic lesion. Restor Neurol Neurosci 23(2):87-96. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Hawkes C, Jhamandas JH, Kar S (2005) Selective loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by 192 IgG-saporin is associated with decreased phosphorylation of Ser glycogen synthase kinase-3beta. J Neurochem 95(1):263-272. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Kim I, Wilson RE, Wellman CL (2005) Aging and cholinergic deafferentation alter GluR1 expression in rat frontal cortex. Neurobiol Aging 26(7):1073-1081. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

Koh S, Santos TC, Cole AJ (2005) Susceptibility to seizure-induced injury and acquired microencephaly following intraventricular injection of saporin-conjugated 192 IgG in developing rat brain. Exp Neurol 194(2):457-466. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Kuczewski N, Aztiria E, Leanza G, Domenici L (2005) Selective cholinergic immunolesioning affects synaptic plasticity in developing visual cortex. Eur J Neurosci 21(7):1807-1814. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Lappi DA (2005) Targeted Toxins from Here to There. Targeting Trends 6(3):1, 6.

Marques Pereira P, Cosquer B, Schimchowitsch S, Cassel JC (2005) Hebb-Williams performance and scopolamine challenge in rats with partial immunotoxic hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation. Brain Res Bull 64(5):381-394. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

Mattsson A, Lindqvist E, Ogren SO, Olson L (2005) Increased phencyclidine-induced hyperactivity following cortical cholinergic denervation. Neuroreport 16(16):1815-1819. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Mohapel P, Leanza G, Kokaia M, Lindvall O (2005) Forebrain acetylcholine regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis and learning. Neurobiol Aging 26:939-946. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

Paban V, Jaffard M, Chambon C, Malafosse M, Alescio-Lautier B (2005) Time course of behavioral changes following basal forebrain cholinergic damage in rats: Environmental enrichment as a therapeutic intervention. Neuroscience 132(1):13-32. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Pappas BA, Payne KB, Fortin T, Sherren N (2005) Neonatal lesion of forebrain cholinergic neurons: Further characterization of behavioral effects and permanency. Neuroscience 133(2):485-492. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Ross RS, McGaughy J, Eichenbaum H (2005) Acetylcholine in the orbitofrontal cortex is necessary for the acquisition of a socially transmitted food preference. Learn Mem 12(3):302-306. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Scattoni ML, Puopolo M, Calamandrei G, Ricceri L (2005) Basal forebrain cholinergic lesions in 7-day-old rats alter ultrasound vocalisations and homing behaviour. Behav Brain Res 161(1):169-172. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Sherren N, Pappas BA (2005) Selective acetylcholine and dopamine lesions in neonatal rats produce distinct patterns of cortical dendritic atrophy in adulthood. Neuroscience 136(2):445-456. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Thinschmidt JS, Frazier CJ, King MA, Meyer EM, Papke RL (2005) Septal innervation regulates the function of alpha7 nicotinic receptors in CA1 hippocampal interneurons. Exp Neurol 195(2):342-352. (Targeting Trends 05q4)

Winters BD, Bussey TJ (2005) Removal of cholinergic input to perirhinal cortex disrupts object recognition but not spatial working memory in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 21(8):2263-2270. (Targeting Trends 05q3)

Yamazaki Y, Jia Y, Hamaue N, Sumikawa K (2005) Nicotine-induced switch in the nicotinic cholinergic mechanisms of facilitation of long-term potentiation induction. Eur J Neurosci 22(4):845-860. (Targeting Trends 06q1)

Yoder RM, Pang KC (2005) Involvement of GABAergic and cholinergic medial septal neurons in hippocampal theta rhythm. Hippocampus 15(3):381-392. (Targeting Trends 05q2)


Blanco-Centurion C, Gerashchenko D, Salin-Pascual RJ, Shiromani PJ (2004) Effects of hypocretin2-saporin and antidopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin neurotoxic lesions of the dorsolateral pons on sleep and muscle tone. Eur J Neurosci 19(10):2741-2752. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Chang Q, Gold PE (2004) Impaired and spared cholinergic functions in the hippocampus after lesions of the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band with 192 IgG-saporin. Hippocampus 14(2):170-179. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Chudasama Y, Dalley JW, Nathwani F, Bouger P, Robbins TW (2004) Cholinergic modulation of visual attention and working memory: Dissociable effects of basal forebrain 192-IgG-saporin lesions and intraprefrontal infusions of scopolamine. Learn Mem 11(1):78-86. (Targeting Trends 04q2)

Cooper-Kuhn CM, Winkler J, Kuhn HG (2004) Decreased neurogenesis after cholinergic forebrain lesion in the adult rat. J Neurosci Res 77(2):155-165. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Dalley JW, Theobald DE, Bouger P, Chudasama Y, Cardinal RN, Robbins TW (2004) Cortical cholinergic function and deficits in visual attentional performance in rats following 192 IgG-Saporin-induced lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 14(8):922-932. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Erhardt C, Galani R, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Klosen P, Menet JS, Pevet P, Challet E (2004) Modulation of photic resetting in rats by lesions of projections to the suprachiasmatic nuclei expressing p75 neurotrophin receptor. Eur J Neurosci 19(7):1773-1788. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Frick KM, Jeansok JK, Baxter MG (2004) Effects of complete immunotoxin lesions of the cholinergic basal forebrain on fear conditioning and spatial learning. Hippocampus 14:244-254.(Targeting Trends 04q2)

Gil-Bea FJ, Dominguez J, Garcia-Alloza M, Marcos B, Lasheras B, Ramirez MJ (2004) Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by combined treatment of ondansetron with flumazenil after cortical cholinergic deafferentation. Neuropharmacology 47(2):225-232. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Helm KA, Ziegler DR, Gallagher M (2004) Habituation to stress and dexamethasone suppression in rats with selective basal forebrain cholinergic lesions. Hippocampus 14(5):628-635. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Janisiewicz AM, Jackson O, Firoz EF, Baxter MG (2004) Environment-spatial conditional learning in rats with selective lesions of medial septal cholinergic neurons. Hippocampus 14:265-273.(Targeting Trends 04q2)

Jeltsch H, Lazarus C, Cosquer B, Galani R, Cassel JC (2004) No facilitation of amphetamine- or cocaine-induced hyperactivity in adult rats after various 192 IgG-saporin lesions in the basal forebrain. Brain Res 1029(2): 259-271. (Targeting Trends 05q1)

Jonasson Z, Cahill JF, Tobey RE, Baxter MG (2004) Sexually dimorphic effects of hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation in rats. Eur J Neurosci 20(11):3041-3053. (Targeting Trends 05q2)

Kudoh M, Seki K, Shibuki K (2004) Sound sequence discrimination learning is dependent on cholinergic inputs to the rat auditory cortex. Neurosci Res 50(1):113-123. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Ma J, Shen B, Rajakumar N, Leung LS (2004) The medial septum mediates impairment of prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle induced by a hippocampal seizure or phencyclidine. Behav Brain Res 155(1):153-166. (Targeting Trends 05q1)

Mattsson A, Pernold K, Ogren SO, Olson L (2004) Loss of cortical acetylcholine enhances amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. Neuroscience 127(3):579-591. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

McGaughy J. (2004) Cholinergic Deafferentation of the Entorhinal Cortex Impairs Working Memory for Novel, but not Familiar Stimuli in a Delayed Non-Match to Sample (DNMS) Task. Targeting Trends 5(1).

Parent MB, Baxter MG (2004) Septohippocampal acetylcholine: involved in but not necessary for learning and memory? Learn Mem 11:9-20.(Targeting Trends 04q2)

Rajakumar N, Leung LS, Ma J, Rajakumar B, Rushlow W (2004) Altered neurotrophin receptor function in the developing prefrontal cortex leads to adult-onset dopaminergic hyperresponsivity and impaired prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Biol Psychiatry 55(8):797-803. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Ricceri L, Minghetti L, Moles A, Popoli P, Confaloni A, De Simone R, Piscopo P, Scattoni ML, di Luca M, Calamandrei G (2004) Cognitive and neurological deficits induced by early and prolonged basal forebrain cholinergic hypofunction in rats. Exp Neurol 189(1):162-172. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Smith J. (2004) 192 IgG-Saporin-Induced Lesions Identify an Inhibitory Role in Cocaine Reward for Cholinergic Neuronal Systems in the Diagonal Band and Ventral Pallidum. Targeting Trends 5(2).

