Control Conjugate References


Maejima Y, Yokota S, Shimizu M, Horita S, Kobayashi D, Hazama A, Shimomura K (2021) The deletion of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus disrupts the diurnal feeding pattern and induces hyperphagia and obesity. Nutr Metab (Lond) 18(1):58. doi: 10.1186/s12986-021-00582-z

Summary: Feeding rhythm disruption contributes to the development of obesity. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) which are known to be associated with thermogenesis and circadian rhythm development. These findings suggest that GLP-1R expressing neurons in the DMH may mediate feeding termination.
Dose: Exenatide-SAP targets GLP-1R expressing cells. Injections of 0.1 μg/0.5 μl Ex4-SAP or 0.1 μg/0.5 μl Blank-SAP (control) were administered into the DMH.

Marquez J, Dong J, Dong C, Tian C, Serrero G (2021) Identification of Prostaglandin F2 Receptor Negative Regulator (PTGFRN) as an internalizable target in cancer cells for antibody-drug conjugate development. PLoS One 16(1):e0246197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246197

Summary: PTGFRN is a cell-surface protein that is upregulated in certain cancer types, including head and neck and, notably, pediatric medulloblastoma, an aggressive cancer with limited therapeutic options. With the selection of the mouse monoclonal antibody 33B7, the authors identified PTGFRN as a potential therapy target, and show that it is internalized by incubation with 33B7. Purified 33B7 antibody was sent to Advanced Targeting Systems where saporin was directly conjugated to the Fc region of 33B7 using their proprietary cleavable linker.
Dose: In a 96-well plate, 2000 cells/well were plated in triplicate in 100μL of DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 2.5% FBS, 0.4 ug/ml 33B7 antibody, and 0.9ug/ml of Fab-ZAP mouse. As an isotype control, cells were incubated with mouse Fab IgG-SAP as control (instead of 33B7) and Fab-ZAP.

Oti T, Satoh K, Uta D, Nagafuchi J, Tateishi S, Ueda R, Takanami K, Young LJ, Galione A, Morris JF, Sakamoto T, Sakamoto H. Oxytocin Influences Male Sexual Activity via Non-synaptic Axonal Release in the Spinal Cord. (2021) Curr Biol 31(1):103-114.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.09.089

KIT-46:  Oxytocin-SAP and Blank-SAP
Summary:  Oxytocin directly activates SEG (Spinal Ejaculation Generator)/GRP (Gastrin-Releasing Peptide) neurons via OXTRs (Oxytocin Receptors) and influences male sexual function in the rat lumbar spinal cord.
Dose:  Oxytocin-SAP  (4 and 40 ng ml–1) was microinjected slowly as a 1 ml injection into the midline at 1 to 1.5 mm below the dorsal surface of the spinal cord from L3 to L4. Blank-SAP was used as control.

Wang Z, Jiang C, Yao H, Chen O, Rahman S, Gu Y, Zhao J, Huh Y, Ji RR (2021) Central opioid receptors mediate morphine-induced itch and chronic itch via disinhibition. Brain 144(2):665-681. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa430

Summary: Itch is a common side effect of opioids, particularly as a result of epidural or intrathecal administration. Notably, morphine-elicited itch was suppressed by intrathecal administration of NPY and abolished by spinal ablation of GRPR+ neurons with intrathecal injection of Bombesin-SAP.
Dose: For ablation of GRPR+ neurons, mice were given an intrathecal injection of 400 ng Bombesin-SAP or Blank-SAP (control) 10 days before behavioral testing.


Bernabe CS, Caliman IF, Truitt WA, Molosh AI, Lowry CA, Hay-Schmidt A, Shekhar A, Johnson PL. Using loss- and gain-of-function approaches to target amygdala-projecting serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus that enhance anxiety-related and conditioned fear behaviors. (2020) J Psychopharmacol 34(4):400-411. doi: 10.1177/0269881119900981

Objective:  To investigate the role of amygdala-projecting 5-HT neurons in the DR in innate anxiety and conditioned fear behaviors.
Summary:  The studies support the hypothesis that amygdala-projecting 5-HT neurons in the DR represent an anxiety and fear-on network.
Dose: Each rat received two bilateral microinjections per site (100 nL each, 1 μM in ACSF) of either Anti-SERT-SAP or the control Mouse IgG-SAP.

Harris RBS. Loss of leptin receptor-expressing cells in the hindbrain decreases forebrain leptin sensitivity. (2020) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 318(5):E806-E816. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00020.2020

Objective:  This study tested whether loss of hindbrain leptin receptor signaling changed sensitivity to forebrain leptin.
Summary:  Loss of VMH  (ventromedial nucleus of hippocampus) leptin receptor-expressing cells prevents weight loss.  The integrated response between the hindbrain and forebrain is heavily dependent upon leptin activity in the VMH.
Dose:  To test forebrain leptin sensitivity Leptin-SAP and Blank-SAP rats received third ventricle injections of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 μg leptin.

Kiguchi N, Uta D, Ding H, Uchida H, Saika F, Matsuzaki S, Fukazawa Y, Abe M, Sakimura K, Ko MC, Kishioka S. GRP receptor and AMPA receptor cooperatively regulate itch-responsive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. (2020) Neuropharmacology 170:108025. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108025

Objective:  To investigate the mechanisms for the activation of itch-responsive GRPR+ neurons in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH).
Summary:  These findings demonstrate that GRP and glutamate cooperatively regulate GRPR+ AMPAR+ neurons in SDH, mediating itch sensation. GRP–GRPR and the glutamate–AMPAR system may play pivotal roles in the spinal transmission of itch in rodents and nonhuman primates.
Dose:  Bombesin-SAP and Control Blank-SAP were administered i.t. (5 μg/5 μl).

Liu X, Wang D, Wen Y, Zeng L, Li Y, Tao T, Zhao Z, Tao A. Spinal GRPR and NPRA Contribute to Chronic Itch in a Murine Model of Allergic Contact Dermatitis. (2020) J Invest Dermatol 140(9):1856-1866.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2020.01.016

Loftén A, Adermark L, Ericson M, & Söderpalm B. An acetylcholine-dopamine interaction in the nucleus accumbens and its involvement in ethanol’s dopamine-releasing effect. (2020)  Addict Biol e12959. doi: 10.1111/adb.12959

Summary: Basal extracellular levels of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens are not sustained by muscarinic acetylcholine, whereas accumbal Cholinergic interneurons-ACh are involved in mediating ethanol-induced dopamine release.
Dose: Anti-ChAT-SAP or Rabbit IgG-SAP were infused  at a flow rate of 0.05 μl/min for 10 min giving a total volume of 0.5 μl.