Smith JE, Co C, Yin X, Sizemore GM, Liguori A, Johnson WE 3rd, Martin TJ (2004) Involvement of cholinergic neuronal systems in intravenous cocaine self-administration. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27(8):841-850. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Vuckovich JA, Semel ME, Baxter MG (2004) Extensive lesions of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons do not impair spatial working memory. Learn Mem 11:87-94. (Targeting Trends 04q2)

Winters BD, Dunnett SB (2004) Selective lesioning of the cholinergic septo-hippocampal pathway does not disrupt spatial short-term memory: a comparison with the effects of fimbria-fornix lesions. Behav Neurosci 118(3):546-562. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Winters BD, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004) Selective cholinergic denervation of the cingulate cortex impairs the acquisition and performance of a conditional visual discrimination in rats. Eur J Neurosci 19(2):490-496. (Targeting Trends 04q4)

Works SJ, Wilson RE, Wellman CL (2004) Age-dependent effect of cholinergic lesion on dendritic morphology in rat frontal cortex. Neurobiol Aging 25(7):963-974. (Targeting Trends 04q4)


Bailey AM, Rudisill ML, Hoof EJ, Loving ML (2003) 192 IgG-saporin lesions to the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) disrupt acquisition of learning set formation. Brain Res 969(1-2):147-159. (Targeting Trends 03q3)

Birthelmer A, Lazaris A, Riegert C, Marques Pereira P, Koenig J, Jeltsch H, Jackisch R, Cassel JC (2003) Does the release of acetylcholine in septal slices originate from intrinsic cholinergic neurons bearing p75NTR receptors? A study using 192 IgG-saporin lesions in rats. Neuroscience 122(4):1059-1071. (Targeting Trends 04q1)

Birthelmer A, Ehret A, Amtage F, Forster S, Lehmann O, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Jackisch R (2003) Neurotransmitter release and its presynaptic modulation in the rat hippocampus after selective damage to cholinergic or/and serotonergic afferents. Brain Res Bull 59(5):371-381. (Targeting Trends 03q2)

Bizon JL, Han JS, Hudon C, Gallagher M (2003) Effects of hippocampal cholinergic deafferentation on learning strategy selection in a visible platform version of the water maze. Hippocampus 13(6):676-684. (Targeting Trends 04q1)

Buffo A, Carulli D, Rossi F, Strata P (2003) Extrinsic regulation of injury/growth-related gene expression in the inferior olive of the adult rat. Eur J Neurosci 18(8):2146-2158. (Targeting Trends 04q2)

Cadiacio CL, Milner TA, Gallagher M, Pierce JP (2003) Hilar neuropeptide Y interneuron loss in the aged rat hippocampal formation. Exp Neurol 183(1):147-158. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Calzà L, Giuliani A, Fernandez M, Pirondi S, Intino G, Aloe L, & Giardino L. Neural stem cells and cholinergic neurons: Regulation by immunolesion and treatment with mitogens, retinoic acid, and nerve growth factor. (2003). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100 (12):7325. (Targeting Trends 03q3)   IT-01:  192-IgG-SAP; PR-01:  Saporin

Objective:  the possibility of influencing, in vivo, proliferation, migration, and phenotype lineage of stem cells in the brain of adult animals with selective neural lesions by exogenous administration (alone or in combination) of hormones, cytokines, and neurotrophins.
Summary:  The results suggest that pharmacological control of endogenous neural stem cells can provide an additional opportunity for brain repair.
Dose:   Lesion of the cholinergic system was induced by icv injection of 192-IgG-SAP at 2 or 3 ug/4.5 ul.  Control, sham-operated animals were injected with the same amount of saporin alone.

Conner JM, Culberson A, Packowski C, Chiba AA, Tuszynski MH (2003) Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system impair task acquisition and abolish cortical plasticity associated with motor skill learning. Neuron 38(5):819-829. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Harmon KM, Wellman CL (2003) Differential effects of cholinergic lesions on dendritic spines in frontal cortex of young adult and aging rats. Brain Res 992:60-68. (Targeting Trends 04q1)

Hilgert M, Hartmann J, Loffelholz K, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Klein J (2003) Effects of septal grafts on acetylcholine release from rat hippocampus after 192 IgG-saporin lesion. Neurochem Res 28(3-4):467-472. (Targeting Trends 03q3)

Janisiewicz AM, Baxter MG (2003) Transfer effects and conditional learning in rats with selective lesions of medial septal/diagonal band cholinergic neurons. Behav Neurosci 117(6):1342-1352. (Targeting Trends 04q2)

Kirby BP, Rawlins JN (2003) The role of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic projection in T-maze rewarded alternation. Behav Brain Res 143(1):41-48. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Lam TT, Leranth C (2003) Role of the medial septum diagonal band of Broca cholinergic neurons in oestrogen-induced spine synapse formation on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of female rats. Eur J Neurosci 17(10):1997-2005. (Targeting Trends 03q3)

Lamprea MR, Cardenas FP, Silveira R, Walsh TJ, Morato S (2003) Effects of septal cholinergic lesion on rat exploratory behavior in an open-field. Braz J Med Biol Res 36(2):233-238. (Targeting Trends 03q2)

Lehmann O, Grottick AJ, Cassel JC, Higgins GA (2003) A double dissociation between serial reaction time and radial maze performance in rats subjected to 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis and/or the septal region. Eur J Neurosci 18(3):651-666. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Leung LS, Shen B, Rajakumar N, Ma J (2003) Cholinergic activity enhances hippocampal long-term potentiation in CA1 during walking in rats. J Neurosci 23(28):9297-9304. (Targeting Trends 04q1)

Pappas BA, Sherren N (2003) Neonatal 192 IgG-saporin lesion of forebrain cholinergic neurons: focus on the life span? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27(4):365-376. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Ricceri L (2003) Behavioral patterns under cholinergic control during development: lessons learned from the selective immunotoxin 192 IgG saporin. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27(4):377-384. (Targeting Trends 03q4)

Rudick CN, Gibbs RB, Woolley CS (2003) A role for the basal forebrain cholinergic system in estrogen-induced disinhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells. J Neurosci 23(11):4479-4490. (Targeting Trends 03q3)

Sarter M, Bruno JP, Givens B. (2003) Attentional functions of cortical cholinergic inputs: what does it mean for learning and memory? Neurobiol Learn Mem 80(3):245-256.

Scattoni ML, Calamandrei G, Ricceri L (2003) Neonatal cholinergic lesions and development of exploration upon administration of the GABAa receptor agonist muscimol in preweaning rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 76(2):213-221. (Targeting Trends 04q1)

Tomaszewicz M, Rossner S, Schliebs R, Cwikowska J, Szutowicz A (2003) Changes in cortical acetyl-CoA metabolism after selective basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration by 192IgG-saporin. J Neurochem 87(2):318-324. (Targeting Trends 04q1)


Ballmaier M, Casamenti F, Scali C, Mazzoncini R, Zoli M, Pepeu G, Spano PF (2002) Rivastigmine antagonizes deficits in prepulse inhibition induced by selective immunolesioning of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Neuroscience 114(1):91-98. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Beaule C, Amir S (2002) Effect of 192 IgG-saporin on circadian activity rhythms, expression of P75 neurotrophin receptors, calbindin-D28K, and light-induced Fos in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in rats. Exp Neurol 176(2):377-389. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Bechade C, Mallecourt C, Sedel F, Vyas S, Triller A (2002) Motoneuron-derived neurotrophin-3 is a survival factor for PAX2-expressing spinal interneurons. J Neurosci 22(20):8779-8784. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Berchtold NC, Kesslak JP, Cotman CW (2002) Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene regulation by exercise and the medial septum. J Neurosci Res 68(5):511-521. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Berntson GG, Shafi R, Sarter M (2002) Specific contributions of the basal forebrain corticopetal cholinergic system to electroencephalographic activity and sleep/waking behaviour. Eur J Neurosci 16(12):2453-2461. (Targeting Trends 03q2)

Birthelmer A, Dommes E, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC, Jackisch R (2002) Septal grafts and evoked acetylcholine release in the rat hippocampus after 192 IgG-saporin lesions. Neuroreport 13(7):973-976. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

Burk JA, Herzog CD, Porter MC, Sarter M (2002) Interactions between aging and cortical cholinergic deafferentation on attention. Neurobiol Aging 23:467-477. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

Butt AE, Bowman TD (2002) Transverse patterning reveals a dissociation of simple and configural association learning abilities in rats with 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Neurobiol Learn Mem 77:211-233. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Butt AE, Noble MM, Rogers JL, Rea TE (2002) Impairments in negative patterning, but not simple discrimination learning, in rats with 192 IgG-Saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Behav Neurosci 116(2):241-255. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

Cassel J-C. (2002) Does 192-IgG-Saporin or 5,7-DHT kill cognitive functions in the rat? Targeting Trends 3(4).