Qian L, Kasas L, Milne MR, Rawashdeh O, Marks N, Sharma A, Bellingham MC, Coulson EJ. Cholinergic basal forebrain degeneration due to obstructive sleep apnoea increases Alzheimer’s pathology in mice. (2020) bioRxiv 2020.03.12.989848. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.12.989848

Dose: bilateral injections of urotensin II-saporin (UII- SAP; 0.07μg/μL per site – unless stated otherwise; generous gift from Advanced Targeting Systems)

Tapa S, Wang L, Francis Stuart SD, Wang Z, Jiang Y, Habecker BA, Ripplinger CM (2020) Adrenergic supersensitivity and impaired neural control of cardiac electrophysiology following regional cardiac sympathetic nerve loss. Sci Rep 10:18801. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75903-y

Summary: The authors present a novel mouse model of regional cardiac sympathetic hypo-innervation utilizing Anti-DBH-SAP.
Dose: Either 5μL of 40 ng/μL  Anti-DBH-SAP or Mouse IgG-SAP (control) was applied three times directly to the exposed apical/anterior surface of the heart.

Zhang F, Huan L, Xu T, Li G, Zheng B, Zhao H, Guo Y, Shi J, Sun J, Chen A. Inflammatory macrophages facilitate mechanical stress-induced osteogenesis. (2020) Aging (Albany NY) 12(4):3617-3625. doi: 10.18632/aging.102833

IT-06 Mac-1-SAP, IT-17 Rat IgG-SAP
Summary: in a mouse model of distraction osteogenesis (D), there was significant increase in macrophages in the regeneration area.  This suggests that targeting inflammatory macrophages may help to improve clinical bone repair.
Dose:  For saporin-mediated depletion of macrophages, DO-surgery-treated mice received i.v. injection of either Mac-1-SAP against the macrophage surface marker CD11b (20µg) once every 3 days, or Rat-IgG-SAP.


Acton D, Ren X, DiCostanzo S, Dalet A, Bourane S, Bertocchi I, Eva C, Goulding M. Spinal Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Form an Essential Excitatory Pathway for Mechanical Itch. (2019) Cell Reports, 28 (3):625-639.e6 . doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.06.033

Objective:  To determine the central pathway for mechanical itch.
Summary:  NPY-Y1 signaling regulates the transmission of innocuous tactile information by establishing biologically relevant thresholds for touch discrimination and mechanical itch reflexes.  neither the evoked nor spontaneous scratching seen following activation of Y1Cre neurons was affected by ablation of the GRPR+ neurons.  NK1R+ neuron ablation failed to modulate mechanically evoked itch.
Dose:  P28 mice were given a single intrathecal (i.t.) injection of either Bombesin-SAP (400 ng in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline) to ablate GRPR+ cells or SSP-SAP to ablate NK1r+ neurons (100 ng in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline). Littermate controls received Blank-SAP (equal mass in 5 mL 0.9% sterile saline).

Eidson LN, Murphy AZ. Inflammatory mediators of opioid tolerance: Implications for dependency and addiction. (2019) Peptides 115:51-58. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2019.01.003

Objective:  To determine what mediates opioid tolerance and alterations in glutamate homeostasis.
Summary:  Site-specific lesions of PAG MOR-containing neurons using Dermorphin-SAP significantly reduce the antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine suggesting that PAG MOR is critical for morphine action.
Dose:  Rats were injected with 3 pmol of Dermorphin-SAP (Cat. #IT-12) into the PAG. Blank-SAP (Cat. #IT-21) was used as a control.  (See Loyd et al. J Neurosci 28(52):14007-14017, 2008.

Fatima M, Ren X, Pan H, Slade HFE, Asmar AJ, Xiong CM, Shi A, Xiong AE, Wang L, & Duan B. Spinal somatostatin-positive interneurons transmit chemical itch. (2019) PAIN, 160 (5):1166-1174. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001499

Objective:  To further study the cellular identity of spinal interneurons that contribute to itch processing.
Summary:  Findings reveal a novel spinal mechanism for sensory encoding of itch perception.
Dose:  Npra receptor–expressing spinal cord interneurons were ablated through intrathecal injection of Nppb-SAP (5 μg/10 μL) or control Blank-SAP in lumbar segment 3 to 4. Behavioral analyses were performed 1 week after the toxin injection.

Goodman RL, He W, Lopez JA, Bedenbaugh MN, McCosh RB, Bowdridge EC, Coolen LM, Lehman MN, & Hileman SM. Evidence That the LH Surge in Ewes Involves Both Neurokinin B–Dependent and –Independent Actions of Kisspeptin. (2019) Endocrinology, 160 (12):2990-3000. . doi: 10.1210/en.2019-00597

Objective:  To determine if NKB is involved in the RCh of the ewe in the LH surge.
Summary:  NKB signaling in the RCh increases kisspeptin levels critical for the full amplitude of the LH surge in the ewe, but kisspeptin release occurs independently of retrochiamatic area (RCh) input at the onset of the surge to initiate GnRH secretion.
Dose:  Bilaterial injections in the RCh of either NK3-SAP or Blank-SAP.

Katsurada K, Nakata M, Saito T, Zhang B, Maejima Y, Nandi SS, Sharma NM, Patel KP, Kario K, Yada T. Central Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Signaling via Brainstem Catecholamine Neurons Counteracts Hypertension in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. (2019) Sci Rep 9(1):12986. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49364-x

Objective: To determine mechanisms for antihypertensive effect of GLP-1R agonists.
Summary: The central GLP-1R signaling via NTS DBH neurons counteracts the development of hypertension in SHR, accompanied by attenuated sympathetic nerve activity.
Dose: Anti-DBH-SAP or Blank-SAP was injected into NTS bilaterally (6 ng/200 nl).

Krajewski-Hall SJ, Miranda Dos Santos F, McMullen NT, Blackmore EM, Rance NE. Glutamatergic Neurokinin 3 Receptor Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Defense Pathways in Female Mice. (2019) Endocrinology 160(4):803-816. doi: 10.1210/en.2018-00934

Objective: To characterize the thermoregulatory role of MnPO NK3R neurons in female mice.
Summary: Study suggests that KNDy neurons modulate thermosensory pathways for heat defense indirectly via a subpopulation of glutamatergic MnPO neurons that express NK3R.
Dose: Mice were bilaterally injected with 10 ng NK3-SAP in 100 nL PBS (n = 14) or blank-SAP (n = 8) in the preoptic area adjacent to the MnPO.

Maejima Y, Yokota S, Horita S, Shimomura K. The undeveloped properties of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area promote energy intake for growth in juvenile rats. (2019) Sci Rep 9(1):11848. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-48336-5

Objective:  To determine the underlying mechanisms that induce high energy intake (EI) per body weight (BW).
Summary:  Undeveloped properties of VTA GABA neurons in juvenile rats can promote higher EI regardless of high or less palatable feeding, and contribute to growth  promotion.
Dose:  GAT1-SAP or control, Rabbit IgG-SAP was bilaterally injected (0.025 μg/0.5 μl) into the VTA in eight-week-old adult rats.

Nelson TS, Fu W, Donahue RR, Corder GF, Hökfelt T, Wiley RG, Taylor BK. Facilitation of neuropathic pain by the NPY Y1 receptor-expressing subpopulation of excitatory interneurons in the dorsal horn. (2019) Sci Rep 9(1):7248. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43493-z

KIT-28:  NPY-SAP, Blank-SAP
Objective:  To test the relevance of the NPYY1 spinal population to the development and/or maintenance of acute and neuropathic pain.
Summary:  This neuroanatomical and behavioral characterization of Y1R-expressing excitatory interneurons provides compelling evidence for the development of spinally-directed  Y1R agonists to reduce chronic neuropathic pain.
Dose:  Selectively ablated Y1R-expressing interneurons while sparing the central terminals of primary afferents.  Rats received intrathecal injections of either NPY-SAP or Control Blank-SAP (1000 ng each).

Pan H, Fatima M, Li A, Lee H, Cai W, Horwitz L, Hor CC, Zaher N, Cin M, Slade H, Huang T, Xu XZS, Duan B. Identification of a Spinal Circuit for Mechanical and Persistent Spontaneous Itch. (2019) Neuron 103(6):1135-1149.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.06.016

IT-40: Bombesin-SAP; IT-69: Nppb-SAPIT-21: Blank-SAP
Objective:  To identify a spinal circuit for mechanical and persistent spontaneous itch.
Summary:  Findings indicate excitatory interneurons expressing Urocortin 3::Cre (Ucn3+) in the dorsal spinal cord as a valid cellular target for future therapeutic interventions against chronic itch, without affecting normal touch.
Dose:  To ablate spinal GRPR+ neurons, mice were given a single intrathecal injection of either Bombesin-SAP or Blank-SAP (400 ng in 10 mL sterile saline). To ablate spinal Npra+ neurons, mice were given a single intrathecal injection of either Nppb-SAP or Blank-SAP (5 mg in 10 mL sterile saline).

Qian L, Milne MR, Shepheard S, Rogers ML, Medeiros R, Coulson EJ. Removal of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Expression from Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Reduces Amyloid-β Plaque Deposition and Cognitive Impairment in Aged APP/PS1 Mice. (2019) Mol Neurobiol 56(7):4639-4652. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1404-2

Objective: To investigate the contribution of CBF neuronal p75NTR to the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease.
Summary: Data indicate that a direct interaction between CBF-expressed p75NTR and Aβ does not contribute significantly to the regulation of Aβ load.
Dose: To lesion CBF neurons, a single infusion of mu p75-SAP or control Rabbit IgG-SAP (0.4 mg/ml) was stereotaxically-injected into the basal forebrain.

Sakata D, Uruno T, Matsubara K, Andoh T, Yamamura K, Magoshi Y, Kunimura K, Kamikaseda Y, Furue M, & Fukui Y. Selective role of neurokinin B in IL-31–induced itch response in mice. (2019) J Allergy Clin Immunol, 144 (4):1130-1133. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2019.06.031

Objective:  To examine the physiological significance of neurokinin B in IL-31–induced itch sensation. Summary:  IL-31–induced scratching was unaffected by intrathecal injection of Nppb-SAP.  In contrast, treatment with Bombesin-SAP reduced IL-31–induced scratching.  Neurokinin B acts upstream of GRP to transmit IL-31–induced itch sensation.
Dose: Intrathecal injection.

Seamon M, Ahn W, Li AJ, Ritter S, Harris RBS. Leptin receptor-expressing neurons in ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus contribute to weight loss caused by fourth ventricle leptin infusions. (2019) Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 317(4):E586-E596. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00205.2019

Objective: To test the importance of VMH leptin responsiveness in mediating weight loss caused by fourth ventricle leptin infusion.
Summary:  Leptin did not inhibit food intake and respiratory exchange ratio in rats treated with Leptin-SAP.  VMH leptin receptors do not play a significant role in maintaining energy balance in basal conditions, but limit weight gain during positive energy balance.
Dose: Bilateral VMH 75-nl injections of 260 ng/ml of Leptin-SAP or Blank-SAP.

Tominaga M, Kusube F, Honda K, Komiya E, Takahashi N, Naito H, Suga Y, & Takamori K. OP11: Role of spinal cholecystokinin receptor 2 in alloknesis models. (2019) Itch 4:1-62. . doi: 10.1097/itx.0000000000000030

IT-31: CCK-SAP and IT-21: Blank-SAP (control)
Objective: To determine the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms that induce alloknesis via the spinal CCK2 receptor.
Summary:  Ablation of spinal CCK receptor-expressing cells by i.t. injection of CCK-SAP attenuated CCK8S-induced alloknesis in comparison with Blank-SAP control mice.
Dose:  Intrathecal injection.

Weiner GA, Shah SH, Angelopoulos CM, Bartakova AB, Pulido RS, Murphy A, Nudleman E, Daneman R, Goldberg JL. Cholinergic neural activity directs retinal layer-specific angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation. (2019) Nat Commun 10(1):2477. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10219-8

Objective:  To determine which neurons are responsible for angiogenesis and blood retinal barrier formation.
Summary:  Anti-ChAT-SAP reduces SAC (starburst amacrine cell) number and inhibits deep-layer angiogenesis.
Dose:  Anti-ChAT-SAP or control Rabbit-IgG-SAP was injected intravitreally at P3 and P11 (0.12 mg/mL in PBS).


Acharjee S, Verbeek M, Gomez CD, Bisht K, Lee B, Benoit L, Sharkey KA, Benediktsson A, Tremblay M-E, Pittman QJ (2018) Reduced Microglial Activity and Enhanced Glutamate Transmission in the Basolateral Amygdala in Early CNS Autoimmunity. J Neurosci 38:9019-9033. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0398-18.2018

Objective: To identify CNS changes associated with behaviors in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
Summary: The data from this study reveal increased synaptic activity and spine density in early stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of MS) in the basolateral amygdala.
Dose: Mac-1-SAP mouse/human or Rat-IgG-SAP (control) was injected unilaterally in the BLA (1mcg/1mcl).

Holschbach MA, Vitale EM, Lonstein JS. Serotonin-specific lesions of the dorsal raphe disrupt maternal aggression and caregiving in postpartum rats. (2018) Behav Brain Res 348:53-64. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.008

KIT-23:  Anti-SERT-SAP, Mouse IgG-SAP
Objective:  To determine the effects of behavioral modifications associated with early motherhood by permanently disrupting serotonin signaling at one of its primary sources, the dorsal raphe (DR).
Summary:  Prepartum serotonin-specific lesions of the DRdm impaired maternal aggression.  Larger postpartum DR serotonin lesions affected both aggression and caregiving.  DR serotonin lesions did not affect postpartum anxiety,
Dose:  1 μL of 0.1M anti-SERT-SAP or control Mouse IgG-SAP was slowly infused into the DR.

Lee SJ, Jokiaho AJ, Sanchez-Watts G, Watts AG (2018) Catecholaminergic Projections into an Interconnected Forebrain Network Control the Sensitivity of Male Rats to Diet-Induced Obesity. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 314(6):R811-R823. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00423.2017

Objective: To investigate the role of hindbrain catecholamine neuron pathways and their contribution to long-term energy homeostasis by controlling obesogenic sensitivity to a high-fat, high sucrose choice diet.
Summary: The authors show that catecholamine neurons (primarily in the VLM and NTS) convey essential feedback signals to enable long-term adaptive control of energy metabolism when animals consume a predominantly carbohydrate diet.  This is the first report specifically associating this projection system with the long-term control of adiposity.
Dose: Catecholaminergic projections to the PVH and related parts of the forebrain were lesioned with bilateral injections each consisting of 42 ng/200 nL of Anti-DBH-SAP or equimolar amounts of control Mouse IgG-SAP.