Cassel J, Gaurivaud M, Lazarus C, Bertrand F, Galani R, Jeltsch H (2002) Grafts of fetal septal cells after cholinergic immunotoxic denervation of the hippocampus: a functional dissociation between dorsal and ventral implantation sites. Neuroscience 113(4):871-882. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Galani R, Jeltsch H, Lehmann O, Bertrand F, Cassel JC (2002) Effects of 192 IgG-saporin on acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in male and female rats. Brain Res Bull 58(2):179-186. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Galani R, Lehmann O, Bolmont T, Aloy E, Bertrand F, Lazarus C, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC (2002) Selective immunolesions of CH4 cholinergic neurons do not disrupt spatial memory in rats. Physiol Behav 76:75-90. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Gibbs RB (2002) Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are necessary for estrogen to enhance acquisition of a delayed matching-to-position T-maze task. Horm Behav 42(3):245-257. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Hartonian I, Mufson EJ, de Lacalle S (2002) Long-term plastic changes in galanin innervation in the rat basal forebrain. Neuroscience 115(3):787-795. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Helm KA, Han JS, Gallagher M (2002) Effects of cholinergic lesions produced by infusions of 192 IgG-saporin on glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex of the rat. Neuroscience 115(3):765-774. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Hyde LA, Crnic LS (2002) Reactivity to object and spatial novelty is normal in older Ts65Dn mice that model Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res 945:26-30. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Johnson DA, Zambon NJ, Gibbs RB (2002) Selective lesion of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum by 192 IgG-saporin impairs learning in a delayed matching to position T-maze paradigm. Brain Res 943(1):132-141. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Lehmann O, Bertrand F, Jeltsch H, Morer M, Lazarus C, Will B, Cassel JC (2002) 5,7-DHT-induced hippocampal 5-HT depletion attenuates behavioural deficits produced by 192 IgG-saporin lesions of septal cholinergic neurons in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 15(12):1991-2006. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Lehmann O, Jeltsch H, Lazarus C, Tritschler L, Bertrand F, Cassel JC (2002) Combined 192 IgG-saporin and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine lesions in the male rat brain: A neurochemical and behavioral study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 72(4):899-912. (Targeting Trends 02q4)

Mattsson A, Ögren SO, Olson L (2002) Facilitation of dopamine-mediated locomotor activity in adult rats following cholinergic denervation. Exp Neurol 174:96-108. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

McGaughy J, Dalley JW, Morrison CH, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2002) Selective behavioral and neurochemical effects of cholinergic lesions produced by intrabasalis infusions of 192 IgG-saporin on attentional performance in a five-choice serial reaction time task. J Neurosci 22(5):1905-1913. (Targeting Trends 02q3)

Pizzo DP, Thal LJ, Winkler J (2002) Mnemonic deficits in animals depend upon the degree of cholinergic deficit and task complexity. Exp Neurol 177:292-305. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Power AE, Thal LJ, McGaugh JL (2002) Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis induced by 192 IgG-saporin block memory enhancement with posttraining norepinephrine in the basolateral amygdala. PNAS 99(4):2315-2319. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Ricceri L, Hohmann C, Berger-Sweeney J (2002) Early neonatal 192 IgG saporin induces learning impairments and disrupts cortical morphogenesis in rats. Brain Res 954(2):160-172. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Risbrough V, Bontempi B, Menzaghi F (2002) Selective immunolesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats: effect on attention using the 5-choice serial reaction time task. Psychopharmacology 164:71-81. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Silveira DC, Cha BH, Holmes GL (2002) Effects of lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in newborn rats on susceptibility to seizures. Dev Brain Res 139:277-283. (Targeting Trends 03q2)

Vale-Martinez A, Baxter MG, Eichenbaum H (2002) Selective lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons produce anterograde and retrograde deficits in a social transmission of food preference task in rats. Eur J Neurosci 16(6):983-998. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Zeitschel U, Schliebs R, Rossner S, Bigl V, Eschrich K, Bigl M (2002) Changes in activity and expression of phosphofructokinase in different rat brain regions after basal forebrain cholinergic lesion. J Neurochem 83(2):371-380. (Targeting Trends 03q1)

Zhu XO, de Permentier PJ, Waite PM (2002) Cholinergic depletion by IgG 192-saporin retards development of rat barrel cortex. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 136:1-16. (Targeting Trends 02q4)


Ballmaier M, Casamenti F, Zoli M, Pepeu G, Spano P (2001) Selective immunolesioning of cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis magnocellularis impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Neurosci 108(2):299-305. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Baxter MG  (2001) Effects of selective immunotoxic lesions on learning and memory. Methods Mol Biol 166:249-265. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Beninger RJ, Dringenberg HC, Boegman RJ, Jhamandas K (2001) Cognitive effects of neurotoxic lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: differential roles for corticopetal versus amygdalopetal projections. Neurotox Res 3(1):7-21. (Targeting Trends 04q3)

Berger-Sweeney J, Stearns NA, Murg SL, Floerke-Nashner LR, Lappi DA, Baxter MG (2001) Selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons in mice: Effects on neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and behavior. J Neurosci 21(20):8164-8173. (Targeting Trends 02q1)

Browne SE, Lin L, Mattsson A, Georgievska B, Isacson O (2001) Selective Antibody-Induced Cholinergic Cell and Synapse Loss Produce Sustained Hippocampal and Cortical Hypometabolism with Correlated Cognitive Deficits. Exp Neurol 170:36-47. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Burk JA, Sarter M (2001) Dissociation between the attentional functions mediated via basal forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Neurosci 105(4):899-909. (Targeting Trends 02q1)

Cahill JFX, Baxter MG (2001) Cholinergic and noncholinergic septal neurons modulate strategy selection in spatial learning. Eur J Neurosci 14:1856-1864. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

de Rosa E, Hasselmo ME, Baxter MG (2001) Contribution of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain to Proactive Interference from Stored Odor Memories During Associative Learning in Rats. Behav Neurosci 115(2):314-327. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Ferencz I, Leanza G, Nonobashvili A, Kokaia Z, Kokaia M, Lindvall O (2001) Septal cholinergic neurons suppress seizure development in hippocampal kindling in rats: comparison with noradrenergic neurons. Neurosci 102(4): 819-832. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Ferreira G, Meurisse M, Gervais R, Ravel N, Levy F (2001) Extensive immunolesions of basal forebrain cholinergic system impair offspring recognition in sheep. Neurosci 106(1):103-116. (Targeting Trends 02q1)

Gerashchenko D, Salin-Pascual R, Shiromani PJ (2001) Effects of Hypocretin-Saporin Injections into the Medial Septum on Sleep and Hippocampal Theta. Brain Res 913:106-115. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Harrell LE, Parsons D, Kolasa K (2001) Hippocampal Sympathetic Ingrowth Occurs Following 192-IgG-Saporin Administration. Brain Res 911:158-162. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Hartlage-Rubsamen M, Schliebs R (2001) Rat basal forebrain cholinergic lesion affects neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in hippocampal and neocortical target regions. Brain Res 889(1-2):155-164. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Hartlage-Rubsamen M, Schliebs R (2001) Sequential upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in degenerating rat basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and in phagocytotic microglial cells. Brain Res 897(1-2):20-26. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Himmelheber AM, Sarter M, Bruno JP (2001) The effects of manipulations of attentional demand on cortical acetylcholine release. Cogn Brain Res 12:353-370. (Targeting Trends 02q1)

Linster C, Garcia PA, Hasselmo ME, Baxter MG (2001) Selective Loss of Cholinergic Neurons Projecting to the Olfactory System Increases Perceptual Generalization Between Similar, but Not Dissimilar, Odorants. Behav Neurosci 115(4):826-833. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Motooka Y, Kondoh T, Nomura T, Tamaki N, Tozaki H, Kanno T, Nishizaki T (2001) Selective Cholinergic Denervation Inhibits Expression of Long-Term Potentiation in the Adult but not Infant Rat Hippocampus. Devel Brain Res 129:119-123. (Targeting Trends 01q4)