Oliveira LM, Falquetto B, Moreira TS, Takakura AC (2018) Orexinergic neurons are involved in the chemosensory control of breathing during the dark phase in a Parkinson’s disease model.. Exp Neurol 309:107-118. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2018.08.004

Objective: To determine the involvement of orexin cells from the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF) on breathing.
Summary: The degeneration of orexinergic neurons in this model of PD can be related to impaired chemoreceptor function in the dark phase.
Dose: For lesions of LH/PeF, two injections of Orexin-B-SAP or Rabbit IgG-SAP (100 ng/μl) were made into the lateral hypothalamus / perifornical area (LH/PeF).

Strichartz G, Khasabov S, Barr T, Wang J, & Simone D. Modulation of Chronic Post-Thoracotomy Pain by Nk-1 Neurons in the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla Is Not Paralleled by Changes Spinal Mapkinase Activation. (2018). The Journal of Pain, 19 (3):S14.

Blank-SAP (IT-21)
Objective:  To evaluate SSP-SAP in treatment of tactile hypersensitivity for Chronic Post-Thoractotomy Pain (CPTP).
Summary:  SSP-SAP 3 weeks before thoracotomy and rib retraction (TRR) was able to completely prevent CPTP, assayed by tactile hypersensitivity.
Dose: Ablation of Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)- expressing neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), by micro-injection of the specific neurotoxin SSP-SAP.  No effect with treatment of control, Blank-SAP (IT-21).

Turnbull MT, Boskovic Z, & Coulson EJ. Acute Down-Regulation of Bdnf Signaling Does Not Replicate Exacerbated Amyloid-Β Levels and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion. (2018). Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 11 51.

Dose:  To lesion BFCNs, a single infusion of murine p75-SAP or control rabbit IgG-SAP (0.4 mg/ml) was stereotaxically injected into the basal forebrain.

Zhang Q, De Corte B, Jung D, Kim Y, Geerling J, & Narayanan N. Cholinergic Modulation Targeting Medial Prefrontal Cortex Leads to Behavior Deficit in Interval Timing Task (P5.195). (2018). Neurology, 90 (15 Supplement)

Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35)
Objective:  To determine the effect of cholinergic lesion targeting medial prefrontal cortex on interval timing behavior.
Summary:  Mice receiving medial prefrontal mu-p75-saporin injection performed poorly compared to control mice in interval timing task.  Cholinergic lesion targeting medial prefrontal cortex caused interval timing behavior deficit in wild type mice.
Dose:  mu-p75-SAP, a toxin targeting cholinergic neurons, into the bilateral medial prefrontal cortical regions of wild type mice pre-trained in interval timing task. Control mice (also pre-trained in interval timing task, n=8) received stereotactic injection of Rabbit IgG-SAP.


Fu C, Xue J, Wang R, Chen J, Ma L, Liu Y, Wang X, Guo F, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Wang S (2017) Chemosensitive Phox2b-expressing neurons are crucial for hypercapnic ventilatory response in the nucleus tractus solitarius.. J Physiol 595:4973-4989. doi: 10.1113/JP274437

Havelin J, Imbert I, Sukhtankar D, Remeniuk B, Pelletier I, Gentry J, Okun A, Tiutan T, Porreca F, King T (2017) Mediation of Movement-Induced Breakthrough Cancer Pain by IB4-Binding Nociceptors in Rats.. J Neurosci 37:5111-5122. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1212-16.2017

Mu D, Sun Y-G (2017) Itch induces conditioned place aversion in mice. Neuroscience Letters 658:91-96. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2017.08.046

Turnbull MT, Coulson EJ. (2017) Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Lesion Decreases Neurotrophin Signaling Without Affecting Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Genetically Susceptible Mice. J Alzheimers Dis 55(3):1141-54. PMID: 27767994 (Targeting Trends 17q1)

Ye J-H, Fu R, He W (2017) The rostromedial tegmental nucleus and alcohol addiction. Oncotarget 8:18624-18625. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15822


Angioni L, Cocco C, Ferri GL, Argiolas A, Melis MR, Sanna F. (2016) Involvement of nigral oxytocin in locomotor activity: A behavioral, immunohistochemical and lesion study in male rats. Horm Behav 83:23-38. PMID: 27189764 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Arora V, Morado-Urbina CE, Aschenbrenner CA, Hayashida K, Wang F, Martin TJ, Eisenach JC, Peters CM. (2016) Disruption of Spinal Noradrenergic Activation Delays Recovery of Acute Incision-Induced Hypersensitivity and Increases Spinal Glial Activation in the Rat. J Pain 17(2):190-202. PMID: 26545342 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Cao Q, Lu J, Li Q, Wang C, Wang XM, Lee VW, Wang C, Nguyen H, Zheng G, Zhao Y, Alexander SI, Wang Y, Harris DC. (2016) CD103+ Dendritic Cells Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses to Accelerate Kidney Injury in Adriamycin Nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 27(5):1344-1360. PMID: 26376858 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Fu R, Chen X, Zuo W, Li J, Kang S, Zhou LH, Siegel A, Bekker A, Ye JH. (2016) Ablation of mu opioid receptor-expressing GABA neurons in rostromedial tegmental nucleus increases ethanol consumption and regulates ethanol-related behaviors. Neuropharmacology 107:58-67. PMID: 26921770 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Hulsey DR, Hays SA, Khodaparast N, Ruiz A, Das P, Rennaker RLn, Kilgard MP. (2016) Reorganization of Motor Cortex by Vagus Nerve Stimulation Requires Cholinergic Innervation. Brain Stimul 9(2):174-181. PMID: 26822960 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Kaushal R, Taylor BK, Jamal AB, Zhang L, Ma F, Donahue R, Westlund KN. (2016) GABA-A receptor activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus drives trigeminal neuropathic pain in the rat; contribution of NAalpha1 receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience 334:148-159. PMID: 27520081 (Targeting Trends 16q4)

Kumar JR, Rajkumar R, Lee LC, Dawe GS. (2016) Nucleus incertus contributes to an anxiogenic effect of buspirone in rats: Involvement of 5-HT1A receptors. Neuropharmacology 110(Pt A):1-14. PMID: 27436722 (Targeting Trends 16q4)

Li P, Janczewski WA, Yackle K, Kam K, Pagliardini S, Krasnow MA, Feldman JL. (2016) The peptidergic control circuit for sighing. Nature 530(7590):293-297. PMID: 26855425 (Targeting Trends 16q2)

Matsuura T, Kawasaki M, Hashimoto H, Yoshimura M, Motojima Y, Saito R, Ueno H, Maruyama T, Ishikura T, Sabanai K, Mori T, Ohnishi H, Onaka T, Sakai A, Ueta Y. (2016) Possible Involvement of the Rat Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial/-Spinal Oxytocinergic Pathways in Acute Nociceptive Responses. J Neuroendocrinol 28(6) PMID: 27144381 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Matsuura T, Kawasaki M, Hashimoto H, Yoshimura M, Motojima Y, Saito R, Ueno H, Maruyama T, Sabanai K, Mori T, Ohnishi H, Sakai A, Ueta Y. (2016) Effects of central administration of oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin on chronic inflammation and feeding/drinking behaviors in adjuvant arthritic rats. Neurosci Lett 621:104-110. PMID: 27060190 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Mittelman-Smith MA, Krajewski-Hall SJ, McMullen NT, Rance NE. (2016) Ablation of KNDy neurons results in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amplifies the steroid-induced LH surge in female rats. Endocrinology 157(5):2015-2027. PMID: 26937713 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Oyamaguchi A, Abe T, Sugiyo S, Niwa H, Takemura M. (2016) Selective elimination of isolectin B4-binding trigeminal neurons enhanced formalin-induced nocifensive behavior in the upper lip of rats and c-Fos expression in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Neurosci Res 103:40-47. PMID: 26216055 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Young J (2016) Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Sleep: How the Brain Controls Our Passions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.