Pang KCH, Nocera R, Secor AJ, Yoder RM (2001) GABAergic septohippocampal neurons are not necessary for spatial memory. Hippocampus 11:814-827. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Paqueron X, Li X, Eisenach JC (2001) p75-expressing elements are necessary for anti-allodynic effects of spinal clonidine and neostigmine. Neurosci 102(3):681-686. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Perry T, Hodges H, Gray JA (2001) Behavioural, histological and immunocytochemical consequences following 192 IgG-Saporin immunolesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Brain Res Bull 54(1):29-48. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Waite JJ, Chen AD (2001) Differential changes in rat cholinergic parameters subsequent to immunotoxic lesion of the basal forebrain nuclei. Brain Res 918:113-120. (Targeting Trends 02q1)

Wiley RG (2001) Toxin-induced death of neurotrophin-sensitive neurons. (Review) Meth Mol Biol 169(1-2):217-222. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Wrenn CC, Wiley RG (2001) Lack of effect of moderate Purkinje cell loss on working memory. Neurosci 107(3):433-445. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Zheng F, Khanna S (2001) Selective destruction of medial septal cholinergic neurons attenuates pyramidal cell suppression, but not excitation in dorsal hippocampus field CA1 induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin. Neurosci 103(4):985-998. (Targeting Trends 01q3)


Bassant M.H, Poindessous-Jazat F, Schmidt B.H (2000) Sustained effect of metrifonate on cerebral glucose metabolism after immunolesion of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 387:151-162. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Ferencz I, Leanza G, Nanobashvili A, Kokaia M, Lindvall O (2000) Basal forebrain neurons suppress amygdala kindling via cortical but not hippocampal cholinergic projections in rats. Eur J Neurosci 12:2107-2116. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Gill TM, Sarter M, Givens B (2000) Sustained visual attention performance-associated prefrontal neuronal activity: evidence for cholinergic modulation. J Neurosci 20:4745-4757. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Grindstaff RJ, Grindstaff RR, Cunningham JT (2000) Baroreceptor sensitivity of rat supraoptic vasopressin neurons involves noncholinergic neurons in the DBB. Am J Physiol Reul Integr Comp Physiol 279:R1934-R1943. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Gu Z, Toliver-Kinsky T, Glasgow J, Werrbach-Perez K, Perez-Polo JR (2000) NGF-mediated alteration of NF-kappaB binding activity after partial immunolesions to rat cholinergic basal forebrain neurons. Int J Dev Neurosci 18:455-468. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Gu Z, Wortwein G, Yu J, Perez-Polo JR (2000) Model for aging in the basal forebrain cholinergic system (Review) Antiox Redox Signal 2(3):437-447. (Targeting Trends 01q3)

Gu Z, Yu J, Werrbach-Perez K, Perez-Polo JR (2000) Repeated immunolesions display diminished stress response signal. Int J Dev Neurosci 18:177-183. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Haas CA, Hollerbach E, Deller T, Naumann T, Frotscher M (2000) Up-regulation of growth-associated protein 43 mRNA in rat medial septum neurons axotomized by fimbria-fornix transection. Eur J Neurosci 12:4233-4242. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Herron P, Schweitzer JB (2000) Effects of cholinergic depletion on neural activity in different laminae of the rat barrel cortex. Brain Res 872:71-76. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Lamprea MR, Cardenas FP, Silveira R, Morato S, Walsh TJ (2000) Dissociation of memory and anxiety in a repeated elevated plus maze paradigm: Forebrain cholinergic mechanisms. Behav Brain Res 117:97-105. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Lehmann O, Jeltsch H, Lehnardt O, Pain L, Lazarus C, Cassel JC (2000) Combined lesions of cholinergic and serotonergic neurons in the rat brain using 192 IgG-Saporin and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine: neurochemical and behavioural characterization. Eur J Neurosci 12:67-79. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

McGaughy J, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW, Sarter M. (2000) The role of cortical cholinergic afferent projections in cognition: impact of new selective immunotoxins. Behav Brain Res 115(2):251-263. PMID: 11000424 (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Murakami K, Yokofujita J, Kuroda M (2000) [Non-cholinergic projections from basal forebrain to medial limbic cortex of rat.] Kaibogaku Zasshi 75:285-297.

Pain L, Jeltsch H, Lehmann O, Lazarus C, Laalou FZ, Cassel JC (2000) Central cholinergic depletion induced by 192 IgG-saporin alleviates the sedative effects of propofol in rats. Brit J Anaesth 85(6):869-873. (Targeting Trends 02q2)

Pappas BA, Nguyen T, Brownlee B, Tanasoiu D, Fortin T, Sherren N (2000) Ectopic noradrenergic hyperinnervation does not functionally compensate for neonatal forebrain acetylcholine lesion. Brain Res 867:90-99. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Rossner S, Schliebs R, Bigl V (2000) Intracerebroventricular infusion of CHO5, a rat monoclonal antibody directed against mouse low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR), specifically labels basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in mouse brain. Metab Brain Dis 15:17-27. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Sarter M, Bruno JP, Miner LA, McGaughy J (2000) Development of a method for intraparenchymal infusions of 192 IgG-Saporin: a comment on Pizzo et al (1999) [letter; comment] J Neurosci Methods 96:169-170. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Silveira DC, Holmes GL, Schachter SC, Geula C, Schomer DL (2000) Increased susceptibility to generalized seizures after immunolesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats. Brain Res 878:223-227. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Sorger D, Schliebs R, Kampfer I, Rossner S, Heinicke J, Dannenberg C, Georgi P (2000) In vivo [125I]-iodobenzovesamicol binding reflects cortical cholinergic deficiency induced by specific immunolesion of rat basal forebrain cholinergic system. Nucl Med Biol 27:23-31. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Stowell JR, Berntson GG, Sarter M (2000) Attenuation of the bidirectional effects of chlordiazepoxide and FG 7142 on conditioned response suppression and associated cardiovascular reactivity by loss of cortical cholinergic inputs. Psychopharmacol 150(2):141-149. (Targeting Trends 00q4)

Tremere LA, Pinaud R, Grosche J, Hartig W, Rasmusson DD. (2000) Antibody for human p75 LNTR identifies cholinergic basal forebrain of non-primate species. Neuroreport 11(10):2177-2183. PMID: 10923666 (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Turchi J, Sarter M (2000) Cortical cholinergic inputs mediate processing capacity: Effects of 192 IgG-saporin-induced lesions on olfactory span performance. Eur J Neurosci 12:4505-4514. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Villa AEP, Tetko IV, Dutoit P, Vantini G (2000) Non-linear cortico-cortical interactions modulated by cholinergic afferences from the rat basal forebrain. BioSystems 58:219-228. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Wiley RG, Kline IV RH (2000) Neuronal lesioning with axonally transported toxins. J Neurosci Meth 103:73-82. (Targeting Trends 01q2)

Winkler J, Ramirez GA, Thal LJ, Waite JJ (2000) Nerve growth factor (NGF) augments cortical and hippocampal cholinergic functioning after p75NGF receptor-mediated deafferentation but impairs inhibitory avoidance and induces fear-related behaviors. J Neurosci 20:834-844. (Targeting Trends 01q1)

Wirth S, Lehmann O, Bertrans F, Lazarus C, Jeltsch H, Cassel JC (2000) Preserved olfactory short-term memory after combined cholinergic and serotonergic lesions using 192 IgG-Saporin and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine in rats [published erratum appears in Neuroreport 2000 Mar 20;11(4):inside back cover]. Neuroreport 11:347-350. (Targeting Trends 01q1)


Baxter, M.G., Bucci, D.J., Holland, P.C., Gallagher, M. (1999) Impairments in conditioned stimulus processing and conditioned responding after combined selective removal of hippocampal and neocortical cholinergic input. Behav Neurosci 113:486-495.

Baxter MG, Chiba AA. (1999) Cognitive functions of the basal forebrain. Curr Opin Neurobiol 9(2):178-183.

Deacon, T., Whatley, B., LeBlanc, C., Lin, L., and Isacson, O. (1999) Pig fetal septal neurons implanted into the hippocampus of aged or cholinergic deafferented rats grow axons and form cross-species synapses in appropriate target regions. Cell Transplant 8:111-129.

Detari L, Rasmusson DD, Semba K. The role of basal forebrain neurons in tonic and phasic activation of the cerebral cortex. (1999) Prog Neurobiol 58:249-277. doi: 10.1016/s0301-0082(98)00084-7

Fadel, J., Sarter, M., and Bruno, J.P. (1999) Age-related attenuation of stimulated cortical acetylcholine release in basal forebrain-lesioned rats. Neurosci 90:793-802.

Gutierrez, H., Gutierrez, R., Silva-Gandarias, R., Estrada, J., Miranda, M.I., Bermudez-Rattoni, F. (1999) Differential effects of 192 IgG-saporin and NMDA-induced lesions into the basal forebrain on cholinergic activity and taste aversion memory formation. Brain Res 834:136-141.

Gutierrez, H., Gutierrez, R., Ramirez-Trejo, L., Silva-Gandarias, R., Ormsby, C.E., Miranda, M.I., Bermudez-Rattoni, F. (1999) Redundant basal forebrain modulation in taste aversion memory formation. J Neurosci 19:7661-7669.

Han, J.S., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1999) Disconnection of the amygdala central nucleus and substantia innominata/nucleus basalis disrupts increments in conditioned stimulus processing in rats. Behav Neurosci 113:143-151.

Hart, S., Sarter, M., and Berntson, G.G. (1999) Cholinergic inputs to the rat medial prefrontal cortex mediate potentiation of the cardiovascular defensive response by the anxiogenic benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist FG 7142. Neurosci 94(4):1029-1038.

Holschneider, D.P., Waite, J.J., Leuchter, A.F., Walton, N.Y., and Scremin, O.U. (1999) Changes in electrocortical power and coherence in response to the selective cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-Saporin. Exp Brain Res 126:270-280.

Kwok, K.H.H., Law, K.B., Wong, R.N.S., Yung, K.K.L, (1999) Immunolesioning of nerve growth factor p75 receptor-containing neurons in the rat brain by a novel immunotoxin: anti-p75-anti-mouse IgG-trichosanthin conjugates. Brain Res 846:154-163.

LeBlanc, C.J., Deacon, T.W., Whatley, B.R., Dinsmore, J., Lin, L., and Isacson, O. (1999) Morris water maze analysis of 192-IgG-saporin-lesioned rats and porcine cholinergic transplants to the hippocampus. Cell Transplant 8:131-142.

Lemke, R., Hartlage-Rubsamen, M., and Schliebs, R. (1999) Differential injury-dependent glial expression of interleukins-1 alpha, beta, and interleukin-6 in rat brain. Glia 27:75-87.

Lemke, R., Rossner, S., and Schliebs, R. (1999) Leukemia inhibitory factor expression is not induced in activated microglia and reactive astrocytes in response to rat basal forebrain cholinergic lesion. Neurosci Lett 267:53-56.

Lin, L., Georgievska, B., Mattsson, A., and Isacson, O. (1999) Cognitive changes and modified processing of amyloid precursor protein in the cortical and hippocampal system after cholinergic synapse loss and muscarinic receptor activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:12108-12113.

McGaughy, J., Decker, M.W., and Sarter, M. (1999) Enhancement of sustained attention performance by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-418 in intact but not basal forebrain-lesioned rats. Psychopharmacoly (Berl) 144:175-182.

Milner, T.A., Hammel, J.R., Ghorbani, T.T., Wiley, R.G., and Pierce, J.P. (1999) Septal cholinergic deafferentation of the dentate gyrus results in a loss of a subset of neuropeptide Y somata and an increase in synaptic area on remaining neuropeptide Y dendrites. Brain Res 831:322-336.

Pang, K.C.H., and Nocera, R. (1999) Interactions between 192-IgG Saporin and intraseptal cholinergic and GABAergic drugs: role of cholinergic medial septal neurons in spatial working memory. Behav Neurosci 113:265-275.

Pizzo, D.P., Waite, J.J., Thal, L.J., Winkler, J. (1999) Intraparenchymal infusions of 192 IgG-saporin: development of a method for selective and discrete lesioning of cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei. J Neurosci Meth 91: 9-19.

Potter, P.E., Gaughan, C., and Assouline, Y. (1999) Lesion of septal-hippocampal neurons with 192 IgG-saporin alters function of M1 muscarinic receptors. Neuropharmacol 38:579-586.

Rossner, S., Bakinde, N., Zeitschel, U., Schliebs, R., and Bigl, V. (1999) Cerebrospinal fluid cholinesterases–markers for loss of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons? Int J Dev Neurosci 16:669-673.

Sherren, N., Pappas, B.A., and Fortin, T. (1999) Neural and behavioral effects of intracranial 192 IgG-saporin in neonatal rats: sexually dimorphic effects? Brain Res Dev Brain Res 114:49-62.

Sorger, D., Kampfer, I., Schliebs, R. Rossner, S., Dannenberg, C. and Knapp, W.H. (1999) Iodo-QNB cortical binding and brain perfusion: effects of a cholinergic basal forebrain lesion in the rat. Nucl Med Biol 26:9-16.

Waite, J.J., Holschneider, D.P., and Scremin, O.U. (1999) Selective immunotoxin-induced cholinergic deafferentation alters blood flow distribution in the cerebral cortex. Brain Res 818:1-11.

Waite, J.J., Wardlow, M.L. and Power, A.E. (1999) Deficit in selective and divided attention associated with cholinergic basal forebrain immunotoxic lesion produced by 192-Saporin; motoric/sensory deficit associated with Purkinje cell immunotoxic lesion produced by OX7-Saporin. Neurobiol Learn Mem 71:325-352.

Wrenn, C., Lappi, D.A., and Wiley, R.G. (1999) Threshold relationship between lesion extent of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat and working memory impairment in the radial maze. Brain Res 847(2):284-298.


Apartis, E., Poindessous-Jazat, F.R., Lamour, Y.A., and Bassant, M.H. (1998) Loss of rhythmically bursting neurons in rat medial septum following selective lesion of septohippocampal cholinergic system. J Neurophysiol 79:1633-1642.

Bassant, M.H., Jouvenceau, A., Apartis, E. Poindessous-Jazat, F., Dutar, P., and Billard, J.M. (1998) Immunolesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain: effects on functional properties of hippocampal and septal neurons. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:613-632.

Bednar, I., Zhang, X. Dastranj-Sedghi, R., and Nordberg, A. (1998) Differential changes of nicotinic receptors in the rat brain following ibotenic acid and 192-IgG saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:661-668.

Berger-Sweeney, J. (1998) The effects of neonatal basal forebrain lesions on cognition: towards understanding the developmental role of the cholinergic basal forebrain. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:603-612.

Bucci, D.J., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1998). Removal of cholinergic input to rat posterior parietal cortex disrupts incremental processing of conditioned stimuli. J Neurosci 18:8038-8046.

Bushnell, P.J., Chiba, A.A., and Oshiro, W.M. (1998) Effects of unilateral removal of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons on cued target detection in rats. Behav Brain Res 90(1):57-71.

Chappell, J., McMahan, R., Chiba, A., and Gallagher, M. (1998). A re-examination of the role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial working memory. Neuropharmacol 37:481-487.

de Lacalle, S., Kulkarni, S., and Wiley, R.G. (1998) Lesion-induced transneuronal plasticity of the cholinergic innervation in the adult rat entorhinal cortex. Eur J Neurosci 10:1054-1062.

Dougherty, K.D., Turchin, P.I., Walsh T.J. (1998) Septocingulate and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways: involvement in working/episodic memory. Brain Res 810:59-71.

Ferencz, I., Kokaia, M., Elmer, E., Keep, M., Kokaia, Z., and Lindvall, O. (1998) Suppression of kindling epileptogenesis in rats by intrahippocampal cholinergic grafts. Eur J Neurosci 10:213-220.

Gilmor, M.L., Counts, S.E., Wiley, R.G., Levey, A.I. (1998) Coordinate expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and choline acetyltransferase following septohippocampal pathway lesions. J Neurochem 71:2411-2420.

Gu, Z., Yu, J., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1998) Long term changes in brain cholinergic markers and nerve growth factor levels after partial immunolesion. Brain Res 801:190-197.

Ha, D.H., Robertson, R.T., and Weiss, J.H. (1998). Distinctive morphological features of a subset of cortical neurons grown in the presence of basal forebrain neurons in vitroJ Neurosci 18:4201-4215.

Harder, J.A., Baker, H.F., and Ridley, R.M. (1998) The role of the central cholinergic projections in cognition:  Implications of the effects of scopolamine on discrimination learning by monkeys. Brain Res Bull 45(3):319-326.

Herron, P., Li, Z., and Schweitzer, J.B. (1998) Effects of cholinergic depletion on evoked activity in the cortex of young and aged rats. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:633-643.

Hollerbach, E.H., Haas, C.A., Hildebrandt, H., Frotscher, M., and Naumann, T. (1998) Region-specific activation of microglial cells in the rat septal complex following fimbria-fornix transection. J Comp Neurol 390:481-496.