Akiyama T, Nguyen T, Curtis E, Nishida K, Devireddy J, Delahanty J, Carstens MI, Carstens E. (2015) A central role for spinal dorsal horn neurons that express neurokinin-1 receptors in chronic itch. Pain 156(7):1240-1246. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Bourassa EA, Stedenfeld KA, Sved AF, Speth RC. (2015) Selective C1 Lesioning Slightly Decreases Angiotensin II Type I Receptor Expression in the Rat Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM). Neurochem Res 40(10):2113-2120. PMID: 26138553 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Cetas JS, McFarlane R, Kronfeld K, Smitasin P, Liu JJ, Raskin JS. (2015) Brainstem opioidergic system is involved in early response to experimental SAH. Transl Stroke Res 6(2):140-147. PMID: 25417789 (Targeting Trends 16q3)

Devoto P, Flore G, Saba P, Frau R, Gessa GL. (2015) Selective inhibition of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase enhances dopamine release from noradrenergic terminals in the medial prefrontal cortex. Brain Behav 5(10):e00393. PMID: 26516613 (Targeting Trends 16q1)

Freiria-Oliveira AH, Blanch GT, Pedrino GR, Cravo SL, Murphy D, Menani JV, Colombari DS. (2015) Catecholaminergic neurons in the comissural region of the nucleus of the solitary tract modulate hyperosmolality-induced responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 309(9):R1082-91. PMID: 26333788 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

King TL, Ruyle BC, Kline DD, Heesch CM, Hasser EM. (2015) Catecholaminergic neurons projecting to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are essential for cardiorespiratory adjustments to hypoxia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 309(7):R721-31. PMID: 26157062 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Lee SC, Seo KW, Kim HJ, Kang SW, Choi HJ, Kim A, Kwon BS, Cho HR, Kwon B. (2015) Depletion of Alloreactive T-Cells by Anti-CD137-Saporin Immunotoxin. Cell Transplant 24(6):1167-1181. PMID: 24594433 (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Mittelman-Smith MA, Krajewski-Hall SJ, McMullen NT, Rance NE. (2015) Neurokinin 3 Receptor-Expressing Neurons in the Median Preoptic Nucleus Modulate Heat-Dissipation Effectors in the Female Rat. Endocrinology 156(7):2552-2562. (Targeting Trends 15q3)

Peters CM, Hayashida K, Suto T, Houle TT, Aschenbrenner CA, Martin TJ, Eisenach JC. (2015) Individual Differences in Acute Pain-induced Endogenous Analgesia Predict Time to Resolution of Postoperative Pain in the Rat. Anesthesiology 122(4):895-907. (Targeting Trends 15q2)

Pires ES, D’Souza RS, Needham MA, Herr AK, Jazaeri AA, Li H, Stoler MH, Anderson-Knapp KL, Thomas T, Mandal A, Gougeon A, Flickinger CJ, Bruns DE, Pollok BA, Herr JC. (2015) Membrane associated cancer-oocyte neoantigen SAS1B/ovastacin is a candidate immunotherapeutic target for uterine tumors. Oncotarget 6(30):30194-30211. PMID: 26327203 (Targeting Trends 15q4)

Xu M, Kobets A, Du JC, Lennington J, Li L, Banasr M, Duman RS, Vaccarino FM, DiLeone RJ, Pittenger C. (2015) Targeted ablation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsolateral striatum produces behavioral manifestations of Tourette syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(3):893-898. (Targeting Trends 15q3)


Jokiaho AJ, Donovan CM, Watts AG. (2014) The rate of fall of blood glucose determines the necessity of forebrain-projecting catecholaminergic neurons for male rat sympathoadrenal responses. Diabetes 63(8):2854-2865. (Targeting Trends 15q1)

Lee CL, Rajkumar R, Dawe GS. (2014) Corticotropin releasing factor-saporin conjugate selectively lesions nucleus incertus. Targeting Trends 15(3).

Lee LC, Rajkumar R, Dawe GS. (2014) Selective lesioning of nucleus incertus with corticotropin releasing factor-saporin conjugate. Brain Res 1543:179-190. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Ogawa S, Nathan FM, Parhar IS. (2014) Habenular kisspeptin modulates fear in the zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(10):3841-3846. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Suto T, Severino AL, Eisenach JC, Hayashida KI. (2014) Gabapentin increases extracellular glutamatergic level in the locus coeruleus via astroglial glutamate transporter-dependent mechanisms. Neuropharmacology 81C:95-100. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Weisshaar CL, Winkelstein BA. (2014) Ablating Spinal NK1-Bearing Neurons Eliminates the Development of Pain and Reduces Spinal Neuronal Hyperexcitability and Inflammation From Mechanical Joint Injury in the Rat. J Pain 15(4):378-386. (Targeting Trends 14q2)

Zhao ZQ, Wan L, Liu XY, Huo FQ, Li H, Barry DM, Krieger S, Kim S, Liu ZC, Xu J, Rogers BE, Li YQ, Chen ZF. (2014) Cross-Inhibition of NMBR and GRPR Signaling Maintains Normal Histaminergic Itch Transmission. J Neurosci 34(37):12402-12414. (Targeting Trends 14q4)


Freiria-Oliveira AH, Blanch GT, De Paula PM, Menani JV, Colombari DS. (2013) Lesion of the commissural nucleus of the solitary tract/A2 noradrenergic neurons facilitates the activation of angiotensinergic mechanisms in response to hemorrhage. Neuroscience 254:196-204. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Fricks-Gleason AN, Keefe KA. (2013) Evaluating the Role of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-Containing Striatal Interneurons in Methamphetamine-Induced Dopamine Neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res 24(2):288-297. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Hamlin AS, Windels F, Boskovic Z, Sah P, Coulson EJ. (2013) Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation. PLoS One 8(1):e53472. (Targeting Trends 13q2)

Helena CV, Kalil B, Anselmo-Franci JA, Bertram R. (2013) Time Course Study of Targeted Ablation of KNDy Neurons, but not Tyrosine-Hydroxylase Neurons, in the Rat Arcuate Nucleus Using a Neurokinin B-Saporin. Endocr Rev 34 (03_MeetingAbstracts):OR47-5. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Kato J, Satake N, O’Donnell RT, Abuhay M, Lewis C, Tuscano JM. (2013) Efficacy of a CD22-targeted antibody-saporin conjugate in a xenograft model of precursor-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 37(1):83-88. (Targeting Trends 13q1)

Khasabov SG, Simone DA. (2013) Loss of neurons in rostral ventromedial medulla that express neurokinin-1 receptors decreases the development of hyperalgesia. Neuroscience 250C:151-165. (Targeting Trends 13q4)

LaPlante F. (2013) Role of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens and their involvement in schizophrenic pathology. Targeting Trends 14(1).