Janis, L.S., Glasier, M.M., Fulop, Z., and Stein, D.G. (1998) Intraseptal injections of 192 IgG saporin produce deficits for strategy selection in spatial-memory tasks. Behav Brain Res 90:23-34.

Jouvenceau, A., Dutar, P., and Billard, J.M. (1998) Alteration of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in CA1 area of the aged rat hippocampus: contribution of GABAergic and cholinergic deficits. Hippocampus 8:627-637.

Kilgard, M.P. and Merzenich, M.M. (1998). Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science 279:1714-1718.

Leanza, G. (1998) Chronic elevation of amyloid precursor protein expression in the neocortex and hippocampus of rats with selective cholinergic lesions. Neurosci Lett 257:53-36.

Leanza, G., Martinez-Serrano, A., and Bjorklund, A. (1998) Amelioration of spatial navigation and short-term memory deficits by grafts of foetal basal forebrain tissue placed into the hippocampus and cortex of rats with selective cholinergic lesions. Eur J Neurosci 10:2353-2370.

Lemke, R., Hartig, W., Rossner, S., Bigl, V., and Schliebs, R. (1998) Interleukin-6 is not expressed in activated microglia and in reactive astrocytes in response to lesion of rat basal forebrain cholinergic system as demonstrated by combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. J Neurosci Res 51:223-23.

Lin, L., LeBlanc, C.J., Deacon, T.W., and Isacson, O. (1998) Chronic cognitive deficits and amyloid prescursor protein elevation after selective immunotoxin lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. NeuroReport 9:547-552.

McDonald, M.P., Gleason, T.C., Robinson, J.K., and Crawley, J.N. (1998) Galanin inhibits performance on rodent memory tasks. Ann NY Acad Sci 863:305-322.

McDonald, M.P., Willard, L.B., Wenk, G.L., and Crawley, J.N. (1998) Coadministration of galanin antagonist M40 with a muscarinic M1 agonist improves delayed nonmatching to position choice accuracy in rats with cholinergic lesions. J Neurosci 18:5078-5085.

McGaughy J, Sarter M (1998) Sustained attention performance in rats with intracortical infusions of 192 IgG-saporin-induced cortical cholinergic deafferentation: effects of physostigmine and FG 7142. Behav Neurosci 112(6):1519-1525. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.112.6.1519

Summary: Less extensive cortical cholinergic deafferentation, produced by intracortical infusions of a relatively small concentration of 192 IgG-saporin, resulted in a significant impairment in sustained attention.
Dose: Rats received five infusions per hemisphere of 0.01 ug/ul 192-IgG-SAP.

Mehlhorn, G., Loffler, T., Apelt, J., Rossner, S., Urabe, T., Hattori, N., Nagamatsu, S., Bigl, V., and Schliebs, R. (1998) Glucose metabolism in cholinoceptive cortical rat brain regions after basal forebrain cholinergic lesion. Int J Dev Neurosci 16:675-690.

Moga, M.M. (1998) 192 IgG-saporin abolishes p75 neurotrophin receptor immunoreactivity in rat SCN. NeuroReport 9:3197-3200.

Nag, S. and Tang, F. (1998) Cholinergic lesions of the rat brain by ibotenic acid and 192 IgG-saporin: effects on somatostatin, substance P and neuropeptide Y levels in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. Neurosci Lett 252:83-86.

Robertson, R.T., Gallardo, K.A., Claytor, K.J., Ha, D.H., Ku, K.H., Yu, B.P., Lauterborn, J.C., Wiley, R.G., Yu, J., Gall, C.M., and Leslie, F.M. (1998) Neonatal treatment with 192 IgG-saporin produces long-term forebrain cholinergic deficits and reduces dendritic branching and spine density of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Cereb Cortex 8:142-155.

Rossner, S. (1998) Cholinergic immunolesions by 192 IgG-saporin–useful tool to simulate pathogenic aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Dev Neurosci 15:835-850.

Rossner, S., Ueberham, U., Schliebs, R., Perez-Polo, J.R., and Bigl, V. (1998) The regulation of amyloid precursor protein metabolism by cholinergic mechanisms and neurotorphin receptor signal. Prog Neurobiol 56(5):541-569.

Sachdev, R.N., Lu, S.M., Wiley, R.G., and Ebner, F.F. (1998). Role of the basal cholinergic projection in somatosensory cortical plasticity. J Neurophysiol 79:3216-3228.

Speiser, Z., Katzir, O., Rehavi, M., Zabarski, T., and Cohen, S. (1998) Sparing by Rasagiline (TVP-1012) of cholinergic functions and behavior in the postnatal anoxia rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 60(2):387-393.

Woolf, N.J. (1998) A structural basis for memory storage in mammals. Prog Neurobiol 55:59-77.

Wortwein, G., Yu, J., Toliver-Kinsky, T., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1998) Responses of young and aged rat CNS to partial cholinergic immunolwsions and NGF treatment. J Neurosci Res 52:322-333.

Zhang, Z.-J., Lappi, D.A., Wrenn, C.C., Milner, T.A., and Wiley, R.G. (1998) Selective lesion of the cholinergic basal forebrain causes a loss of cortical neurpeptide Y and somatostatin neurons. Brain Res 800:198-206.

Zhu, X.O. and Waite, P.M. (1998) Cholinergic depletion reduces plasticity of barrel field cortex. Cereb Cortex 8:63-72.

Zimmer, L.A., Ennis, M., Wiley, R.G., and Shipley, M.T. (1998) Nerve gas-induced seizures: role of acetylcholine in the rapid induction of Fos and glial gibrillary acidic protein in piriform cortex. J Neurosci 18:3897-3908.


Apelt, J., Schliebs, R., Beck, M., Rossner, S., and Bigl, V. (1997) Expression of amyloid precursor protein mRNA isoforms in rat brain is differentially regulated during postnatal maturation and by cholinergic activity. Int J Dev Neurosci 15:95-112.

Baskerville, K.A., Schweitzer, J.B., and Herron, P. (1997) Effects of cholinergic depletion on experience-dependent plasticity in the cortex of the rat. Neurosci 80:1159-1169.

Baxter, M.G., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1997) Disruption of decrements in conditioned stimulus processing by selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input. J Neurosci 17:5230-5236.

Ferencz, I., Kokaia, M., Keep, M., Elmer, E., Metsis, M., Kokaia, Z., and Lindvall, O. (1997) Effects of cholinergic denervation on seizure development and neurotrophin messenger RNA regulation in rapid hippocampal kindling. Neurosci 80:389-399.

Gallagher, M. (1997) Animal models of memory impairment. Philos Trans R Soc Lond [Biol] 352:1711-1717.

Heider, M., Schliebs, R., Rossner, S., and Bigl, V. (1997) Basal forebrain cholinergic immunolesion by 192IgG-saporin: evidence for a presynaptic location of subpopulations of alpha(2)- and beta-adrenergic as well as 5-HT2A receptors on cortical cholinergic terminals. Neurochem Res 22:957-966.

Herron, P., Zhang, L., and Schweitzer, J.B. (1997) Effects of cholinergic depletion on glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the somatosensory cortex of rats. Anat Embryol (Berl) 196:27-38.

Jolkkonen, J., Kahkonen, K., and Pitkanen, A. (1997) Cholinergic deafferentation exacerbates seizure-induced loss of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat hippocampus. Neurosc 80:401-411.

Jovenceau, A., Billard, J.M., Lamour, Y., and Dutar, P. (1997) Potentiation of glutaminergic EPSPs in rat CA1 hippocampal neurons after selective cholinergic denervation by 192 IgG-saporin. Synapse 26:292-300.

Lee, M.-Y., Naumann, T., Kirsch, M., Frotscher, M., and Hofmann, H.-D. (1997) Transient up-regulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor-alpha mRNA in axotomized rat septal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 9:622-626.

McDonald, M.P., Wenk, G.L., and Crawley, J.N. (1997) Analysis of galanin and the galanin antagonist M40 on delayed non-matching-to-position performance in rats lesioned with the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin. Behav. Neurosci 111:552-563.

McMahan, R.W., Sobel, T.J., and Baxter, M.G. (1997) Selective immunolesions of hippocampal cholinergic input fail to impair spatial working memory. Hippocampus 7:130-136.

Milner, T.A., Wiley, R.G., Kurucz, O.S., and Pierce, J.P. (1997) Selective changes in hippocampal neuropeptide Y neurons following removal of the cholinergic septal inputs. J Comp Neurol 386:46-59.

Naumann, T., Deller, T., Bender, R., and Frotscher, M. (1997) 192 IgG-saporin-induced loss of cholinergic neurons in the septum abolishes cholinergic sprouting after unilateral entorhinal lesion in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 9:1304-1313.

Nicolle, M.M., Shivers, A., Gill, T.M., and Gallagher, M. (1997) Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate binding in response to entorhinal cortex aspiration or 192 IgG-saporin lesions of the basal forebrain. Neurosci 77:649-659.

Ohtake, T., Heckers, S., Wiley, R.G., Lappi, D.A., Mesulam, M.-M., and Geula, C. (1997) Retrograde degeneration and colchicine protection of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons following hippocampal injections of an immunotoxin against P75 nerve growth factor receptor. Neurosci 78:123-133.

Ricceri, L., Calamandrei, G., and Berger-Sweeney, J. (1997) Different effects of postnatal day 1 versus 7 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin lesions on learning, exploratory behaviors, and neurochemistry in juvenile rats. Behav Neurosci 111:1292-1302.

Rossner, S., Wortwein, G., Gu, Z., Yu, J., Schliebs, R., Bigl, V., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1997) Cholinergic control of nerve growth factor in adult rats: evidence from cortical cholinergic deafferentation and chronic drug treatment. J Neurochem 69:947-953.

Rossner, S., Ueberham, U., Yu, J., Kirazov, L., Schliebs, R., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1997) In vivo regulation of amyloid precursor protein secretion in rat neocortex by cholinergic activity. Eur J Neurosci 9:2125-2134.

Seeger, G., Hartig, W., Rossner, S., Scliebs, R., Bruckner, G., Bigl, V., and Brauer, K. (1997) Electron microscopic evidence for microglial phagocytotic activity and cholinergic cell death after administration of the immunotoxin 192IgG-saporin in rat. J Neurosci Res 48:465-476.

Stoehr, J.D., Mobley, S.L., Roice, D., Brooks, R., Baker, L.M., Wiley, R.G., and Wenk, G.L. (1997) The effects of selective cholinergic basal forebrain lesions and aging upon expectancy in the rat. Neurobiol Learn Mem 67:214-227.

Turchi, J. and Sarter, M. (1997) Cortical acetylcholine and processing capacity: effects of cortical deafferentation on crossmodal divided attention in rats. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 6:147-158.

Wiley, R.G. (1997). Findings about the cholinergic basal forebrain using immunotoxin to the nerve growth factor receptor. Ann NY Acad Sci 835:20-29.


Bannon, A.W., Curzon, P., Gunther, K.L., and Decker, M.W. (1996) Effects of intraseptal injection of 192-IgG-saporin in mature and aged Long-Evans rats. Brain Res 718:25-36.

Baxter, M.G. and Gallagher, M. (1996) Intact spatial learning in both young and aged rats following selective removal of hippocampal cholinergic input. Behav Neurosci 110:460-467.

Baxter, M.G., Sobel, T.J., Williams, M.J., Gorman, L.K., and Gallagher, M. (1996) Intact spatial learning following lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. NeuroReport 7:1417-1420.

Berntson, G.G., Hart, S., Ruland, S., and Sarter, M. (1996) A central cholinergic link in the cardiovascular effects of the benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist FG 7142. Behav Brain Res 74:91-103.

Dornan, W.A., McCampbell, A.R., Tinkler, G.P., Hickman, L.J., Bannon, A.W., Decker, M.W., and Gunther, K.L. (1996) Comparison of site-specific injections into the basal forebrain on water maze and radial arm maze performance in the male rat after immunolesioning with 192 IgG saporin. Behav Brain Res 82:93-101.

Dougherty, K.D., Salat, D., and Walsh, T.J. (1996) Intraseptal injection of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192-IgG saporin fails to disrupt latent inhibition in a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Brain Res 736:260-269.

Fadel, J., Moore, H., Sarter, M., and Bruno, J.P. (1996) Trans-synaptic stimulation of cortical acetylcholine release after partial 192 IgG-saporin-induced loss of cortical cholinergic afferents. J Neurosci 16:6592-6600.

Hage, B., Frotscher, M., and Naumann, T. (1996) Activity of choline acetyltransferase in the rat medial septal nucleus following fimbria-fornix transection or selective immunolesioning with 192 IgG-saporin. Neurosci Lett 205:119-122.

Jouvenceau, A., Billard, J.M., Lamour, Y., and Dutar, P. (1996) Persistence of CA1 hippocampal LTP after selective cholinergic denervation. NeuroReport 7(4):948-952.

Kapas, L., Obal Jr., F., Book, A.A., Schweitzer, J.B., Wiley, R.G., and Krueger, J.M. (1996) The effects of immunolesions of nerve growth factor-receptive neurons by 192 IgG-saporin on sleep. Brain Res 712:53-59.

Kokaia, M., Ferencz, I., Leanza, G., Elmer, E., Metsis, M., Kokaia, Z., Wiley, R.G., and Lindvall, O. (1996) Immunolesioning of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons facilitates hippocampal kindling and perturbs neurotrophin messenger RNA regulation. Neurosci 70(2):313-327.

Leanza, G., Muir, J., Nilsson, O.G., Wiley, R.G., Dunnett, S.B., and Bjorklund, A. (1996) Selective immunolesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic system disrupts short-term memory in rats. Eur J Neurosci 8:1535-1544.

Leanza, G., Nilsson, O.G., Nikkah, G., Wiley, R.G., and Bjorklund, A. (1996) Effects of neonatal lesions of  the basal forebrain cholinergic system by 192 IgG-saporin: biochemical, behavioural and morphological characterization. Neurosci 74:119-141.

Leanza, G., Nikkah, G., Nilsson, O.G., Wiley, R.G., and Bjorklund, A. (1996) Extensive reinnervation of the hippocampus by embryonic basal forebrain neurons grafted into the septum of neonatal rats with selective cholinergic lesions. J Comp Neurol 373:355-357.

McGaughy, J., Kaiser, T., and Sarter, M. (1996) Behavioral vigilance following infusions of 192 IgG-saporin into the basal forebrain: selectivity of the behavioral impairment and relation to cortical AChE-positive fiber density. Behav Neurosci 110:247-265.

Pappas, B.A., Davidson, C.M., Fortin, T., Nallathamby, S., Park, G.A., Mohr, E., and Wiley, R.G. (1996) 192 IgG-saporin lesion of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in neonatal rats. Brain Res 96:52-61.

Robinson, J.K., Wiley, R.G., Wenk, G.L., Lappi, D.A., and Crawley, J.N. (1996) 192-IgG-saporin immunotoxin and ibotenic acid lesions of nucleus basalis and medial septum produce comparable deficits on delayed nonmatching-to-sample performance in rats. Biopsychol 24:179-186.

Rossner, S., Yu, J., Pizzo, D., Werrbach-Perez, K., Scliebs, R., Bigl, V., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1996) Effects of intraventricular transplantation of NGF-secreting cells on cholinergic basal forebrain neurons after partial immunolesion. J Neurosci Res 45:40-56.

Schliebs, R., Rossner, S., and Bigl, V. (1996) Immunolesion by 192IgG-saporin of rat basal forebrain cholinergic system: a useful tool to produce cortical cholinergic dysfunction. Prog Brain Res 109:253-264.

Shen, J., Barnes, C.A., Wenk, G.L., and McNaughton, B.L. (1996) Differential effects of selective immunotoxic lesions of medial septal cholinergic cells on spatial working and reference memory. Behav Neurosci 110:1181-1186.

Vnek, N., Kromer, L.F., Wiley, R.G., and Rothblat, L.A. (1996) The basal forebrain cholinergic system and object memory in the rat. Brain Res 710:265-270.

Waite, J.J. and Thal, L.J. (1996) Lesions of the cholinergic nuclei in the rat basal forebrain: excitotoxins vs. an immunotoxin. Life Sci 58:1947-1953.

Walsh, T.J., Herzog, C.D., Gandhi, C., Stackman, R.W., and Wiley, R.G. (1996) Injection of IgG 192-saporin into the medial septum produces cholinergic hypofunction and dose-dependent working memory deficits. Brain Res 726:69-79.

Yu, J., Wiley, R.G., and Perez-Polo, R.J. (1996) Altered NGF protein levels in different brain areas after immunolesion. J Neurosci Res 43:213-223.