Laplante F, Dufresne MM, Ouboudinar J, Ochoa-Sanchez R, Sullivan RM. (2013) Reduction in cholinergic interneuron density in the nucleus accumbens attenuates local extracellular dopamine release in response to stress or amphetamine. Synapse 67(1):21-29. (Targeting Trends 13q2)

Romano A, Potes CS, Tempesta B, Cassano T, Cuomo V, Lutz T, Gaetani S. (2013) Hindbrain noradrenergic input to the hypothalamic PVN mediates the activation of oxytocinergic neurons induced by the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 305(10):E1266-73. (Targeting Trends 14q1)

Sasaki A, Adhikari S, Andoh T, Kuraishi Y. (2013) BB2 bombesin receptor-expressing spinal neurons transmit herpes-associated itch by BB2 receptor-independent signaling. Neuroreport 24(12):652-656. (Targeting Trends 13q3)

Wiater MF, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Jansen HT, Ritter S. (2013) Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nucleus integrate activity and temperature circadian rhythms and anticipatory responses to food restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305(8):R949-R960. (Targeting Trends 13q4)


Botly LC, De Rosa E. (2012) Impaired Visual Search in Rats Reveals Cholinergic Contributions to Feature Binding in Visuospatial Attention. Cereb Cortex 22(10):2441-2453. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Cai L, Gibbs RB, Johnson DA. (2012) Recognition of novel objects and their location in rats with selective cholinergic lesion of the medial septum. Neurosci Lett 506(2):261-265. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Coolen LM. (2012) A pivotal role of lumbar spinothalamic cells in regulation of ejaculation via intraspinal connections. Targeting Trends 13(3).

Cusulin C, Monni E, Ahlenius H, Wood J, Brune J, Lindvall O, Kokaia Z (2012) Embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells fuse with microglia and mature neurons.. Stem Cells 30:2657-2671. doi: 10.1002/stem.1227

Kaminski KL, Watts AG. (2012) Intact catecholamine inputs to the forebrain are required for appropriate regulation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and vasopressin gene expression by corticosterone in the rat paraventricular nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol 24(12):1517-1526. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Kato J, O’Donnell RT, Abuhay M, Tuscano JM. (2012) Efficacy and toxicity of a CD22-targeted antibody-saporin conjugate in a xenograft model of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Oncoimmunology 1(9):1469-1475. (Targeting Trends 13q2)

Kerbler GM, Hamlin AS, Pannek K, Kurniawan ND, Keller MD, Rose SE, Coulson EJ. (2012) Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detection of basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration in a mouse model. Neuroimage 66C:133-141. (Targeting Trends 13q1)

Laplante F, Zhang ZW, Huppe-Gourgues F, Dufresne MM, Vaucher E, Sullivan RM. (2012) Cholinergic depletion in nucleus accumbens impairs mesocortical dopamine activation and cognitive function in rats. Neuropharmacology 63(6):1075-1084. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Li AJ, Wiater MF, Oostrom MT, Smith BR, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Roberts BL, Jansen HT, Ritter S. (2012) Leptin-sensitive neurons in the arcuate nuclei contribute to endogenous feeding rhythms. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 302(11):R1313-26. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Man SH, Geranton SM, Hunt SP. (2012) Lamina I NK1 expressing projection neurones are functional in early postnatal rats and contribute to the setting up of adult mechanical sensory thresholds. Mol Pain 8(1):35. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Mishra SK, Holzman S, Hoon MA. (2012) A nociceptive signaling role for neuromedin B. J Neurosci 32(25):8686-8695. (Targeting Trends 12q4)

Mittelman-Smith MA, Williams H, Krajewski-Hall SJ, Lai J, Ciofi P, McMullen NT, Rance NE ( 2012 ) Arcuate Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Neurons Mediate the Estrogen Suppression of Gonadotropin Secretion and Body Weight.. Endocrinology  153(6):2800-2812 . doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1045

Mittelman-Smith MA, Williams H, Krajewski-Hall SJ, McMullen NT, Rance NE. (2012) Role for kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in cutaneous vasodilatation and the estrogen modulation of body temperature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(48):19846-19851. (Targeting Trends 13q1)

Rance NE, Mittelman-Smith MA, Krajewski-Hall SJ. (2012) Use of a novel saporin conjugate (NK3-SAP) to study the function of neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3r)-expressing kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus. Targeting Trends 13(2).

Smith CD, Holschbach MA, Olsewicz J, Lonstein JS. (2012) Effects of noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonism or noradrenergic lesions in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial preoptic area on maternal care in female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 224(2):263-276. (Targeting Trends 12q3)

St Peters M, Sarter M. (2012) Motivation’s modulation of attention through the mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry. Targeting Trends 13(1).

Tolner EA, Sheikh A, Yukin AY, Kaila K, Kanold PO. (2012) Subplate neurons promote spindle bursts and thalamocortical patterning in the neonatal rat somatosensory cortex. J Neurosci 32(2):692-702. (Targeting Trends 12q2)


Burke PG, Neale J, Korim WS, McMullan S, Goodchild AK. (2011) Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes reveals non-uniform organization of presympathetic drive from C1 and non-C1 RVLM neurons. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(4):R1112-R1122. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

Di Sebastiano AR, Wilson-Perez HE, Lehman MN, Coolen LM (2011) Lesions of orexin neurons block conditioned place preference for sexual behavior in male rats. Horm Behav 59(1):1-8. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Fuller P, Sherman D, Pedersen NP, Saper CB, Lu J. (2011) Reassessment of the structural basis of the ascending arousal system. J Comp Neurol 519(5):933-956. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Goehler LE, Gaykema RPA. (2011) Targeted Lesion of Caudal Brainstem Catecholamine Neurons Reveals Their Role in Symptoms of Fatigue. Targeting Trends 12(1).

Janiesch PC, Kruger HS, Poschel B, Hanganu-Opatz IL. (2011) Cholinergic Control in Developing Prefrontal-Hippocampal Networks. J Neurosci 31(49):17955-17970. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Khan AM KKL, Sanchez-Watts, Ponzio TA, Kuzmiski JB, Bains JS, Watts AG. (2011) MAP kinases couple hindbrain-derived catecholamine signals to hypothalamic adrenocortical control mechanisms during glycemia-related challenges. J Neurosci 31(50):18479-18491. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

King T, Porreca F. (2011) Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Targeting Trends 12(4).