Zhang, Z.J., Berbos, T.G., Wrenn, C.C., and Wiley, R.G. (1996) Loss of nucleus basalis magnocellularis, but not septal, cholinergic neurons correlates with passive avoidance impairment in rats treated with 192-saporin. Neurosci Lett 203:214-218.


Bassant, M.H., Apartis, E., Jazat-Poindessous, F.R., Wilet, R.G., and Lamour, Y.A. (1995) Selective immunolesion of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: effects on hippocampal activity during sleep and wakefulness in the rat. Neurodegen 4:61-70.

Baxter, M.G., Bucci, D.J., Gorman, L.K., Wiley, R.G., and Gallagher, M. (1995) Selective immunotoxic lesions of basal forebrain cholinergic cells: effects on learning and memory in rats. Behav Neurosci 109:714-722.

Book, A.A., Wiley, R.G., and Schweitzer, J.B. (1995) 192 IgG-saporin: II. Neuropathology in the rat brain. Acta Neuropathol 89:519-526.

Chiba, A.A., Bucci, D.J., Holland, P.C., and Gallagher, M. (1995) Basal forebrain cholinergic lesions disrupt increments but not decrements in conditioned stimulus processing. J Neurosci 15:7315-7322.

Gallagher M, Colombo PJ. Ageing: the cholinergic hypothesis of cognitive decline. (1995) Curr Opin Neurobiol 5:161-168. doi: 10.1016/0959-4388(95)80022-0

Leanza, G., Nilsson, O.G., Wiley, R.G., and Bjorklund, A. (1995) Selective lesioning of the basal forebrain cholinergic system by intraventriculr 192-IgG-saporin: behavioural, biochemical and stereological studies in the rat. Eur J Neurosci 7:329-343.

Levey, A.I., Edmunds, S.M., Hersch, S.KM., Wiley, R.G., and Heilman, C.J. (1995) Light and electron microscopic study of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the rat basal forebrain of the rat. J Comp Neurol 351:339-356.

Rossner, S., Schliebs, R., Perez-Polo, J.R., Wiley, R.G., and Bigl, V. (1995) Differential changes in cholinergic markers from selected brain regions after specific immunolesion of the rat cholinergic basal forebrain system. J Neurosci Res 40:31-43.

Rossner, S., Schliebs, R., and Bigl, V. (1995) 192-IgG-saporin-induced immunotoxic lesions of cholinergic basal forebrain system differentially affect glutaminergic and GABAergic markers in cortical rat brain regions. Brain Res 696:165-176.

Rossner, S., Hartig, W., Schliebs, R., Bruckner, G., Brauer, K., Perez-Polo, J.R., Wiley, R.G., and Bigl, V. (1995) 192IgG-saporin immunotoxin-induced loss of cholinergic cells differentially activates microglia in rat basal forebrain nuclei. J Neurosci Res 41:335-346.

Rossner, S., Schliebs, R., Hartig, W., and Bigl, V. (1995) 192IgG-saporin-induced selective lesion of cholinergic basal forebrain system: neurochemical effects on cholinergic neurotransmission in rat cerebral cortex and hippoccampus. Brain Res Bull 38:371-381.

Singh, V. and Schweitzer, J.B. (1995) Loss of p75 nerve growth factor receptor mRNA containing neurons in rat forebrain after intraventricular IgG 192-saporin administration. Neurosci Lett 194:117-120.

Steckler, T., Keith, A.B., Wiley, R.G., and Sahgal, A. (1995) Cholinergic lesions by 192 IgG-saporin and short-term recognition memory: role of the septohippocampal projection. Neurosci 66:101-114.

Waite, J.J., Chen, A.C., Wardlow, M.L., Wiley, R.G., Lappi, D.A., and Thal, L.J. (1995) 192 Immunoglobulin G-saporin produces graded behavioral and biochemical changes accompanying the loss of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neurosci 65:463-476.

Walsh, T.J., Kelly, R.M., Dougherty, K.D., Stackman, R.W., Wiley, R.G., and Kutscher, C.L. (1995) Behavioral and neurobiological alterations induced by the immunotoxin 192-IgG-saporin: cholinergic and non-cholinergic effects following i.c.v. injection. Brain Res 702:233-245.

Wiley, R.G., Berbos, T., Deckwerth, T., Johnson, E.M., and Lappi, D.A. (1995) Destruction of the cholinergic basal forebrain using immunotoxin to rat NGF receptor: modeling the cholinergic degeneration of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci 128:157-166.

Yu, J., Pizzo, D.P., Hutton, L.A., and Perez-Polo, J.R. (1995) Role of the cholinergic system in the regulation of neurotrophin synthesis. Brain Res 705:247-254.


Berger-Sweeney, J., Heckers, S., Mesulam, M.-M., Wiley, R.G., Lappi, D.A., and Sharma, M. (1994) Differential effects of spatial navigation of immunotoxin-induced cholinergic lesions of the medial septal area and nucleus basalis magnocellularis. J Neurosci 14:4507-4519.

Book, A.A., Wiley, R.G., and Schweitzer, J.B. (1994) 192 IgG-saporin: I. Specific lethality for cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain of the rat. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 53:95-102.

Heckers, S., Ohtake, T., Wiley, R., Lappi, D.A., Geula, C., and Mesulam, M.-M. (1994) Complete and selective cholinergic denervation of rat neocortex and hippocampus but not amygdala by an immunotoxin against the p75 NGF receptor. J Neurosci 14:1271-1289.

Heckers, S. and Mesulam, M.-M. (1994) Two types of cholinergic projections to the rat amygdala. Neurosci 60:383-397.

Holley, L.A., Wiley, R.G., Lappi, D.A., and Sarter, M. (1994) Cortical cholinergic deafferentation following the intracortical infusion of 192-IgG-saporin: a quantitative histochemical study. Brain Res 663:277-286.

Jovenceau, A., Billard, J.-M., Wiley, R.G., Lamour, Y., and Dutar, P. (1994) Cholinergic denervation of the rat hippocampus by 192-IgG-saporin: electrophysiological evidence. NeuroReport 5:1781-1784.

Lee, M.G., Chrobak, J.J., Sik, A., Wiley, R.G., and Buzsaki, G. (1994) Hippocampal theta activity following selective lesion of the septal cholinergic system. Neurosci 4:1033-1047.

Pallera, A.M., Schweitzer, J.B., Book, A.A., and Wiley, R.G. (1994) 192 IgG-saporin causes a major loss of synaptic content in rat olfactory bulb. Exp Neurol 127:265-277.

Rossner, S., Perez-Polo, J.R., Wiley, R.G., Schliebs, R., and Bigl, V. (1994) Differential expression of immediate early genes in distinct layers of rat cerebral cortex after selective immunolesion of the forebrain cholinergic system. J Neurosci Res 38:282-293.

Torres, E.M., Perry, A., Blokland, A., Wilkinson, L.S., Wiley, R.G., Lappi, D.A., and Dunnett, S.B. (1994) Behavioral, histochemical and biochemical consequences of selective immunolesions in discrete regions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Neurosci 63:95-122.

Waite, J.J., Wardlow, M.L., Chen, A.C., Lappi, D.A., Wiley, R.G., and Thal, L.J. (1994) Time course of cholinergic and monoaminergic changes in rat brain after immunolesioning with 192 IgG-saporin. Neurosci Lett 169:154-158.

Wenk, G.L., Stoehr, J.D., Quintana, G., Mobley, S., and Wiley, R.G. (1994) Behavioral, biochemical, histological, and electrophysiological effects of 192 IgG-saporin injections into the basal forebrain of rats. J Neurosci 14:5986-5995.


Leanza, G., Nilsson, O., Wiley, R.G., and Bjorklund, A. (1993) Dose-related effects of 192 IgG-saporin on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons: biochemical, immunocytochemical and behavioral studies on neonatal and adult rats. Abs Soc Neurosci 19-10.


Book, A.A., Wiley, R.G., and Schweitzer, J.B. (1992) Specificity of 192 IgG-saporin for NGF receptor-positive cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in the rat. Brain Res 590:350-355.

Nilsson, O.G., Leanza, G., Rosenblad, C., Lappi, D.A., Wiley, R.G., and Bjorklund, A. (1992) Spatial learning impairments in rats with selective immunolesion of the forebrain cholinergic system. NeuroReports 3:1005-1008.


Wiley, R.G., Oeltmann, T.N., and Lappi, D.A. (1991) Immunolesioning: selective destruction of neurons using immunotoxin to rat NGF receptor. Brain Res 562:149-153.