King T, Qu C, Okun A, Mercado R, Ren J, Brion T, Lai J, Porreca F. (2011) Contribution of afferent pathways to nerve injury-induced spontaneous pain and evoked hypersensitivity. Pain 152(9):1997-2005. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

Laplante F, Lappi DA, Sullivan RM (2011) Cholinergic depletion in the nucleus accumbens: Effects on amphetamine response and sensorimotor gating. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35(2):501-509. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Lemons LL, Wiley RG. (2011) Galanin receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: Role in nociception. Neuropeptides 45(6):377-383. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

Lin Y, Sarfraz Y, Jensen A, Dunn AJ, Stone EA. (2011) Participation of brainstem monoaminergic nuclei in behavioral depression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 100(2):330-339. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

Liu XY, Liu ZC, Sun YG, Ross M, Kim S, Tsai FF, Li QF, Jeffry J, Kim JY, Loh HH, Chen ZF. (2011) Unidirectional Cross-Activation of GRPR by MOR1D Uncouples Itch and Analgesia Induced by Opioids. Cell 147(2):447-458. (Targeting Trends 12q1)

Radley JJ, Sawchenko PE. (2011) A common substrate for prefrontal and hippocampal inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response. J Neurosci 31(26):9683-9695. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

St Peters M, Demeter E, Lustig C, Bruno JP, Sarter M. (2011) Enhanced control of attention by stimulating mesolimbic-corticopetal cholinergic circuitry. J Neurosci 31(26):9760-9771. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

Wiater MF, Mukherjee S, Li AJ, Dinh TT, Rooney EM, Simasko SM, Ritter S. (2011) Circadian Integration of Sleep/Wake and Feeding Requires NPY-Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Mediobasal Hypothalamus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(5):R1569-83. (Targeting Trends 11q4)

Wilkinson KA, Fu Z, Powell FL. (2011) Ventilatory Effects of Substance P-Saporin Lesions in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii of Chronically Hypoxic Rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(2):R343-50. (Targeting Trends 11q3)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2011 Abstracts


Baskin DG, Kim F, Gelling RW, Russell BJ, Schwartz MW, Morton GJ, Simhan HN, Moralejo DH, Blevins JE (2010) A new oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin for lesioning oxytocin-receptive neurons in the rat hindbrain. Endocrinology 151(9):4207-4213. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Dailey MJ, Bartness TJ (2010) Arcuate nucleus destruction does not block food deprivation-induced increases in food foraging and hoarding. Brain Res 1323:94-108. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

de Carvalho D, Bicego KC, de Castro OW, da Silva GS, Garcia-Cairasco N, Gargaglioni LH (2010) Role of neurokinin-1 expressing neurons in the locus coeruleus on ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercapnia. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 172(1-2):24-31. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Di Sebastiano AR, Yong-Yow S, Wagner L, Lehman MN, Coolen LM (2010) Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance. Horm Behav 58(3):397-404. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Hovinga KE, Shimizu F, Wang R, Panagiotakos G, Van Der Heijden M, Moayedpardazi H, Correia AS, Soulet D, Major T, Menon J, Tabar V (2010) Inhibition of Notch Signaling in Glioblastoma Targets Cancer Stem Cells via an Endothelial Cell Intermediate. Stem Cells 28:1019-1029. doi: 10.1002/stem.429

Summary:  The antibody CD105 (1:1,000) was incubated with Mab-ZAP, to allow binding and formation of a CD105 antibody-saporin complex, which was added to explants or to a human cerebral microvessel endothelial cell line as control.  CD105 antibody was also incubated with a Goat-IgG-SAP for control  that does not bind CD105.  The conjugates were injected into the explant under a dissecting microscope after gently incising the explant surface for better access.

Li A-J, Wang Q, Dinh TT, Ritter S. (2010) Deletion of NPY/AGRP and POMC Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus by Leptin-Saporin Produces Hyperphagia, Obesity and Changes in Diurnal Feeding Patterns in Rats. Targeting Trends 11(1).

Lyons AM, Thiele TE (2010) Neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin alters anxiety-like behavior when injected into the central nucleus of the amygdala or basomedial hypothalamus in BALB/cJ mice. Peptides 31(12):2193-2199. (Targeting Trends 11q1)

Northrop LE, Polston EK, Erskine MS (2010) Noradrenergic Nuclei that Receive Sensory Input During Mating and Project to the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Play a Role in Mating-Induced Pseudopregnancy in the Female Rat. J Neuroendocrinol 22(10):1061-1071. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Potes CS, Turek VF, Cole RL, Vu C, Roland BL, Roth JD, Riediger T, Lutz TA (2010) Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylin’s hypophagic action. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299(2):R623-631. (Targeting Trends 10q4)

Vianna DM, Carrive P (2010) Cardiovascular and behavioural responses to conditioned fear and restraint are not affected by retrograde lesions of A5 and C1 bulbospinal neurons. Neuroscience 166:1210-1218. (Targeting Trends 10q2)

Zhang L, Hadley GA. (2010) Application of anti-CD103 immunotoxin for saving islet allograft in context of transplantation. Chin Med J (Engl) 123(24):3644-3651. (Targeting Trends 12q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2010 Abstracts


Brightwell JJ, Taylor BK (2009) Noradrenergic Neurons in the Locus Coeruleus Contribute to Neuropathic Pain. Neuroscience 160:174-185. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Chen ZF, Sun YG, Zhao ZQ, Meng XL, Yin J, Liu XY(2009) Ablation of GRPR+ Neurons in the Spinal Cord by Bombesin-Saporin Knocks Out Itch Sensation in Mice Without Affecting Pain Circuit. Targeting Trends 10(4):1, 6.

Dashniani M, Burjanadze M, Beselia G, Maglakelidze G, Naneishvili T (2009) Spatial memory following selective cholinergic lesion of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. Georgian Med News 174:77-81. (Targeting Trends 10q1)

Dashniani MG, Beseliia GV, Maglakelidze GA, Burdzhanadze MA, Chkhikvishvili N (2009) Effects of the selective lesions of cholinergic septohippocampal neurons on different forms of memory and learning process. Georgian Med News 81-85. (Targeting Trends 09q4)

Jinks SL, Carstens E, Antognini JF (2009) Nitrous oxide-induced analgesia does not influence nitrous oxide’s
immobilizing requirements. Anesth Analg 109:1111-1116. (Targeting Trends 10q1)

Khan AM, Rapp KL, Ponzio TA, Sanchez-Watts G, Watts AG. (2009) Deletion of Catecholaminergic Neurons by Anti-DBH-Saporin Disrupts Hypothalamic MAP Kinase and CREB Activation. Targeting Trends 10(2).

Radley JJ, Gosselink KL, Sawchenko PE (2009) A discrete GABAergic relay mediates medial prefrontal cortical inhibition of the neuroendocrine stress response. J Neurosci 29:7330-7340. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Ray AP, Chebolu S, Ramirez J, Darmani NA (2009) Ablation of least shrew central neurokinin NK1 receptors reduces GR73632-induced vomiting. Behav Neurosci 123:701-706. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Wiley RG, Lemons LL, Kline RHt (2009) Neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nocifensive reflex responses to heat and formalin. Neuroscience 161:139-147. (Targeting Trends 09q3)

Zhang L, Moffatt-Bruce SD, Gaughan AA, Wang JJ, Rajab A, Hadley GA (2009) An anti-CD103 immunotoxin promotes long-term survival of pancreatic islet allografts. Am J Transplant 9:2012-2023. (Targeting Trends 09q4)


Darmani NA, Wang Y, Abad J, Ray AP, Thrush GR, Ramirez J (2008) Utilization of the least shrew as a rapid and selective screening model for the antiemetic potential and brain penetration of substance P and NK1 receptor antagonists. Brain Res 1214:58-72. (Targeting Trends 10q3)

Goz D, Studholme K, Lappi DA, Rollag MD, Provencio I, Morin LP (2008) Targeted destruction of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells with a saporin conjugate alters the effects of light on mouse circadian rhythms. PLoS ONE 3:e3153. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Kline RHt, Wiley RG (2008) Spinal mu-opioid receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nociception and morphine antinociception. J Neurosci 28:904-913. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Li AJ, Dinh TT, Ritter S (2008) Hyperphagia and obesity produced by arcuate injection of NPY-saporin do not require upregulation of lateral hypothalamic orexigenic peptide genes. Peptides 29(10):1732-1739. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Li A, Emond L, Nattie E (2008) Brainstem catecholaminergic neurons modulate both respiratory and cardiovascular function. Adv Exp Med Biol 605:371-376. (Targeting Trends 08q2)

Likhtik E. (2008) Selective lesions of amygdala intercalated neurons using the Dermorphin-SAP immunotoxin reveal their role in extinction of conditioned fear. Targeting Trends 9(4).

Likhtik E, Popa D, Apergis-Schoute J, Fidacaro GA, Pare D (2008) Amygdala intercalated neurons are required for expression of fear extinction. Nature 454(7204):642-645. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

Loyd DR, Wang X, Murphy AZ (2008) Sex differences in micro-opioid receptor expression in the rat midbrain periaqueductal gray are essential for eliciting sex differences in morphine analgesia. J Neurosci 28:14007-14017. (Targeting Trends 09q2)

Radley JJ. (2008) Noradrenergic Innervation of the Dorsal Medial Prefrontal Cortex Modulates Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Responses to Acute Emotional Stress. Targeting Trends 9(3).

Rouleau C, Curiel M, Weber W, Smale R, Kurtzberg L, Mascarello J, Berger C, Wallar G, Bagley R, Honma N, Hasegawa
K, Ishida I, Kataoka S, Thurberg BL, Mehraein K, Horten B, Miller G, Teicher BA (2008) Endosialin protein expression and therapeutic target potential in human solid tumors: sarcoma versus carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 14:7223-7236. (Targeting Trends 09q1)

Siva AC, Wild MA, Kirkland RE, Nolan MJ, Lin B, Maruyama T, Yantiri-Wernimont F, Frederickson S, Bowdish KS, Xin H (2008) Targeting CUB domain-containing protein 1 with a monoclonal antibody inhibits metastasis in a prostate cancer model. Cancer Res 68:3759-3766. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Young EE, Baumbauer KM, Hillyer JE, Patterson AM, Hoy KC, Jr., Mintz EM, Joynes RL (2008) The neonatal injury-induced spinal learning deficit in adult rats: central mechanisms. Behav Neurosci 122:589-600. (Targeting Trends 08q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2008 Abstracts


Berdiev RK, Chepurnov SA, Veening JG, Chepurnova NE, vanLuijtelaar G (2007) The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats: A lesion study. Brain Res 1185:266-274. (Targeting Trends 08q1)

Dias MB, Nucci TB, Margatho LO, Antunes-Rodrigues J, Gargaglioni LH, Branco LG (2007) Raphe Magnus Nucleus is involved in ventilatory but not hypothermic response to CO2. J Appl Physiol 103(5):1780-1788. (Targeting Trends 07q4)

Furlong T, Carrive P (2007) Neurotoxic lesions centered on the perifornical hypothalamus abolish the cardiovascular and behavioral responses of conditioned fear to context but not of restraint. Brain Res 1128(1):107-119. (Targeting Trends 07q1)

Schiltz JC, Sawchenko PE (2007) Specificity and generality of the involvement of catecholaminergic afferents in hypothalamic responses to immune insults. J Comp Neurol 502:455-467. (Targeting Trends 07q3)

Shank EJ, Seitz PK, Bubar MJ, Stutz SJ, Cunningham KA (2007) Selective ablation of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area increases spontaneous locomotor activity. Behav Neurosci 121:1224-1233. (Targeting Trends 08q3)

Truitt WA, Sajdyk TJ, Dietrich AD, Oberlin B, McDougle CJ, Shekhar A (2007) From anxiety to autism: spectrum of abnormal social behaviors modeled by progressive disruption of inhibitory neuronal function in the basolateral amygdala in Wistar rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 191(1):107-118. (Targeting Trends 07q2)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts


Bugarith K, Dinh TT, Li AJ, Speth RC, Ritter S (2006) Basomedial Hypothalamic Injections of Neuropeptide Y Conjugated to Saporin Selectively Disrupt Hypothalamic Controls of Food Intake. Targeting Trends 7(4):1, 6.

Foehr ED, Lorente G, Kuo J, Ram R, Nikolich K, Urfer R (2006) Targeting of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta with a monoclonal antibody delays tumor growth in a glioblastoma model. Cancer Res 66(4):2271-2278. (Targeting Trends 06q2)

Li A, Nattie E (2006) Catecholamine neurones in rats modulate sleep, breathing, central chemoreception and breathing variability. J Physiol 570(Pt 2):385-396. (Targeting Trends 06q2)

Nattie E, Li A (2006) Neurokinin-1 receptor expressing neurons in the ventral medulla are essential for normal central and peripheral chemoreception in the conscious rat. J Appl Physiol 101(6):1596-1606. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

Parikh V, Sarter M (2006) Cortical choline transporter function measured in vivo using choline-sensitive microelectrodes: clearance of endogenous and exogenous choline and effects of removal of cholinergic terminals. J Neurochem 97(2):488-503. (Targeting Trends 06q4)

See also: Society for Neuroscience 2006 Abstracts


Lappi D. (2002) Control Conjugates – The Perfect Companion for Targeted Toxins. Targeting Trends 3(1).


Tazzari PL, Bolognesi A, De Totero D, Falini B, Lemoli RM, Soria MR, Pileri S, Gobbi M, Stein H, Flenghi L et al. (1992) Ber-H2 (anti-CD30)-saporin immunotoxin: a new tool for the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease and CD30+ lymphoma: in vitro evaluation. Brit J Haemat 81:203-211.


Dinota A, Tazzari PL, Michieli M, Visani G, Gobbi M, Bontadini A, Tassi C, Fanin R, Damiani D, Grandi M et al. (1990) In vitro bone marrow purging of multidrug-resistant cells with a  mouse monoclonal antibody directed against Mr 170,000 glycoprotein and a saporin-conjugated anti-mouse antibody. Cancer Res 50:4291-4294.